Japanese empresses

Japanese empresses

In Japan, Empress may refer to either nihongo|female imperial ruler|女性天皇|josei tennō or nihongo|empress consort|皇后|kōgō.

Ruling Empresses

There were eight female imperial reigns (six female emperors including two who reigned twice) in Japan's early history between 593 and 770, and two more in the early modern period (Edo era). Although there were eight reigning empresses, their successors were most often selected from amongst the males of the paternal Imperial bloodline, which is why some conservative scholars argue that the women's reigns were temporary and that male-only succession tradition must be maintained. [ [http://search.japantimes.co.jp/cgi-bin/nn20070327i1.html "Life in the Cloudy Imperial Fishbowl,"] "Japan Times." March 27, 2007.] After many centuries, female reigns came to be officially prohibited only when the Imperial Household Law was issued in 1889 alongside the new Meiji Constitution.

* Empress Jingū r.206–209?—legendary/mythical; removed from the list of Emperors in the 19th century fact|date=December 2007

* Empress Suiko (554-628), r.593–628—first ruling empress
* Empress Kōgyoku (594-661), r.642–645—formerly Princess Takara (Empress Consort of Jomei)
* Empress Saimei (594-661), r.655–661 (same person as Empress Kōgyoku)
* Empress Jitō (645-702), r.690–697
* Empress Gemmei (661-721), r.707–715
* Empress Genshō (680-748), r.715–724—formerly Princess Hidaka
* Empress Kōken (718-770), r.749–758
* Empress Shōtoku (718-770), r.764–770 (same person as Empress Kōken)
* Empress Meishō (1624-1696), r.1629–1643
* Empress Go-Sakuramachi (1740-1813), r.1762–1771—most recent ruling empress

Empress Consorts

In ancient Japan most of Empress Consorts were princesses, except for Iwanohime (Empress Consort of Nimmyō). After Kōmyō Kōgō (Empress Consort of Shōmu), daughters of Fujiwara clan or other clans could become Empress Consorts. Originally Chūgū (中宮) meant the palace for Kōgō, Kōtaigō (皇太后) (Empress Mother/Empress Dowager), or Tai-Kōtaigō (太皇太后) (Grand Empress Mother/Grand Empress Dowager). Until mid-Heian Period, Emperor had only one Empress Consort, and Empress Consort was also called Chūgū. Since Emperor Ichijō, because some Emperors had two Empress Consorts, one of them was called Kōgō and the another one was called Chūgū. After maiden Princess Yasuko became Kōgō as the mother-in-law (准母) of Emperor Horikawa, maiden Princesses also became Kōgō.

