Dhahran


Dhahran
This article is about Dhahran, the city. For the Saudi Aramco residential compound, see Dhahran Aramco Camp.
Dhahran
الظهران
Dhahranالظهران is located in Saudi Arabia
Dhahran
الظهران
Location in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Coordinates: 26°16′N 50°09′E / 26.267°N 50.15°E / 26.267; 50.15Coordinates: 26°16′N 50°09′E / 26.267°N 50.15°E / 26.267; 50.15
Country  Saudi Arabia
Province Eastern Province
Government
 – Mayor Bandar Al-Subayi
Area
 – City 100 km2 (38.6 sq mi)
 – Land 100 km2 (38.6 sq mi)
 – Water 0 km2 (0 sq mi)
Population (2004)
 – City 11,300
 – Metro 97,446

Dhahran (Arabic الظهران aẓ-Ẓahrān) is a city located in Saudi Arabia's Eastern Province, and is a major administrative center for the Saudi oil industry. Large oil reserves were first identified in the Dhahran area in 1931, and in 1935 Standard Oil of California (now Chevron Corporation) drilled the first commercially viable oil well. Standard Oil later established a subsidiary in Saudi Arabia called the Arabian American Oil Company (ARAMCO), now fully owned by the Saudi government as Saudi Aramco.

Contents

Geography

Dhahran is a short distance west of downtown Khobar. It is about 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) south of Dammam. Both are older Saudi port cities on coast of the Persian Gulf. Looking farther afield, Dhahran is northeast of Abqaiq, and southeast of Qatif and, further north, Ras Tanura, a major oil port. The island of Kingdom of Bahrain is also within easy driving distance to the east (about 20 miles (32 km)), across the King Fahd Causeway, from Khobar.

Geology

The patch of desert on which the city is built is hilly and rocky, and most of the earliest productive oil wells in Saudi Arabia were drilled in the area, such as Dammam Well #7: "Prosperity Well," the first commercially viable oil well in Saudi Arabia in the 1930s. This well is still in production 70 years later. This later led to the selection of two barren nearby hills as the place for Aramco to construct its headquarters.[1]

The Dhahran-Dammam area is one of two regions, the other being Jeddah, that were selected as potential sites to build the first Saudi nuclear reactor.[2]

Climate

Dhahran’s climate is characterized by extremely hot, humid summers, and cool winters. Temperatures can rise to more than 50 °C (120 °F) in the summer, coupled with extreme humidity (85-100 per cent), given the city’s proximity to the Persian Gulf. In winter, the temperature rarely falls below 2 °C (35.6 °F) or 3 °C (37.4 °F), being the lowest ever recorded -0.5 °C in January 1964, with rain falling mostly between the months of November and May. The Shamal winds usually blow across the city in the early months of the summer, bringing dust storms that can reduce visibility to a few metres. These winds can last for up to six months.

Climate data for Dhahran, Saudi Arabia (1981-2000)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 20.8
(69.4)
22.3
(72.1)
25.6
(78.1)
32.4
(90.3)
38.7
(101.7)
41.7
(107.1)
43.3
(109.9)
42.4
(108.3)
40.3
(104.5)
35.6
(96.1)
28.9
(84.0)
23.2
(73.8)
32.93
(91.28)
Daily mean °C (°F) 15.5
(59.9)
16.7
(62.1)
20.6
(69.1)
25.0
(77.0)
30.6
(87.1)
33.4
(92.1)
35.2
(95.4)
34.4
(93.9)
31.9
(89.4)
27.9
(82.2)
22.3
(72.1)
17.0
(62.6)
25.88
(78.58)
Average low °C (°F) 10.2
(50.4)
11.5
(52.7)
14.7
(58.5)
19.7
(67.5)
24.6
(76.3)
27.5
(81.5)
28.9
(84.0)
28.7
(83.7)
25.6
(78.1)
22.0
(71.6)
17.1
(62.8)
12.4
(54.3)
20.24
(68.44)
Precipitation mm (inches) 17.7
(0.697)
15.2
(0.598)
35.3
(1.39)
3.5
(0.138)
1.2
(0.047)
0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
0.3
(0.012)
18.6
(0.732)
15.7
(0.618)
107.5
(4.232)
Avg. precipitation days 11.0 9.7 16.2 7.6 2.2 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.6 4.9 10.2 62.7
Source: Hong Kong Observatory,[1]

