Schenectady, New York


Schenectady, New York

Infobox Settlement
official_name = City of Schenectady, New York
settlement_type = City
nickname = The Electric City
motto =


|thumb|250px|right
imagesize =
image_caption = Union College's Nott Memorial, one of the most recognized buildings in Schenectady







mapsize = 250x200px
map_caption = Located in Schenectady County in the State of New York


mapsize1 =
map_caption1 =
subdivision_type = Country
subdivision_type1 = State
subdivision_type2 = County
subdivision_name = United States
subdivision_name1 = New York
subdivision_name2 = Schenectady
government_type =
leader_title = Mayor
leader_name = Brian Stratton
established_title = Founded
established_title2 = Incorporated
established_date = 1765
established_date2 = 1798
area_magnitude =
area_total_sq_mi = 11.0
area_total_km2 = 28.5
area_land_sq_mi = 10.9
area_land_km2 = 28.1
area_water_sq_mi = 0.1
area_water_km2 = 1.27
area_water_percent =
population_as_of = 2000
population_total = 61,821
population_metro = 850,957
population_CSA = 1,147,850
population_density_km2 = 2200.4
population_density_sq_mi = 5699
timezone = EST
utc_offset = -5
timezone_DST = EDT
utc_offset_DST = -4
latd = 42 |latm = 48 |lats = 15 |latNS = N
longd = 73 |longm = 55 |longs = 45 |longEW = W
elevation_m = 74
elevation_ft = 211-275
area_code = 518
blank_name = FIPS code
blank_info = 36-65508
blank1_name = GNIS feature ID
blank1_info = 0964570
footnotes =
website = http://www.cityofschenectady.com

Schenectady (pronEng|skəˈnɛktədi; Θkahnéhtati [Rudes, B. "Tuscarora English Dictionary" Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1999] in Tuscarora) is a city in Schenectady County, New York, United States, of which it is the county seat. As of the 2000 census, the city had a population of 61,821. Schenectady is the ninth largest city in New York. The name "Schenectady" is derived from a Mohawk word for "on that side of the pinery," or "near the pines," or "place beyond the pine plains."

The city of Schenectady is in eastern New York State, near the confluence of the Mohawk and Hudson Rivers. It is in the same metropolitan area as the state capital, Albany; Schenectady is about eighteen miles northwest of Albany.

History

The area that is now Schenectady was originally the land of the Mohawk tribe of the Iroquois Nation. When Dutch settlers arrived in the Hudson Valley in the middle of the 17th century, the Mohawk called the settlement at Fort Orange "Schau-naugh-ta-da", meaning "over the pine plains." Eventually, this word entered the lexicon of the Dutch settlers, but the meaning was reversed, and the name referred to the bend in the Mohawk River where the city lies today.

Schenectady was first settled in 1661 when the area was part of the Dutch colony of New Netherland. Settlement was led by Arent van Curler of Nijkerk in the Netherlands, who was granted letters patent to Schenectady in 1684.

On February 8, 1690, during King William's War the Schenectady massacre, led by France and its Indian allies, resulted in the death of 60 of Schenectady's inhabitants. [ [http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.com/~vanepsgenealogy/schmass.html The Schenectady Massacre: Settlers Killed and Captured ] ] In 1748, during King George's War it was again attacked by the French and their Indian allies.

In 1765, Schenectady was incorporated as a borough. It was chartered as a city in 1798.

During the American Revolutionary War the local militia unit the 2nd Albany County Militia Regiment was active during the Battle of Saratoga and in fights against Loyalist troops.

Union College was founded here in 1795.

In 1887, Thomas Edison moved his Edison Machine Works to Schenectady. In 1892, Schenectady became the headquarters of the General Electric Company.

Schenectady is home to WGY-AM, one of the first commercial radio stations in the United States. The station was named for its owner, General Electric (the G), and the city of Schenectady (the Y) Fact|date=December 2007. General Electric also generated the first regular television broadcasts in the United States in 1928, when experimental station W2XB began regular broadcasts on Thursday and Friday afternoons. This television station is now WRGB, for years the Capital District's NBC affiliate, but more recently its CBS affiliate.