List of non-ruling empresses of Japan

* Princess Inoe (井上内親王) (717–775), Empress of Kōnin 770–772 (deposed)
* Fujiwara no Otomuro (藤原乙牟漏) (760–790), Empress of Kammu 783–790
* Fujiwara no "Taishi"/Tarashiko (藤原帯子) (?–794), Empress of Heizei (posthumous honor in 806)
* Tachibana no Kachiko (橘嘉智子) (786–850), Empress of Saga 815–823
* Princess "Seishi" (正子内親王) (810–879), Empress of Junna 827–833
* Princess Koshi (高志内親王) (789–809), Empress of Junna (posthumous honor in 823)
* Fujiwara no "Onshi" (藤原穏子) (885–954), Empress of Daigo 923–930
* Fujiwara no "Anshi" (藤原安子) (927–964), Empress of Murakami 958–964
* Princess Masako (昌子内親王) (950–999), Empress of Reizei 967–973
* Fujiwara no "Kōshi" (藤原媓子) (947–979), Empress of Enyū 973–979
* Fujiwara no "Junshi"/Nobuko (藤原遵子) (957–1017), Empress (Kōgō) of Enyū 982–1000
* Fujiwara no "Teishi" (藤原定子) (977–1001), Empress (Chūgū) of Ichijō 990–1000, Empress (Kōgō) of Ichijō 1000–1001
* Fujiwara no "Shōshi" (藤原彰子) (988–1074), Empress (Chūgū) of Ichijō 1000–1012
* Fujiwara no "Kenshi" (藤原妍子) (994–1027), Empress (Chūgū) of Sanjō 1012–1018
* Fujiwara no "Seishi" (藤原娍子) (972–1025), Empress (Kōgō) of Sanjō 1012–1025
* Fujiwara no "Ishi" (藤原威子) (999–1036), Empress (Chūgū) of Go-Ichijō 1018–1036
* Princess "Teishi" (禎子内親王) (1013–1094), Empress (Chūgū) of Go-Suzaku 1037, Empress (Kōgō) of Go-Suzaku 1037–1051
* Fujiwara no "Genshi" (藤原嫄子) (1016–1039), Empress (Chūgū) of Go-Suzaku 1037–1039
* Princess "Shoshi" (章子内親王) (1026–1105), Empress (Chūgū) of Go-Reizei 1046–1068
* Fujiwara no Hiroko (藤原寛子) (1036–1127), Empress (Kōgō) of Go-Reizei 1051–1068, Empress (Chūgū) of Go-Reizei 1068–1069
* Fujiwara no "Kanshi" (藤原歓子) (1021–1102), Empress (Kōgō) of Go-Reizei 1068–1074
* Princess Kaoruko (馨子内親王) (1029–1093), Empress (Chūgū) of Go-Sanjō 1069–1074, Empress (Kōgō) of Go-Sanjō 1074–1093
* Fujiwara no "Kenshi" (藤原賢子) (1057–1084), Empress (Chūgū) of Shirakawa 1074–1084
* Princess "Teishi"/Yasuko (媞子内親王) (1076–1096), Empress (Chūgū) as mother-in-law (准母) of Emperor Horikawa 1091–1093
* Princess "Tokushi"/Atsuko (篤子内親王) (1060–1114), Empress (Chūgū) of Horikawa 1093–1114
* Princess "Reishi" (令子内親王) (1078–1144), Empress (Kōgō) as mother-in-law (准母) of Emperor Toba 1108–1134
* Fujiwara no "Shōshi"/Tamako (藤原璋子) (1101–1145), Empress (Chūgū) of Toba 1118–1124
* Fujiwara no Kiyoko (藤原聖子) (1121–1182), Empress (Chūgū) of Sutoku 1130–1141
* Fujiwara no Yasuko (藤原泰子) (1095–1156), Empress (Kōgō) of Toba 1134–1139
* Fujiwara no Nariko (藤原得子) (1117–1160), Empress (Kōgō) of Toba 1142–1149
* Fujiwara no "Tashi"/Masaruko (藤原多子) (1140–1202), Empress (Kōgō) of Konoe 1150–1156
* Fujiwara no "Teishi"/Shimeko (藤原呈子) (1131–1176), Empress (Chūgū) of Konoe 1150–1156, Empress (Kōgō) of Konoe 1156–1158
* Fujiwara no "Kinshi" (藤原忻子) (1134–1209), Empress (Chūgū) of Go-Shirakawa 1156–1159, Empress (Kōgō) of Go-Shirakawa 1159–1172
* Princess "Tōshi"/Muneko (統子内親王), unmarried Empress (Kōgō) 1158–1159
* Princess Yoshiko (姝子内親王) (1141–1176), Empress (Chūgū) of Nijō 1159–1162
