Doxycycline


Doxycycline
Doxycycline
Systematic (IUPAC) name
(4S,4aR,5S,5aR,6R,12aS)-4-(dimethylamino)- 3,5,10,12,12a-pentahydroxy- 6-methyl- 1,11-dioxo- 1,4,4a,5,5a,6,11,12a-octahydrotetracene- 2-carboxamide
Clinical data
Trade names Vibramycin
AHFS/Drugs.com monograph
MedlinePlus a682063
Licence data US FDA:link
Pregnancy cat. D(US)
Legal status POM (UK) -only (US)
Routes oral, buccal, iv, im
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability 100%
Metabolism hepatic,minimally
Half-life 18-22 hours
Excretion urine, feces
Identifiers
CAS number 564-25-0 YesY
ATC code J01AA02 A01AB22
PubChem CID 11256
DrugBank APRD00597
ChemSpider 10482106 YesY
UNII 334895S862 YesY
KEGG D02129 N
ChEBI CHEBI:60648 YesY
ChEMBL CHEMBL1433 N
Chemical data
Formula C22H24N2O8 
Mol. mass 444.435 g/mol
SMILES eMolecules & PubChem
 N(what is this?)  (verify)
Generic 100 mg doxycycline capsules

Doxycycline INN (play /ˌdɒksɨˈskln/ doks-i-sy-kleen) is a member of the tetracycline antibiotics group, and is commonly used to treat a variety of infections. Doxycycline is a semisynthetic tetracycline invented and clinically developed in the early 1960s by Pfizer Inc.[citation needed] and marketed under the brand name Vibramycin.[citation needed] Vibramycin received U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval in 1967,[citation needed] becoming Pfizer's first once-a-day, broad-spectrum antibiotic.[citation needed] Other brand names include Monodox, Microdox, Periostat, Vibra-Tabs, Oracea, Doryx, Vibrox, Adoxa, Doxyhexal, Doxylin, Doxoral,Doxy-1 and Atridox (topical doxycycline hyclate for periodontitis).

Contents

Indicated uses

As well as the general indications for all members of the tetracycline antibiotics group, doxycycline is frequently used to treat chronic prostatitis, sinusitis, syphilis, chlamydia, pelvic inflammatory disease,[1][2] acne, rosacea,[3][4] and rickettsial infections.

Antiprotozoal

It is used in prophylaxis against malaria. It should not be used alone for initial treatment of malaria, even when the parasite is doxycycline-sensitive, because the antimalarial effect of doxycycline is delayed. This delay is related to its mechanism of action, which is to specifically impair the progeny of the apicoplast genes, resulting in their abnormal cell division.[5]

It can be used in a treatment plan in combination with other agents, such as quinine.[6]

Antibacterial

It is used in the treatment and prophylaxis of Bacillus anthracis (anthrax).

It is also effective against Yersinia pestis (the infectious agent of bubonic plague), and is prescribed for the treatment of Lyme disease,[7][8][9][10] ehrlichiosis[11][12] and Rocky Mountain spotted fever. In fact, because doxycycline is one of the few medications shown to be effective in treating Rocky Mountain spotted fever (with the next-best alternative being chloramphenicol), doxycycline is indicated even for use in children for this illness. Otherwise, doxycycline is not indicated for use in children under the age of eight years. Doxycycline, like other antibiotics, will not work for colds, influenza, or other viral infections.

Doxycycline package.

When bacteriologic testing indicates appropriate susceptibility to the drug, doxycycline may be used to treat and prevent:

Anthelmintic

Elephantiasis is the end-stage condition of lymphatic filariases caused by one of two genera of filarial nematodes (roundworms): Wuchereria or Brugia (primarily Wuchereria bancrofti). Elephantiasis is characterized by permanently swollen limbs or genitals and permanent damage to the lymph system (often accompanied by severe secondary fungal and bacterial infections). This results from blockage of lymph flow caused by immune response against dead or dying adult worms in the lymphatics. This condition affects over 120 million people worldwide, with 1 billion at risk.[13] Previous antinematode treatments have been limited by poor levels of effectiveness, drug side effects and high costs. Doxycycline was shown in 2003 to kill the symbiotic Wolbachia bacteria in the filarial worms' reproductive tracts, rendering them sterile, thus reducing transmission of the disease.[14] Field trials in 2005 showed doxycycline almost completely eliminates the release of microfilariae when given for an 8 week course.[15][16] However, doxycycline only reduces transmission and the relatively light pathology associated with microfilaraemia; there is currently no cure for lymphatic filariasis.