Historic population of Schenectady: 13,655 in 1880; 31,682 in 1900; 92,061 in 1950.

The city was once known as "The City that Lights and Hauls the World" -- a reference to two prominent businesses in the city, the Edison Electric Company (now known as General Electric), and the American Locomotive Company (ALCO). GE retains its administrative core in Schenectady, but many of manufacturing jobs relocated to the Sun Belt and abroad. ALCO's operations fizzled as the company went through acquisitions and restructuring in the late 1960s, and its Schenectady plant closed in 1969. In the late 20th century, the city experienced difficult financial times, as did many upstate New York cities. The loss of employment helped cause Schenectady's population to decline by nearly one-third since 1950. Nevertheless, Schenectady is part of a metropolitan area with better economic health.Fact|date=February 2007

Geography

Schenectady is located at coor dms|42|48|15|N|73|55|45|W|city (42.804076, -73.929289)GR|1. The altitude above sea level is 211 to 275 feet.

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 11.0 square miles (28.5 km²), of which, 10.9 square miles (28.1 km²) of it is land and 0.1 square miles (0.4 km²) of it (1.27%) is water.

It is generally considered to be part of the Capital District, the metropolitan area surrounding Albany, New York state's capital. Along with Albany and Troy, it is one of the three small, older industrial cities in the region.

Demographics

USCensusPop
1800=5289
1810=5903
1820=3939
1830=4268
1840=6784
1850=8921
1860=9579
1870=11026
1880=13655
1890=19902
1900=31682
1910=72826
1920=88723
1930=95692
1940=87549
1950=91785
1960=81070
1970=77958
1980=67972
1990=65566
2000=61821
estyear=2007
estimate=61531
As of the censusGR|2 of 2000, there were 61,821 people, 26,265 households, and 14,051 families residing in the city. The population density was 5,699.0 people per square mile (2,199.9/km²). There were 30,272 housing units at an average density of 2,790.6/sq mi (1,077.2/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 76.77% White, 14.77% African American, 0.36% Native American, 2.00% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 2.52% from other races, and 3.53% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 5.88% of the population. There is a growing Guyanese population in the area.

There were 26,264 households out of which 27.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 32.0% were married couples living together, 16.7% had a female householder with no husband present, and 46.5% were non-families. 38.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.23 and the average family size was 2.98.

In the city the population was spread out with 24.3% under the age of 18, 11.6% from 18 to 24, 29.7% from 25 to 44, 19.1% from 45 to 64, and 15.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females there were 91.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.4 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $29,378, and the median income for a family was $36,458. Males had a median income of $30,869 versus $25,292 for females. The per capita income for the city was $17,076. About 16.8% of families and 20.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 30.5% of those under age 18 and 9.6% of those age 65 or over.

The mayor is Brian Stratton.

Rail transportation

Amtrak, the national passenger rail system, provides regular service to Schenectady. Schenectady also has freight rail service from Canadian Pacific Railway and CSX Transportation.

