- Religion in Indonesia
Religion plays a major role in life in Indonesia. It is stated in the first principle of the state ideology, Pancasila: "belief in the one and only God". A number of different religions are practiced in
Indonesiaand their collective influence on the country's political, economical and cultural life is significant. [cite web|title = Instant Indonesia: Religion of Indonesia | work = Swipa | url = http://home.swipnet.se/~w-15266/indons/instant/religion.htm | accessdate = 2006-10-02 ] As of 2007, the population was estimated as 234,693,997.cite web | title = Indonesia | work = The World Factbook | publisher = CIA | date = 2006-10-05 | url = https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/id.html | accessdate = 2006-10-13 ] Based on the 2000 census, approximately 86.1% were Muslims, 5.7% Protestant, 3% are Catholic, 1.8% Hindu, 3.4% other or unspecified .
The Indonesian Constitution states "every person shall be free to choose and to practice the religion of his/her choice" and "guarantees all persons the freedom of worship, each according to his/her own religion or belief". [cite web | title = The 1945 Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia | url = http://www.us-asean.org/Indonesia/constitution.htm | accessdate = 2006-10-02 ] The government, however, officially only recognises six religions, namely
Islam, Protestantism, Catholicism, Hinduism, Buddhismand Confucianism.cite journal | last = Yang | first = Heriyanto | title = The History and Legal Position of Confucianism in Post Independence Indonesia | journal = Religion | volume = 10 | issue = 1 | date = 2005 | url = http://web.uni-marburg.de/religionswissenschaft/journal/mjr/pdf/2005/yang2005.pdf | accessdate = 2006-10-02] [cite journal | last = Hosen | first = N | authorlink = | coauthors =
title = Religion and the Indonesian Constitution: A Recent Debate
journal = Journal of Southeast Asian Studies | volume = 36| issue = | pages = 419| publisher = Cambridge University Press | date = 2005-09-08 | url = http://eprint.uq.edu.au/archive/00002795/01/hosen-JSEAS.pdf | doi = 10.1017/S0022463405000238
id = | accessdate = 2006-10-26 ]
With many different religions practised in Indonesia, conflicts between believers are often unavoidable. Moreover, Indonesia's political leadership has played an important role in the relations between groups, both positively and negatively, including the
Dutch East Indies' Transmigration Program, which has caused a number of conflicts in the eastern region of the country.cite web | title = Transmigration | work = Prevent Conflict| date = April 2002 | url = http://www.preventconflict.org/portal/main/background_transmigration.php | accessdate = 2006-10-13 ]
immigrationhas been a major contributor to the diversity of religion and culture within the country with immigration from India, China, Portugal, Arabian, and Netherlands.cite web | title = Indonesian Religions | work = Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Theology and Religion (PHILTAR) | publisher = St. Martin's College | url = http://philtar.ucsm.ac.uk/encyclopedia/indon/geness.html | accessdate = 2006-10-02 ] However, these aspects have changed since some modifications have been made to suit the Indonesian culture.
Before the arrival of the
Abrahamicfaiths of Christianity and Islam, the popular belief systems in the region were thoroughly influenced by Dharmicreligious philosophy through Hinduism and Buddhism. These religions were brought to Indonesia around the second and fourth centuries, respectively, when Indian traders arrived on the islands of Sumatra, Javaand Sulawesi, bringing their religion. Hinduism started to develop in Java in the fifth century AD with Brahmanist cults worshipping Siva. The traders also established Buddhism in Indonesia which developed further in the following century and a numbr of Hindu and Buddhist influenced kingdoms were established, such as Kutai, Srivijaya, Majapahit, and Sailendra. [cite web | title = The Period of Hindu Kingdoms | publisher = Embassy of Republic of Indonesia at Bangkok, Thailand | date = 2006 | url = http://www.kbri-bangkok.com/about_indonesia/history_02.html | accessdate = 2006-10-17 ] The world's largest Buddhist monument, Borobudur, was built by the Kingdom of Sailendra and around the same time, the Hindu monument Prambananwas also built. The peak of Hindu-Javanese civilisation was the Majapahit Empire in the fourteenth century, described as a golden age in Indonesian history. [cite journal
last = Pariwono
first = John I.