History

Dhahran was settled after 1938, the year oil was discovered in the vicinity.[2]

During WW II on 19 October 1940 Dhahran was struck by Italian Royal Air Force (Regia Aeronautica) as a part of Bombing of Bahrain, causing little damage. In 1950 Dhahran had a population of about 7,000 people.[3] During the Gulf War, the city was the scene of the largest loss of life among coalition forces. On February 25, 1991, an Iraqi missile hit a U.S. Army barracks in the city, killing 28 American reservists from Pennsylvania.

Economy

IKEA store in Dhahran

Dhahran has the headquarters of Saudi Aramco.[4] The company is the largest oil company in the world with the largest oil reserves in the world [3], and it produces about 10 million barrels of oil per day. Most of the oil is exported, since local Saudi needs require about 12 percent of the total production. (See: Saudi Aramco)[citation needed]

Seventy-seven years on, Dhahran is still Saudi Aramco's worldwide headquarters and the center of the company's finance, exploration, engineering, drilling services, medical services, materials supply and other company organisations.[citation needed]

Demographics

The population of Dhahran is mainly Saudi, but also includes many expatriates from Asian countries, such as Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Nepal, Pakistan and the Philippines, as well as countries such as the United States, Canada, European countries, South Africa, Australia and New Zealand. There are also many non-Saudi Arab nationals living in Dhahran, such as Egyptians, Jordanians, Lebanese, Palestinians, Sudanese, and Syrians. According to a 2004 census the total population of the Dhahran municipality is 97,446.

Many companies that employ relatively large numbers of expatriates have built fenced-in compounds where only expatriates live, however the Saudi Aramco Residential Camp in Dhahran is not one of these. While only employees of Saudi Aramco live on the camp, their nationalities reflect those of the company as a whole. As of 2008, the Saudi Aramco workforce is 85% Saudi, with only 15% expatriates. There are also several neighborhoods, or suburbs just outside the main Saudi Aramco Camp, such as Doha Camp (حي الدوحه) and Dana Camp (حي الدانة), where Saudi Aramco gives home loans to Saudi employees to build their own homes.

Government, law, and security

Dhahran is part of the Eastern Province (Ash-Sharqīyah Province), the largest province in Saudi Arabia. The province is governed by Prince Mohammed bin Fahad bin Abdul Aziz al-Saud. Just like the rest of the country, the law of Shari’a, or Islamic law is adhered to. Following the Saudi Arabian municipal elections in 2005, members of the municipal councils were elected.

Dhahran is guarded as it is a high visibility city. The Saudi Special Emergency Forces' Eastern Province headquarters are located in Dhahran near the Saudi Aramco residential camp. There are many security checkpoints throughout the city that have been almost permanently in place since the Riyadh Compound Bombings.

Transport

Road to Dhahran's main gate

As the centre of the nation's oil industry, Dhahran enjoys good transport resources both nationally and internationally, especially after the extensive modernisation of the nations highway infrastructure in the 70's and 80's.

Road

The extensive highway network in the Dhahran, Khobar, Dammam area serves the strategically important national oil industry, led by 'Saudi Aramco', as well as the local population. However, car ownership in the Kingdom has soared which often leaves non-highway roads congested at peak times. An ongoing traffic smoothing project is underway, installing underpasses at major intersections which will help alleviate the congestion.