Places of interest

*Proctors Theatre is an arts center. Built in 1926 as a vaudeville/movie theater, it has been refurbished. It is home to "Goldie," a Wurlitzer theater pipe organ. Proctor's was also the site of one of the first public demonstrations of television, projecting an image from a studio at the GE plant a mile [2 km] away. Today, Proctors is home to 3 theaters including the historic Mainstage at Proctors, the GE Theatre at Proctors and 440 Upstairs at Proctors.
*The [http://www.historicstockade.com/ Stockade Historic District] , which features dozens of Dutch and English Colonial houses from the 18th and 19th centuries, is New York's first National Register historic district, designated in 1965. It is named after the stockade fence that originally surrounded the settlement.
*The [http://www.realtyplot.org/ GE Realty Plot] , located near Union College, was built by General Electric Company executives and features lovely 18th and early 19th century homes. The historic neighborhood is unique for its eclectic collection of grand homes in a variety of architectural styles, including Tudor, Dutch Colonial, Queen Anne, and Spanish Colonial. The Plot is home to the first all electric home in the United States, and is one of the first planned residential neighborhoods in the US. The Plot also hosts an annual House and Garden Tour.
*Union College, adjacent to the GE Realty Plot, is the oldest planned college campus in the United States. The Union campus features Jackson's Garden, with eight acres (32,000 m²) of formal gardens and woodlands, and the unique 16-sided Nott Memorial building, built in 1875.
*Central Park is the crown jewel of Schenectady's parks. Central Park is the highest elevation point in the city. The Common Council voted in 1913 to purchase the land for the present site of the park. The park features an acclaimed rose garden, Iroquois Lake, and a stadium tennis court that is home to the New York Buzz of the World Team Tennis league.
*The Schenectady Museum features exhibits on the development of science and technology. It contains the Suits-Bueche Planetarium.
*Schenectady's City Hall is the focal point of government in the city. It was designed by McKim, Mead and White and built in 1933.
*Located in Schenectady is its [http://www.golfschenectady.com/ Municipal Golf Course] . It's an 18-hole championship facility sited among oaks and pines.
*:The course was designed in 1935 by Jim Thompson under the Works Progress Administration (WPA) program. The Schenectady Municipal Golf Course stretches to 6,600 yards (6000 m) and features fast, undulating greens and tight fairways with grasses and native vegetation. The course was ranked by Golf Digest as a "Best Places to Play in 2004" and received a three-star rating.
*Jay Street, located between Proctors and City Hall, is a short street closed to motor traffic. It features a number of small, independently operated businesses and eateries and is a popular destination.
*Schenectady Light Opera Company (SLOC) is a small community theater on group on State Street in downtown Schenectady.
*The Empire State Aerosciences Museum, in nearby Glenville, features extensive exhibits and materials on aviation.
*The Edison Exploratorium, exhibits and promotes the physical development of engineering of technology that was developed or produced in Schenectady.

Trivia

*Schenectady is referenced, or is the setting for many of Kurt Vonnegut's books. Most notably Hocus Pocus and Player Piano.
*Schenectady's General Electric plant has the ZIP Code 12345.
*Schenectady is the former home of the Professional Wrestling Hall of Fame. In 2005 the Hall moved to Amsterdam, New York.
*The world's first commercial TV station, WRGB still broadcasts each day from its Balltown Road studios in Niskayuna, just outside the city line, but still in Schenectady County. WRGB also did the first color television broadcast, which gave the station its name ("RGB" stands for red, green, and blue).
*The official song of Schenectady, entitled "Our Schenectady," was composed by John Van Laak and was sung by Judi Merriam. It was adopted by the Schenectady City Council on January 30, 1995. Immediate protests and disagreements arose from the population for the contrived lyrics and style of the song as well as the heavy handed way the city council adopted it without input. Lyrics are:

:"In Schenectady":"Our Schenectady":"What a warm and friendly place it is to be":"Nestled among plains and hills":"With a beautiful river that always gives us thrills":"And stores and shops with all that one might need or wish to see":"And legends and tales and lots of history"

:"Oh Schenectady":"Our Schenectady":"Let us now plan and help to make it grow"

:"If we will all do our best":"Then others can do the rest":"For places to study and learn in":"Places to work and earn in":"Places to live in happiness"Source: "Daily Gazette" January 31, 1995 p. B1
*The notable sleep-talker Dion McGregor had a dream (the audio recorded by his roommate) in which he was a member of a Dorothy Lamour fanclub purchasing sixteen train tickets to Schenectady.