coauthors = Abdul Gani Ilahude and Malikusworo Hutomo
journal = Oceanography
volume = 18
issue = 4
pages = 8
publisher = The Oceanography Society
date = December 2005
url = http://www.tos.org/oceanography/issues/issue_archive/issue_pdfs/18_4/18.4_pariwono_et_al.pdf
accessdate = 2006-10-27 ]
Islam was introduced to Indonesia in the fourteenth century. Coming from
Gujarat, India, Islam spread through the west coast of Sumatra and then developed to the east in Java. This period also saw kingdoms established but this time with Muslim influence, namely Demak, Pajang, Mataramand Banten. By the end of the fifteenth century, 20 Islam-based kingdoms had been established, reflecting the domination of Islam in Indonesia.
The Portuguese introduced Catholicism to Indonesia, notably to the island of
Floresand to what was to become East Timor.cite journal
title = East Asia
publisher = OMF International
date = September 2003
url = http://www.serveasia.nl/document/pdfs/East%20Asia.PDF
accessdate = 2006-10-27 ]
Protestantismwas first introduced by the Dutch in the sixteenth century with Calvinistand Lutheraninfluences. Animist areas in eastern Indonesia, on the other hand, were the main focus Dutch conversion efforts, including Maluku, Nusa Tenggara, Papua and Kalimantan. Later, Christianity spread from the coastal ports of Borneoand missionaries arrived among the Torajans on Sulawesi. Parts of Sumatra were also targeted, most notably the Batak people, who are predominantly Protestant today.cite book
last = Goh
first = Robbie B.H.
title = Christianity in Southeast Asia
publisher = Institute of Southeast Asian Studies
pages = p.80
isbn = 9812302972
oclc = 61478898 ]
Significant changes in religion aspect also happened during the New Order era.cite book | last = Bertrand | first = Jaques | title = Nationalism and Ethnic Conflict in Indonesia | publisher = Cambridge University Press | date = 2004 | isbn = 0-521-52441-5 | oclc = 237830260 52920306 54081851 ] Between 1964 and 1965, the tension between the
Communist Party of Indonesia(Partai Komunis Indonesia or PKI) and the Indonesian government, along with some organisations, resulted in the worst mass murders of the twentieth century.Kahin, George McT. and Kahin, Audrey R. Subversion as Foreign Policy: The Secret Eisenhower and Dulles Debacle in Indonesia. New York: The New Press, 1995.] Following the incident, the New Order government had tried to suppress the supporters of PKI, by applying a policy that everyone must choose a religion, since PKI supporters were mostly atheists. As a result, every Indonesian citizen was required to carry personal identification cards indicating their religion. The policy resulted in a mass religion conversions, topped by conversions to Protestantism and Catholicism (Christianity). The same situation happened with Indonesians with Chinese ethnicity, who mostly were Confucianists. Because Confucianismwas not one of the state recognised religions, many Chinese Indonesians were also converted to Christianity.