* Fujiwara no "Ikushi" (藤原育子), Empress (Chūgū) of Nijō 1162–1172, Empress (Kōgō) of Nijō 1172–1173
* Taira no "Tokushi"/Noriko (平徳子) (1155–1214), Empress (Chūgū) of Takakura 1172–1181
* Princess Sukeko (亮子内親王) (1147–1216), Empress (Kōgō) as mother-in-law (准母) of Emperor Antoku and Emperor Go-Toba 1182–1187
* Fujiwara no "Ninshi"/Tōko (藤原任子) (1173–1240), Empress (Chūgū) of Go-Toba 1190–1200
* Princess Noriko (範子内親王) (1177–1210), Empress (Kōgō) as mother-in-law (准母) of Emperor Tsuchimikado 1198–1206
* Fujiwara no "Reishi" (藤原麗子) (1185–1243), Empress (Chūgū) of Tsuchimikado 1205–1210
* Princess "Shōshi" (昇子内親王) (1195–1211), Empress (Kōgō) as mother-in-law (准母) of Emperor Juntoku 1208–1209
* Fujiwara no "Ritsushi" (藤原立子) (1192–1248), Empress (Chūgū) of Juntoku 1211–1222
* Princess "Hōshi"/Kuniko (邦子内親王) (1209–1283), Empress (Kōgō) as mother-in-law (准母) of Emperor Go-Horikawa 1221–1224
* Fujiwara no Ariko (藤原有子) (1207–1286), Empress (Chūgū) of Go-Horikawa 1223–1226, Empress (Kōgō) of Go-Horikawa 1226–1227
* Fujiwara no "Chōshi" (藤原長子) (1218–1275), Empress (Chūgū) of Go-Horikawa 1226–1229
* Fujiwara no "Shunshi"/Yoshiko (藤原竴子) (1209–1233), Empress (Chūgū) of Go-Horikawa 1230–1233
* Princess "Rishi" (利子内親王) (1197–1251), Empress (Kōgō) as mother-in-law (准母) of Emperor Shijō 1233–1239
* Fujiwara no "Kitsushi"/Yoshiko (藤原姞子) (1225–1292), Empress (Chūgū) of Go-Saga 1242–1248
* Princess Teruko (曦子内親王) (1224–1262), unmarried Empress (Kōgō) 1248–1251
* Fujiwara no "Kōshi"/Kimiko (藤原公子) (1232–1304), Empress (Chūgū) of Go-Fukakusa 1257–1259
* Fujiwara no Saneko (藤原佶子) (1245–1272), Empress (Chūgū) of Kameyama 1261, Empress (Kōgō) of Kameyama 1261–1272
* Fujiwara no "Kishi" (藤原嬉子) (1252–1318), Empress (Chūgū) of Kameyama 1261–1268
* Princess "Reishi" (姈子内親王) (1270–1307), unmarried Empress (Kōgō) 1285–1291
* Fujiwara no "Shōshi" (1271–1342), Empress (Chūgū) of Fushimi 1288–1298
* Fujiwara no "Kinshi" (藤原忻子) (1283–1352), Empress (Chūgū) of Go-Nijō 1303–1310
* Princess "Shōshi" (奬子内親王) (1286–1348), unmarried Empress (Kōgō) 1319
* Fujiwara no "Kishi" (藤原禧子) (1303–1333), Empress (Chūgū) of Go-Daigo 1319–1333
* Princess "Junshi" (珣子内親王) (1311–1337), Empress (Chūgū) of Go-Daigo 1333–1337
* unknown, Empress (Chūgū) of Chōkei
* Minamoto no Masako (源和子) (1607–1678), Empress (Chūgū) of Go-Mizunoo 1624–1629
* Fujiwara no Fusako (藤原房子) (1653–1712), Empress (Chūgū) of Reigen 1683–1687
* Princess Yukiko (幸子女王) (1681–1720), Empress (Chūgū) of Higashiyama 1708–1710
* Princess Yoshiko (欣子内親王) (1779–1846), Empress (Chūgū) of Kōkaku 1794–1820
* Fujiwara no Tsunako (藤原繋子) (1798–1823), Empress (Kōgō) of Ninkō (posthumous honor in 1824)
* Empress Shōken (昭憲皇太后), Empress of Meiji
* Empress Teimei (貞明皇后), Empress of Taisho
* Empress Kōjun (香淳皇后), Empress of Shōwa
* Empress Michiko of Japan


ee also

*Imperial House of Japan
*Japanese imperial succession controversy
*List of Nyoin

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