- Song Zheyuan
Infobox Military Person
name= Song Zheyuan
October 30, 1885- April 5, 1940
Sòng Zhéyuán (宋哲元) (
October 30, 1885- April 5, 1940) was a Chinese generalduring the Chinese Civil Warand Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945).
Born in the Zhaohong Village, northwest of downtown area of
Leling County, ShandongProvince, China, he was educated under his uncle from his mother's side, a teacher of a traditional Confucianprivate school in Yanshan County. At the age of 20 (1904) he began studying in the military institute founded by Lu Jianzhangat Beijingand had since become Lu's favorite. In 1912 the troops of Lu and Feng Yuxiang, now subordinates of Yuan Shikai, were regrouped and Feng had then been Song's superior.
In 1917, a year after being appointed the head of 1st
battalionof Feng's 2nd regiment, his battalion spearheaded the removal of Zhang Xun from his imperial restoration in 1917. As Feng Yuxiang participated in the Northern Expedition, Sòng assumed in November 1927 the Chairmanship of Shaanxiprovince and in April of the same year the head of 4th division under the II Corpsof the National Revolutionary Army.
Switching sides to the
Kuomintangafter the abortive coup d'etatin 1930 of Feng against Chiang Kai-shek, his troops were designated as the 29th Army and garrisoned in southern Shanxiprovince where he was responsible for the frontiers of the Reheand Chahar provinces against the Japanese in Manchukuo.
Song was the chairman of Chahar province when Japan invaded the provinces in the end of year 1932. Though poorly equipped compared to the better armed Japanese, Song led the 29th army to resist the aggression in a war known as the
Defense of the Great Wall(熱河長城之戰). Japanese troops then entered the suburbs of Beijingand Tianjinafter the predictable victory. Song was relieved from his post but reinstalled as commander after the Ho-Umezu agreement.
Battle of Lugou Bridge, his 29th Army bore the brunt of the Japanese Guandong Army. His troops were halved after the defeat and chased by the Japanese along the Jinpu Railwayinto ShandongProvince during the Beiping–Hankou Railway Operation. However Han Fuqu, chairman of the province and suspected for his clandestine Japanese liaision, forbade Song to retreat across the Huang Heresulting in the 29th Army being shattered at Shijiazhuangin December 1937 and January 1938. Remaining forces suffered various losses against the Imperial Japanese Armyand were delegated to guerrilla combat after retreating into the mountainous regions at the borders of Henanand Shanxiprovince in February 1938.
He soon suffered various illnesses and died at the age of 56 in
MianyangCounty, Sichuanprovince after several unsuccessful medical treatments in Guilin, Chongqing, and Chengdu.
History of the Republic of China
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