tate recognised religions
Indonesia is the world's most populous Muslim-majority country, with 88 percent of its citizens identifying as Muslim. [cite news | last = Suryodiningrat | first = Meidyatama | title = Who Are Indonesians? | publisher = The Jakarta Post | date = 2006-10-02 | url = http://www.thejakartapost.com/community/ina3.asp | accessdate = 2006-10-02 ] Traditionally, Muslims have been concentrated in the more populous western islands of Indonesia such as Java and Sumatra. In less populous eastern islands, the Muslim population is proportionally lower.cf. Bunge (1983), chapter [http://countrystudies.us/indonesia/37.htm Islam] .] Around 99 percent of Indonesian Muslims are
Sunnis. The remaining two million are Shias (over 1 per cent), who are concentrated in Acehprovince.cite web | last=Reza | first=Imam | title=Shia Muslims Around the World | url=http://www.imamreza.net/eng/imamreza.php?id=3591 | accessdate=2006-10-04 ]
The history of Islam in Indonesia is complex and reflects the diversity of Indonesian cultures. In the 12th century many predominantly Muslim traders from
Indiaarrived on the island of Sumatra, Java and Kalimantan where the religion flourished between the twelfth and fifteenth centuries. The dominant Hindu and Buddhist kingdomsof the time, such as Majapahit and Sriwijaya, were in decline and the numerous Hindus and Buddhists mostly converted to Islam, although a smaller number, as in the notable case of Hindus immigrating to Bali, moved off Java and Sumatra. Islam in Indonesia is in many cases less meticulously practiced in comparison to Islam, for example, in the Middle Eastregion.cite web | title = Indonesia - Bhineka Tunggal Ika | publisher = Centre Universitaire d'Informatique | url=http://cui.unige.ch/~luthi/download/indo.html | accessdate=2006-10-20 ]
Politically, parties based on moderate and tolerant Islamic interpretations have had significant, but not dominant success in the national parliamentary elections in 1999 and 2004. Hardline
Islamistparties, however, have had little electoral success and their bases of support remain. One form of Islam, known as neofundamentalist,cite web
last = Bubalo
first = Anthony
coauthors = Greg Fealy
title = Between the Global and the Local: Islamism, the Middle East, and Indonesia
work = Lowy Institute for International Policy and Australian National University
publisher = Global Politics
date = 2005-10-5A
url = http://www.brook.edu/fp/saban/analysis/20051101bubalo_fealy.htm
accessdate = 2006-10-04 ] adapted for new ways of thinking about the relationship between Islam,
politicsand society. Nonetheless, a number of fundamentalistgroups have been established, including the Majelis Mujahiden (MMI) and their alleged associates Jamaah Islamiyah(JI). The Islamist Justice and Prosperous Party ("Partai Keadilan Sejahtera" or PKS) has a different point of view from the neofundamentalists, notably the anti-Semitic views and anti-Western conspiracy theories of some of its members.
Government of Indonesiaofficially recognizes the two main Christian divisions in Indonesia, Protestantism and Roman Catholicism, as two separate religions.
Protestantism arrived in Indonesia during the Dutch East Indies (VOC)
colonisation, around the sixteenth century. VOC policy to ban Catholicism significantly increased the percentage of Protestant believers in Indonesia. Missionary efforts for the most part did not extend to Java or other already predominantly Muslim areas. [Vickers (2005), p.22] The religion has expanded considerably in the 20th century, marked by the arrival of European missionariesin some parts of the country, such as Western New Guineaand Lesser Sunda Islands.cf. Bunge (1983), chapter [http://countrystudies.us/indonesia/38.htm Christianity] .] Following the 1965 coup, all non-religious people were recognised as Atheist, and hence did not receive a balanced treatment compared to the rest of the citizens. As a result, Protestant churches experienced a significant growth of members, partly due to the uncomfortable feeling towards the political aspirations of Islamic parties. Protestants form a significant minority in some parts of the country. For example, on the island of Sulawesi, 17% of the citizens are Protestants, particularly in Tana Torajaand Central Sulawesi. Furthermore, up to 65% of the Torajan population is Protestant. In some parts of the country, entire villagesbelong to a distinct denomination, such as Adventist, International Church of the Foursquare Gospel, Lutheran, Presbyterianor Salvation Army("Bala Keselamatan") depending on the success of missionary activity. [cite web
title = Indonesia - (Asia)
work = Reformed Online
publisher = Reformed Online