Cautions and side effects

Cautions and side effects are similar to those of other members of the tetracycline antibiotic group. However, the risk of photosensitivity skin reactions is of particular importance for those intending long-term use for malaria prophylaxis, because it can cause permanent sensitive and thin skin.

Unlike some other members of the tetracycline group, it may be used in those with renal impairment.[17]

Previously, doxycycline was believed to impair the effectiveness of many types of hormonal contraception due to CYP450 induction. Recent research has shown no significant loss of effectiveness in oral contraceptives while using most tetracycline antibiotics (including doxycycline), although many physicians still recommend the use of barrier contraception for people taking the drug to prevent unwanted pregnancy.[18][19][20]

Food, including dairy products, does not interfere with the absorption of doxycycline, unlike most other tetracycline antibiotics.[21]

Doxycycline, like all tetracyclines, is not approved for general use in children, but specific exceptions are made for potentially fatal illnesses where the benefits outweigh the risks and there are few or no other alternatives, such as with Rocky Mountain spotted fever and anthrax.

Expired tetracyclines or tetracyclines allowed to stand at a pH less than 2 are reported to be nephrotoxic due to the formation of a degradation product, anhydro-4-epitetracycline[22][23] causing Fanconi syndrome.[24] In the case of doxycycline, the absence of an hydroxyl group in C-6 prevent the formation of the nephrotoxic compound.[23] Nevertheless, tetracyclines and doxycycline itself have to be taken with precaution in patients with kidney injury, as they can worsen azotemia due to catabolic effects.[24]

Experimental applications

Tet-ON inducible shRNA system

At subantimicrobial doses, doxycycline is an inhibitor of matrix metalloproteases, and has been used in various experimental systems for this purpose, such as for recalcitrant recurrent corneal erosions.[25] Doxycycline has been used successfully in the treatment of one patient with lymphangioleiomyomatosis, an otherwise progressive and fatal disease.[26] Doxycycline has also been shown to attenuate cardiac hypertrophy (in mice), a deadly consequence of prolonged hypertension.[27] In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, doxycycline has shown to improve lung functions in patients with stable symptoms.[28] Doxycycline is also used in "Tet-on" and "Tet-off" tetracycline controlled transcriptional activation to regulate transgene expression in organisms and cell cultures.

Other experimental applications include:

References

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  2. ^ Gjønnaess H, Holten E (1978). "Doxycycline (Vibramycin) in pelvic inflammatory disease". Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 57 (2): 137–9. doi:10.3109/00016347809155893. PMID 345730. 
  3. ^ Määttä M, Kari O, Tervahartiala T, et al. (2006). "Tear fluid levels of MMP-8 are elevated in ocular rosacea--treatment effect of oral doxycycline". Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 244 (8): 957–62. doi:10.1007/s00417-005-0212-3. PMID 16411105. 
  4. ^ Quarterman MJ, Johnson DW, Abele DC, Lesher JL, Hull DS, Davis LS (1997). "Ocular rosacea. Signs, symptoms, and tear studies before and after treatment with doxycycline". Arch Dermatol 133 (1): 49–54. doi:10.1001/archderm.133.1.49. PMID 9006372. 
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  16. ^ Outland, Katrina (24 June 2005). "New Treatment for Elephantitis: Antibiotics". 13. The Journal of Young Investigators. http://www.jyi.org/news/nb.php?id=361. 
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  18. ^ Archer JS, Archer DF (2002). "Oral contraceptive efficacy and antibiotic interaction: a myth debunked". J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 46 (6): 917–23. doi:10.1067/mjd.2002.120448. PMID 12063491. 
  19. ^ Dréno B, Bettoli V, Ochsendorf F, Layton A, Mobacken H, Degreef H (November–December 2004). "European recommendations on the use of oral antibiotics for acne". Eur J Dermatol 14 (6): 391–9. PMID 15564203. http://www.jle.com/e-docs/00/04/07/1B/vers_alt/VersionPDF.pdf. 
  20. ^ DeRossi SS, Hersh EV (2002). "Antibiotics and oral contraceptives". Dent. Clin. North Am. 46 (4): 653–64. doi:10.1016/S0011-8532(02)00017-4. PMID 12436822. 
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  25. ^ Dursun D, Kim MC, Solomon A, Pflugfelder SC (2001). "Treatment of recalcitrant recurrent corneal erosions with inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinase-9, doxycycline and corticosteroids". Am. J. Ophthalmol. 132 (1): 8–13. doi:10.1016/S0002-9394(01)00913-8. PMID 11438047. 
  26. ^ Moses MA, Harper J, Folkman J (2006). "Doxycycline treatment for lymphangioleiomyomatosis with urinary monitoring for MMPs". N. Engl. J. Med. 354 (24): 2621–2. doi:10.1056/NEJMc053410. PMID 16775248. 
  27. ^ Errami M, Galindo CL, Tassa AT, Dimaio JM, Hill JA, Garner HR (2007). "Doxycycline attenuates isoproterenol- and transverse aortic banding- induced cardiac hypertrophy in mice". J Pharmacol Exp Ther 324 (3): 1196–203. doi:10.1124/jpet.107.133975. PMID 18089841. 
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External links


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Doxycycline — Général Nom IUPAC (4S,4aR,5S,5aR,6R,12aS) 4 (dimethylamino) 3,5,10,12,12a pentahydroxy 6 methyl 1,11 dioxo 1,4,4a,5,5a,6,11,12a octahydrotetracene 2 carboxamide …   Wikipédia en Français

  • doxycycline — ● doxycycline nom féminin Antibiotique semi synthétique de la famille des tétracyclines, à très large spectre, actif sur les mycoplasmes et les chlamydiae. doxycycline [dɔksisiklin] n. f. ÉTYM. V. 1960; probablt de d(iméthyl ), oxy , et cycline.… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • doxycycline — noun an antibiotic derived from tetracycline that is effective against many infections Vibramycin is the trade name of doxycycline • Syn: ↑Vibramycin • Hypernyms: ↑antibiotic, ↑antibiotic drug …   Useful english dictionary

  • doxycycline — noun Etymology: deoxy + tetracycline Date: 1966 a broad spectrum tetracycline antibiotic C22H24N2O8 with potent antibacterial activity that is often taken by travelers to prevent diarrhea …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • Doxycycline — …   Википедия

  • doxycycline — /dok see suy kleen, klin/, n. Pharm. a synthetic analog of a broad spectrum antibiotic tetracycline drug, C22H24N2O8, used against a wide range of susceptible Gram positive and Gram negative organisms. [contr. of deoxytetracycline] * * * …   Universalium

  • doxycycline — noun A broad spectrum antibiotic, C22H24N2O8, derived from tetracycline …   Wiktionary

  • doxycycline — A broad spectrum antibiotic. * * * doxy·cy·cline .däk sə sī .klēn n a broad spectrum tetracycline antibiotic C22H24N2O8 with potent antibacterial activity that is often taken by travelers as a prophylactic against diarrhea see VIBRAMYCIN * * * n …   Medical dictionary

  • doxycycline — [ˌdɒksɪ sʌɪkli:n, lɪn] noun Medicine a broad spectrum antibiotic of the tetracycline group, which has a long half life in the body. Origin 1960s: from d(e)oxy + tetracycline …   English new terms dictionary

  • doxycycline — dox·y·cy·cline …   English syllables


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