Notable residents

*Stephen Alexander, (1806-1883), noted astronomer, mathematician, and educatorcite book | title = Who Was Who in America, Historical Volume, 1607-1896 | publisher = Marquis Who's Who | date = 1967]
*Horatio Allen, (1802-1889), born in Schenectady, noted railroad engineer and inventor
*Ralph Alpher (1921-2007), a noted cosmologist who won the National Medal of Science for his seminal work on the Big Bang Theory, worked in Schenectady for 50 years, first at General Electric and then at Union College.
*President Chester Arthur lived in Schenectady while attending Union College
*Jason Bittner, drummer for Shadows Fall
*Science fiction author Pat Cadigan was born in Schenectady.
*President Jimmy Carter, a US Navy lieutenant at the time, began graduate studies in nuclear physics at Union College starting in March, 1953, but left in July, 1953 after his father's death to tend to the family peanut farm. [ [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jimmy_Carter] ]
*Ann B. Davis (Alice on "The Brady Bunch") was born in Schenectady
*Prince John Owen Dominis, the consort of Queen Liliuokalani of Hawaii
*Jamie Dukes, an American football player born in Schenectady
*Archbishop Harry J. Flynn, Seventh Archbishop of the Archdiocese of Minneapolis/St. Paul, was born in Schenectady.
*Actress Patricia Kalember was born in Schenectady.
*Irving Langmuir Awarded the 1932 Nobel Prize for Chemistry.
*Sir Charles Mackerras, the famous British conductor, was born in Schenectady while his father was taking an electrical-engineering course. See [http://www.economist.com/books/displaystory.cfm?story_id=E1_VTPVVVV Medallion man]
*Ray Nelson, science fiction author and cartoonist was born in Schenectady
* Director John Sayles was born and raised in Schenectady; the Schenectady High school of fine arts is named after him.
*Shirley Muldowney, the First Lady of Drag Racing was born and raised in Schenectady.
*Basketball coach Pat Riley was born and raised in Schenectady. The Schenectady High School athletics wing was named after him after he donated a substantial amount of money for its creation.
*Don Rittner Author and historian lives in Schenectady
*Presidential candidate William Seward attended Union College before losing the election against Abraham Lincoln
*Mickey Rourke was born in Schenectady
*Charles Proteus Steinmetz, a famous electrical engineer, built a home in the GE Realty Plot, which burnt to the ground. A monument to Steinmetz stands on the site.
*Samuel S. Stratton, a Congressman for 30 years after his tenure as mayor.
*John Tudor, Major League Baseball pitcher, won the 1985 World Series with the St. Louis Cardinals
*Deborah Van Valkenburgh, female co-star in the cult classic movie "The Warriors" was born in Schenectady.
*Kurt Vonnegut, the author, lived in Schenectady while working for GE in the early 1950s.
*George H. Wells (1833-1905), though Northern-born was a Confederate States of America officer, attorney and member of the Louisiana State Senate

References

External links

* [http://www.cityofschenectady.com City of Schenectady (official website)]
* [http://www.schist.org Schenectady County Historical Society]
* [http://www.sayschenectady.org/ Visit Schenectady (tourist information)]
* [http://www.schenectadychamber.net/ Schenectady County Chamber of Commerce]
* [http://www.schenectadyny.info City of Schenectady Info]
* [http://www.courts.state.ny.us/courts/4jd/schdycty.HTM Schenectady City Court information]
* [http://www.timesunion.com/communities/Nijkerk/ Schenectady/Nijkerk Council]
* [http://www.schenectadyrose.com/ Central Park Rose Garden]
* [http://www.dailygazette.com Daily Gazette, the local newspaper on line]
* [http://www.davidpietrusza.com/Schenectady-players.html Schenectady Blue Jays who Made the Major Leagues]
* [http://www.schenectadymuseum.org/ Schenectady Museum and Suits-Bueche Planetarium]
* [http://www.smara.com/ Schenectady Museum Amateur Radio Association]
* [http://www.historicstockade.com/ Stockade Historic District]
* [http://www.realtyplot.org/ GE Realty Plot]
* [http://nysparks.state.ny.us/heritage/herit_area.asp New York State Heritage Areas]


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