url = http://www.reformiert-online.net/weltweit/64_eng.php
accessdate = 2006-10-07 ] Indonesia has two Protestant-majority provinces, which are Papua and
North Sulawesi, with 60% and 64% of the total population consecutively. [cite web
title = Number of Population by Religion Year 2005
work = Ministry of Religion of Indonesia
publisher = Board for Statistics Center 2005
date = 2005
url = http://www.depag.go.id/index.php?menu=page&pageid=17
format = Indonesian
accessdate = 2006-10-02 ] In Papua, the faith is most widely practiced among the native Papuan population. In North Sulawesi, the
Minahasan population centered around Manadoconverted to Christianity in the nineteenth century. [cite web
title = History - Colonialism & Independence
publisher = North Sulawesi Tourism
url = http://www.north-sulawesi.org/colonialism.html
accessdate = 2006-10-02 ] Today most of the population native to North Sulawesi practice some form of Protestantism, while transmigrants from Java and
Madurapractice Islam. As of 2006, 6% of the total citizens of Indonesia are Protestants. [cite web
title = Number of Population by Religion Year 2005
work = Ministry of Religion of Indonesia
publisher = Board for Statistics Center 2005
date = 2005
url = http://www.depag.go.id/index.php?menu=page&pageid=17
format = Indonesian
accessdate = 2006-10-02 ]
Catholicismarrived in Indonesia during the Portuguese arrival with spice trading.cite web
title = Indonesia - Christianity
work = U.S. Library of Congress
publisher = U.S. Library of Congress
url = http://countrystudies.us/indonesia/38.htm
accessdate = 2006-10-07 ] Many Portuguese had the goal of spreading Roman Catholicism in Indonesia, starting with Maluku islands in 1534. Between 1546 and 1547, the pioneer
Christian missionary, Saint Francis Xavier, visited the islands and baptisedseveral thousand locals. [cite web
last = Vermander
first = Benoit
title = Francis Xavier and Asia: the road to cultural inventiveness
work = Academic director of Taipei Ricci Institute
publisher = International Study Commission
url = http://www.iscmrc.org/english/SFXfeer.html
accessdate = 2006-10-07 ]
Dutch East Indies(VOC) era, the number of Roman Catholicism practitioners fell significantly, due to VOC policy to ban the religion. The most significant result was on the island of Floresand East Timor, where VOC concentrated. Moreover, Roman Catholic priests were sent to prisons or punished and replaced by Protestant priestsfrom the Netherlands. One Roman Catholic priest was executed for celebrating Mass in a prison during Jan Pieterszoon Coen's tenure as Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies.
As of 2006, 3% of all Indonesians are Catholics, slightly lower than the total number of Protestants. The pracitioners mostly live in Papua and Flores.
September 22, 2006, there was a massive strike by Catholics, concentrated mainly on Flores Island following the execution of three Roman Catholic men.cite news
last = Heneroty
first = Kate
title = Indonesia execution of Catholic militants incites rioting
language = English
date = 2006-09-22
url = http://jurist.law.pitt.edu/paperchase/2006/09/indonesia-execution-of-catholic.php
accessdate = 2006-10-07 ] Fabianus Tibo, Marinus Riwu, and Dominggus da Silva were convicted in 2001 of leading a Christian
militiawhich killed at least 70 Muslimsin 2000. However, human rightsgroups had questioned the fairness of the trial: claiming that although the three participated in the militia, they were not the leaders.
Hindu culture and religion arrived in the Indonesian archipelago in the first century, later coinciding with the arrival of
Buddhism, [cite web
title = Hinduism
work = OMF International UK
publisher = OMF International UK
url = http://www.omf.org.uk/content.asp?id=8531
accessdate = 2006-10-03 ] resulting in a number of Hinduism-Buddhism empires such as Kutai,
Mataramand Majapahit. The Prambanan Temple complex was built during the era of Hindu Mataram, during the Sanjaya dynasty. The greatest Hindu empire ever flourished in Indonesian archipelago was Majapahit empire. The age of Hindu-Buddhist empires lasted until the sixteenth century, when the archipelago's Islamicempires began to expand. This period, known as the Hindu-Indonesia period, lasted for sixteen full centuries. [cite web
title = History on Indonesia
publisher = Indonesian Consulate General, Los Angeles, USA
url = http://www.kjri-la.net/history.html
accessdate = 2006-10-03 ] The influence of Hinduism and classical
Indiaremain defining traits of Indonesian culture; the Indian concept of the god-kingstill shapes Indonesian concepts of leadership and the use of Sanskritin courtly literature and adaptations of Indian mythology such as the " Ramayana" and " Mahabharata".
