- Ilya Repin
Ilya Yefimovich Repin ( _ru. Илья́ Ефи́мович Ре́пин, _uk. Ілля Юхимович Рєпін, (OldStyleDate|5 August|1844|24 July,
Chuhuiv, Russian Empire(now in Ukraine) – September 29 1930, Kuokkala, Finland) was a leading Russian [ [http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9063225/Ilya-Yefimovich-Repin Ilya Yefimovich Repin - Britannica Online Encyclopedia ] ] painter and sculptor of the Peredvizhnikiartistic school. An important part of his work is dedicated to his native country, Ukraine. [V Marcadé - Art d'Ukraine , edition l'Age de l'Homme, 1990 Lausanne Switzerland , p151 - 163] His realistic works often expressed great psychological depth and exposed the tensions within the existing social order. Beginning in the late 1920s, detailed works on him were published in the USSR, where a Repin cult developed about a decade later, and where he was held up as a model "progressive" and "realist" to be imitated by "Socialist Realist" artists in the Soviet Union.
Life and work
Repin was born in the town of Chuguev near Kharkov in the heart of the historical region called
Sloboda Ukraine. His parents were Russian military settlers. In 1866, after apprenticeship with a local icon painter named Bunakov and preliminary study of portrait painting, he went to Saint Petersburgand was shortly admitted to the Imperial Academy of Artsas a student. From 1873 to 1876 on the Academy's allowance, Repin sojourned in Italyand lived in Paris, where he was exposed to French Impressionist painting, which had a lasting effect upon his use of light and colour. Nevertheless, his style was to remain closer to that of the old European masters, especially Rembrandt, and he never became an impressionist himself. Throughout his career, he was drawn to the common people from whom he himself traced his origins, and he frequently painted country folk, both Ukrainian and Russian, though in later years he also painted members of the Imperial Russian elite, the intelligentsia, and the aristocracy, including Tsar Nicholas II.
In 1878, Repin joined the free-thinking "Association of Peredvizhniki Artists", generally called "the Wanderers" or "The Itinerants" in English, who, at about the time of Repin's arrival in the capital, rebelled against the academic formalism of the official Academy. His fame was established by his painting of the "Volga Barge Haulers", a work which portrayed the hard lot of these poor folk but which was not without hope for the youth of Russia. From 1882 he lived in Saint Petersburg but did visit his Ukrainian homeland and on occasion made tours abroad.
Historical and contemporary subjects
Beginning shortly before the assassination of Tsar Alexander II in 1881, he painted a series of pictures dealing with the theme of the Russian revolutionary movement: "Refusal to Confess", "Arrest of a Propagandist", "The Meeting", and "They did not Expect Him", the last of which is undoubtedly his masterpiece on the subject, mixing contrasting psychological moods and Russian and Ukrainian national motifs. His large-scale "Religious Procession in the Province of
Kursk" is sometimes considered an archetype of the "Russian national style" displaying various social classes and the tensions among them set within the context of a traditional religious practice and united by a slow but relentless forward movement.
In 1885, Repin completed one of his most psychologically intense paintings, "
Ivan the Terribleand his Son." This canvas displayed a horrified Ivan embracing his dying son, whom he had just struck and mortally wounded in an uncontrolled fit of rage. The visage of terrified Ivan is in marked contrast with that of his calm, almost Christlike son.
One of Repin's most complex paintings, "Reply of the Zaporozhian Cossacks to Sultan Mehmed IV of the Ottoman Empire" occupied many years of his life. He conceived this painting as a study in laughter, but also believed that it involved the ideals of liberty, equality, and fraternity; in short, Cossack republicanism. Begun in the late 1870s, it was only completed in 1891, and, ironically, was immediately purchased by the Tsar. The Tsar paid 35,000 rubles for the painting, an enormous amount for that time.
During his maturity, Repin painted many of his most celebrated compatriots, including the novelist
Leo Tolstoy, the scientist Dmitri Mendeleev, the imperial official Pobedonostsev, the composer Mussorgsky, the philanthropist Pavel Tretyakov, and the Ukrainian poet and painter, Taras Shevchenko.
In 1903, he was commissioned by the Russian government to paint his most grandiose design, a 400x877 cm canvas representing a ceremonial session of the
State Council of Imperial Russia.