Hinduism in Indonesia takes on a tone distinct from other parts of the world.cf. Bunge (1983), chapter [http://countrystudies.us/indonesia/39.htm Hinduism] .] For instance, Hinduism in Indonesia, formally referred as
Agama Hindu Dharma, never applied the caste system. Another example is that the Hindu religious epics, the Mahabharata(Great Battle of the Descendants of Bharata) and the Ramayana (The Travels of Rama), became enduring traditions among Indonesian believers, expressed in shadow puppet(wayang) and dance performances. Hinduism has also formed differently in Java regions, which were more heavily influenced by their own version of Islam, known as Islam Abangan or Islam Kejawen. [cite journal
last = Lidde
first = R. William
title = The Islamic Turn in Indonesia: A Political Explanation
journal = Journal of Asian Studies
volume = 55
issue = 3
pages = 613–634
date = August 1996
url = http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0021-9118(199608)55%3A3%3C613%3ATITIIA%3E2.0.CO%3B2-R
doi = 10.2307/2646448
accessdate = 2006-10-27
month = Aug
year = 1996 ]
All practitioners of Agama Hindu Dharma share many common beliefs, mostly the Five Points of Philosophy: the Panca Srada. [cite journal
last = Suryani
first = Luh Ketut
title = Balinese Women in a Changing Society
journal = Journal of the
American Academy of Psychoanalysis and Dynamic Psychiatry
volume = 32
issue = 1: Special issue Women and Society
date = 2004
url = http://www.atypon-link.com/GPI/doi/abs/10.1521/jaap.184.108.40.206335?cookieSet=1&journalCode=jaap
doi = 10.1521/jaap.220.127.116.11335
id = 1546-0371
accessdate = 2006-10-27
format = abstract page ] These include the belief in one Almighty
God, belief in the souls and spirits and " karma" or the belief in the law of reciprocal actions. Rather than belief on cycles of rebirth and reincarnation, Hinduism in Indonesia is concerned more with a myriad of local and ancestral spirits. In addition, the religion focuses more on artand ritualrather than scriptures, laws and beliefs.
The official number of Hindu practitioners is 10 million (2007), [ [http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/irf/2007/90137.htm Indonesia International Religious Freedom Report 2007] - US State Department] and currently giving Indonesia the fourth largest number of Hindus in the world. This number is disputed by the representative of Hinduism in Indonesia, the
Parisada Hindu Dharma. The PHDI gives an estimate of 18 million. [ [http://www.unhcr.org/cgi-bin/texis/vtx/rsd/rsddocview.html?tbl=RSDCOI&id=450fb0aa34] The United States Department of State Annual Report on International Religious Freedom for 2006 - Indonesia - September 2006] US State Department] Of this number, 93% of the practitioners are located in Bali, the majority of the population of which is Hindu. Besides Bali, Sumatra, Java, Lombokand Kalimantanisland also have significant Hindu populations. Central Kalimantanis 15.8% Hindu.
Buddhism is the second oldest religion in Indonesia, arriving around the sixth century.cite web
title = Buddhism in Indonesia
work = Buddha Dharma Education Association
publisher = Buddha Dharma Education Association
date = 2005
url = http://www.buddhanet.net/e-learning/buddhistworld/indo-txt.htm
accessdate = 2006-10-03 ] The history of Buddhism in Indonesia is closely related to the history of Hinduism, as a number of empires based on Buddhist culture were established around the same period. Indonesian archipelago has witnessed the rise and fall of powerful Buddhist empires such as
Sailendradynasty, Srivijayaand MataramEmpires. The arrival of Buddhism was started with the trading activity that began in the early of first century on the Silk Roadbetween Indonesia and India. [cite web
last = Flanagan
first = Anthony
title = Buddhist Art: Indonesia
publisher = About
date = 2006
url = http://buddhism.about.com/cs/art/a/ArtIndonesia.htm
accessdate = 2006-10-03 ] According to some Chinese source, a Chinese traveler monk on his journey to India, has witnessed the powerful maritime empire of Srivijaya based on
Sumatra. The empire also served as a Buddhist learning center in the region. A number of historical heritages can be found in Indonesia, including the Borobudur Temple in Yogyakartaand statues or "prasasti" (inscriptions) from the earlier history of Buddhist empires.