Repin himself designed his home Penaty (literally, "the
Penates") or the Roman "Household Gods", located just to the north of Saint Petersburg in Kuokkala, Grand Duchy of Finland. After the 1917 October Revolution, Finlanddeclared independence. He was invited by various Soviet institutions to come back to his homeland but refused the invitation giving the excuse that he was too old to make the journey. During this period, Repin devoted much time to painting religious subjects, though his treatment of these was usually innovative and not traditional. With the exception of a portrait of Provisional Government head, Alexander Kerensky, he never painted anything substantial on the subject of the 1917 revolutions or the Soviet experiment that followed. His last painting, a joyous and exuberant canvas called "The Hopak", was on a Ukrainian Cossack theme. In 1930, he died in Kuokkala, Finland. After the Continuation WarKuokkala was ceded to the Soviet Union and was renamed Repino ( Leningrad Oblast). The Penates are part of the World Heritage Site"Saint Petersburg and Related Groups of Monuments". [ [http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/540/multiple=1&unique_number=635 Historic Centre of Saint Petersburg and Related Groups of Monuments - UNESCO World Heritage Centre ] at whc.unesco.org] In 1940, Penaty was opened for the public as a house museum. Alexander Glazunov's "Oriental Rhapsody", Op. 29 (1889) is dedicated to Ilya Repin.
* [http://smallbay.ru/repin.html Илья Репин. Картины и биография]
* [http://www.ilyarepin.org.ru/ Репин Илья Ефимович]
* [http://repin.chuguev.net/Zdravnevo.htm Шишанов В.А. К истории коллекции работ Репина в Витебском областном краеведческом музее]
* [http://repin.chuguev.net/Zdravnevo.htm Шишанов В.А.РЕПИН И БЕЛАРУСЬ]
* [http://repin.chuguev.net Художественно-мемориальный музей И.Е. Репина (г.Чугуев)]
* [http://oiru.archeologia.ru/phorum/read.php?15,5626,5626 Валерий Шишанов ЗДРАВНЁВО: ПОСЛЕ ОКТЯБРЯ 1917]
* [http://vash2008.mylivepage.ru/file/1774/6064_%D0%A0%D0%B5%D0%BF%D0%B8%D0%BD_%D0%B8_%D0%97%D0%B4%D1%80%D0%B0%D0%B2%D0%BD%D1%91%D0%B2%D0%BE._%D0%91%D0%B8%D0%B1%D0%BB%D0%B8%D0%BE%D0%B3%D1%80%D0%B0%D1%84%D0%B8%D1%87%D0%B5%D1%81%D0%BA%D0%B8%D0%B9_%D1%83%D0%BA%D0%B0%D0%B7%D0%B0%D1%82%D0%B5%D0%BB%D1%8C.doc Репин и Здравнёво. Библиографический указатель]
* [http://sttp.ru/master33.html Бурлаки на Волге (1870-1873)]
* Repeats the standard Soviet interpretation of Repin's life and work.
* Standard Soviet treatment, but well illustrated.
* Critical non-Soviet treatment with much fresh information, but geared primarily toward academics.
* [http://www.abcgallery.com/R/repin/repin.html Ilya Repin at Olga's Gallery]
* [http://www.russianartgallery.org/famous/repin.htm Repin's paintings at The Russian Art Gallery]
* [http://www.russianmuseums.info/M267 Penaty, currently a museum]
* [http://arthistory.heindorffhus.dk/frame-Repin.htm Ilya Yefimovich Repin on postage stamps]
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Ilya Repin — Ilya Repine Autoportrait (1878). Ilya Iefimovitch Repine (en russe : Илья Ефимович Репин, en ukrainien : Ілля Юхимович Рєпін), né à Tchougouïev, près de Kharkov, aujourd hui en Ukraine … Wikipédia en Français
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Repin, Ilya Yefimovich — ▪ Russian painter born August 5 [July 24, Old Style], 1844, Chuguyev, Russia died September 29, 1930, Kuokkala, Finland Russian painter of historical subjects known for the power and drama of his works. Born to a poor family near… … Universalium
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Repin, Ilya (Yefimovich) — born Aug. 5, 1844, Chuguyev, Russia died Sept. 29, 1930, Kuokkala, Fin. Russian painter. After training with a provincial icon painter and at the St. Petersburg Academy of Fine Arts, he visited France and Italy on an academy scholarship. On his… … Universalium