Following the downfall of President Sukarno in the mid-1960s, Pancasila was reasserted as the official Indonesian policy on religion to only recognise monotheism . [cf. Bunge (1983), chapter [http://countrystudies.us/indonesia/40.htm Buddhism] .] As a result, founder of Perbuddhi (Indonesian Buddhists Organisation), Bhikku Ashin Jinarakkhita, proposed that there was a single
supreme deity, Sang Hyang Adi Buddha. He was also backed up with the history behind the Indonesian version of Buddhism in ancient Javanese texts, and the shape of the Borobudur Temple.
According to the 1990 national
census, slightly more than 1% of the total citizens of Indonesia are Buddhists, which takes up about 1.8 million people. Most Buddhists are concentrated in Jakarta, although other provinces such as Riau, North Sumatraand West Kalimantanalso have a significant number of practitioners. However, these totals are likely high, due to the fact that practitioners of Confucianism and Taoism, which are not considered official religions of Indonesia, referred to themselves as Buddhists on the census.
Confucianismoriginated from Chinamainland and brought by Chinese merchants and immigrants. It is estimated as late as the 3rd century AD that the Chinese arrived in Nusantaraarchipelago. Unlike other religions, Confucianism evolved more into loose individual practices and belief in the code of conduct, rather than a well-organized community religion, or way of life or social movement. It was not until the early of 1900s that Confucianists formed an organization, called "Tiong Hoa Hwee Koan" (THHK) in Batavia (now Jakarta).
After the independence of Indonesia in 1945, Confucianism in Indonesia was affected by several political turmoils and has been used for some political interests. In 1965,
Sukarnoissued Presidential Decree No. 1/Pn.Ps/1965, in which there be six religions embraced by the Indonesian people, including Confucianism. Earlier in 1961, the "Association of Khung Chiao Hui Indonesia" (PKCHI), a Confucianist organization, declared that Confucianism is a religion and Confuciusis their prophet.
In 1967, Sukarno was replaced by
Suharto, marking the New Orderera. Under Suharto rule, the anti-China policy was applied to gain political support from the people, especially after the fall of Indonesian Communist Party, which is claimed to have been backed by China. Suharto issued the controversial Presidential Instruction No. 14/1967, which practically banned Chinese culture, expression of Chinese belief, Chinese celebrations and festivities, as well as forcing many Chinese to change their name. However, Suharto knew how to handle Chinese Indonesiancommunity that formed only 3% of the population, but gained a disproportionately large share of wealth and dominant influence in many key sectors of economy. [cite news|publisher=International Herarld Tribune|title=Native Groups Seek Wealth Shift - Voluntary or Not : Indonesia Pressures Chinese|author=Michael Richardson|url=http://www.iht.com/articles/1991/09/03/chin.php|accessdate=2006-10-02] Yet, in the same year, Suharto addressed "The Confucian religion deserves a decent place in this country," in front of the PKCHI national convention.
StatuteNo. 5/1969 was passed and it re-iterated the official six religions from the 1967 presidential decree. However, it was different in practice. In 1978, the Minister of Home Affairs issued its directive that there are only five religions, excluding Confucianism. On 27 January 1979, a presidential cabinet meeting took place and it firmly decided that Confucianism is not a religion. Another Minister of Home Affairs was issued in 1990 re-iterating about five official religions in Indonesia.
Hence the status of Confucianism in Indonesia in the New Order era was never clear.
De jure, there were conflicting laws, as the higher law permitted Confucianism, but the lower law did not recognize it. De facto, Confucianists were not recognized by the government and they were forced to become Christians or Buddhists to maintain their citizenship. This practice was applied in many places, including in the national registration card, marriage registration, and even civics education in Indonesia taught school children that there are only 5 official religions.
With the fall of Suharto in 1998,
Abdurrahman Wahidwas elected as the fourth president. Wahid lifted the Presidential Instruction No. 14/1967 and the 1978 Minister of Home Affairs directive. Confucianism is now officially recognized as religion in Indonesia. Chinese culture and all related Chinese-affiliated activities are now allowed to be practiced. Chinese and non-Chinese Confucianists have since then expressed their belief in freedom.
Other religions and beliefs
The form of
Animismin Indonesia shares the same form with Animism worldwide, which is, a belief in certain objects, such as trees, stones or people. This belief has existed since Indonesia's earliest history, around the first century, just before Hindu culture arrived in Indonesia.cite web
title = Animism
work = PHILTAR
publisher = PHILTAR
url = http://philtar.ucsm.ac.uk/encyclopedia/seasia/animism.html
accessdate = 2006-10-04 ] Furthermore, two thousand years later, with the existence of Islam, Christianity, Hinduism, Buddhism, Confucianism and other religion, Animism still exists in some parts of Indonesia. However, this belief is not accepted as Indonesia's official religion as the "Pancasila" states the belief in the supreme deity, or monotheism. Animism, on the other hand, does not believe in a particular god.
There are small unrecognized
Jewishcommunities in Jakartaand Surabaya. An early Jewish settlement in the archipelago was through the Dutch Jews who came along for the "spice trade". In the 1850s, about 20 Jewish families of Dutch and German origins lived in Jakarta (then Batavia). Some lived in Semarangand Surabaya. Several Baghdadi Jewsalso settled in the island. Prior to 1945, there were about 2,000 Dutch Jews in Indonesia. In 1957, it was reported around 450 Jews remained, mainly Ashkenazimin Jakarta and Sephardimin Surabaya. The community has decreased to 50 in 1963. In 1997, there were only 20 Jews, some of them in Jakarta and a few Baghdadi families in Surabaya. [cite web|url=http://www.bh.org.il/communities/Archive/indonesia.asp|accessdate=2006-12-15|title=The Jewish Community of Indonesia|work=The Databases of Jewish Communities|publisher=Museum of the Jewish People]
Jews in Surabaya maintain a
synagogue, the only synagogue in Indonesia. They have little contact with Jews outside the country. There is no service given in the synagogue. [cite web|url=http://eamusic.dartmouth.edu/~larry/misc_writings/jew_indonesia/surabaya.html|title=The Surabaya, Indonesia Jewish Community|author=Larry Polansky|accessdate=2006-12-15]
Although the Indonesian government recognises a number of different religions, inter-religious conflict sometimes is unavoidable. In the New Order era, former president
Suhartoproposed the Anti-Chinese law which prohibits anything related to Chinese culture, including names and religions. [cite web
last = Effendi
first = Wahyu
title = Pembaharuan Hukum Catatan Sipil dan Penghapusan Diskriminasi di Indonesia
date = 2004-06-28
url = http://hukumonline.com/detail.asp?id=10607&cl=Kolom
accessdate = 2006-10-13 id icon] Nevertheless, positive form of relations have also appeared in the society, such as the effort from six different religious organisations to help the
Between 1966 and 1998, Suharto made an effort to "de-Islamicise" the government, by maintaining a large proportion of Christians in his
title = Intergroup Relations
work = Prevent Conflict
date = May 2002
url = http://www.preventconflict.org/portal/main/background_intergroup_relations.php#Religion
accessdate = 2006-10-13 ] However, in the early 1990s, the issue of
Islamisationappeared, and the military split into two groups, the Nationalist and Islamic camps. The Islamic camp, led by General Prabowo, was in favour of Islamisation, while General Wiranto was in the Nationalist group, in favour of a secular state.
During the Suharto era, the Indonesian
transmigration programcontinued, after it was initiated by the Dutch East Indiesgovernment in the early nineteenth century. The intention of the program was to move millions of Indonesians from over-crowded populated Java, Bali and Madura to other less populated regions, such as Ambon, Lesser Sunda Islandsand Papua. It has received much criticism, being described as a type of colonisation by the Javanese and Madurese, who also brought Islam to non-Muslim areas. Citizens in western Indonesia are mostly Muslims with Christians a small minority, while in eastern regions the Christian populations are similar in size or larger than Muslim populations. This more even population distribution has led to more religious conflicts in the eastern regions, including Posoand Malukucommunal violence since the resignation of President Suharto.
The government has made an effort to reduce the tension by proposing the inter-religion co-operation plan.cite press release | title = Transcript of Joint Press Conference Indonesian Foreign Minister, Hassan Wirajuda, with Australian Foreign Minister, Alexander Downer| publisher = Embassy of Republic of Indonesia at Canberra, Australia | date = 2004-12-06
url = http://www.kbri-canberra.org.au/speeches/2004/041206interfaith.htm
accessdate = 2006-10-14 ] The Foreign Ministry, along with the biggest Islamic organisation in Indonesia,
Nahdatul Ulama, held the International Conference of Islamic Scholars, to promote Islamic moderation, which is believed to reduce the tension in the country. On December 6, 2004, the "Dialogue On Interfaith Cooperation: Community Building and Harmony" conference was opened. The conference, which attended by ASEANcountries, Australia, Timor Leste, New Zealandand Papua New Guineawas intended to discuss possible co-operation between different religious groups to minimise inter-religious conflict in Indonesia. The Australian government, represented by the Foreign Minister Alexander Downer, supported the dialogue by co-hosting it.
Culture of Indonesia
* Bertrand J, "Nationalism and Ethnic Conflict in Indonesia", Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 2004, 278 pages, ISBN 0-521-81889-3. Retrieved October 22, 2006
* International Coalition for Religious Freedom. (2004). [http://www.religiousfreedom.com/wrpt/asiapac/indonesia.htm "Indonesia"] . "Religious Freedom World Report". Retrieved September 6, 2006
* Llyod G and Smith S, "Indonesia Today", Lanham, Maryland : Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2001, 343 pages, ISBN 0-7425-1761-6
* Shaw, E. [http://philtar.ucsm.ac.uk/encyclopedia/indon/geness.html "Indonesian Religions"] . "Overview of World Religions". Retrieved September 8, 2006
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Freedom of religion in Indonesia — The Constitution provides for freedom of religion, and the Government generally respected this right in practice. There was no change in the status of respect for religious freedom by the Government during the reporting period, and government… … Wikipedia
Religion and happiness — have been studied by a number of researchers. The science of positive psychology has identified many components of happiness, and religion seems adapted to satisfy many of them. Some research suggests that both non religious and religious meaning … Wikipedia
Religión en la India — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda En términos generales, India es un país único en materia religiosa. El hinduismo es la religión dominante de la India Es el país con mayor cantidad de hindúes, jainistas, sijs, zoroastrianos y bahá ís, es el tercer… … Wikipedia Español
Religión universal — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Una religión universal es un credo religioso que está abierto a todos los seres humanos del mundo indiferentemente de su origen étnico, culural, racial, nacional, geográfico ó político, a diferencia de una religión… … Wikipedia Español
Religion in Hong Kong — is part and parcel of the culture of Hong Kong. Religious freedom is one of the fundamental rights enjoyed by Hong Kong residents. It is protected by the Basic Law and relevant legislation. There is a large variety of religious groups in the Hong … Wikipedia
Indonesia — /in deuh nee zheuh, sheuh, zee euh, doh /, n. 1. See East Indies (def. 1). 2. Republic of. Formerly, Netherlands East Indies, Dutch East Indies. a republic in the Malay Archipelago consisting of 13,677 islands, including Sumatra, Java, Sulawesi,… … Universalium
Indonesia — Indonésie Republik Indonesia (id) République d Indonésie (fr) … Wikipédia en Français
Indonesia — Republik Indonesia República de Indonesia … Wikipedia Español
religion — religionless, adj. /ri lij euhn/, n. 1. a set of beliefs concerning the cause, nature, and purpose of the universe, esp. when considered as the creation of a superhuman agency or agencies, usually involving devotional and ritual observances, and… … Universalium
Indonesia — Republic of Indonesia Republik Indonesia … Wikipedia