Airport

Formerly one of Saudi Arabia's three major international airports, Dhahran Airport (DHA), which opened in 1946 as Dhahran Airfield, is now a Royal Saudi Air Force air-base. Today, King Fahad International Airport (DMM), which replaced Dhahran International for commercial and cargo, serves the entire metropolitan area of Dhahran, Dammam, and Khobar, the distance to the airport terminal is about 40 km (25 Miles) from Dhahran. Saudi Aramco Aviation has its own buildings and terminal where all Saudi Aramco flights originate.

Railway

Although rail service in Saudi Arabia plays a much more minor role today than 50 years ago, an industrial railroad with a station adjacent to Dhahran still exists, linking it to the capital Riyadh.

Public Transport

Public transport buses are only available in a very limited manner (when off of a Saudi Aramco residential camp), with Taxi services, at reasonable prices and widely available, proving more popular. Large companies such as Saudi Aramco run their own bus transport operations, connecting residential and industrial camps of the company with Dhahran, Dammam and Khobar. Many residential compounds also operate their own bus services which are typically used for transport to places of work or shopping trips by residents.

Communications and Media

Mobile telephone communications are provided mainly by STC, Mobily and Zain, which have launched 3G services to their customers.

STC also provides landlines through its Al-Hatif services, as well as providing internet services through Saudi Data.

There are several Internet Service Providers such as Al-Alamiah, ArabNet, Nesma and others. Both dial-up and DSL services are available.

There are several popular radio stations, such as Radio Sawa, Studio One 91.4 FM, broadcast from Aramco, Bahrain Radio 96.5 FM, and AFRTS.

Satellite television is predominant in the market, with Orbit Showtime being the most popular, as well as the widespread Arabsat and Nilesat satellite channel operators.

Education

Schools in Dhahran come under two sections: public (government-run) and private. Public schools (K-12), open to almost everyone, strictly adhere to teaching the curriculum exactly as provided by the Ministry of Education. Public schools also come under two sections: Aramco Built and government built. The Aramco built schools are usually better in design and last longer due to them being built to higher standards. The Dhahran School and the Dhahran Hills School are the two main schools that are only for the children of employees.They are international schools and are fully accredited. Private schools also teach the ministry’s curriculum, but they have more flexibility often enhancing certain aspects, such as exceeding the ministry’s curriculum when teaching the English language and computer applications. King Fahad University Schools, Dhahran Ahliyyah Schools and Saad National Schools are examples of top private schools in Dhahran.

There are several schools that teach the curriculum of their native countries, such as the International Indian School, Dhahran British Grammar School, Dhahran Elementary Middle School, Dhahran High School, and Khobar French School.

Dhahran is also home to the world renowned King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (KFUPM), and the Aramco Training Center (ATC), where many new employees of Saudi Aramco learn useful skills, such as English, Business Mathematics, Physics, and computer skills. University of Dammam and Prince Mohammad bin Fahd University are also located near the city.

Little League World Series

Dhahran, specifically a team drawn from the Saudi Aramco Residential Camp, represented the Middle East-Africa, or "MEA" region (formerly the Trans-Atlantic region), 12 years straight in the running, as of 2011. The city also had 11 teams before that represent them from the first being in 1983 through 1998. Though Dhahran has produced many teams to the Little League World Series, no team has ever won the World Series championship game, nor the international championship game. Aaron Durley is a former Little League baseball player for the team.

Dhahran in popular culture

  • In 1998, after the kidnapping and murder of Matthew Shepard, a Wyoming college student, the major American news networks would occasionally mention that the student's parents lived in Dhahran and worked for Aramco.
  • In Abdelrahman Munif's Cities of Salt novels, the oil-company outpost of Harran is widely believed to be Dhahran's fictional analogue.

Facilities

Dhahran's facilities consist of two pools, two tennis courts, four soccer fields, two tracks, a gym, a hairdresser and barber shop, and one flower shop. Instead of using the term "Grocery Store" or "Supermarket", in Dhahran everyone uses the military term "Commissary" which is open 24/7. Dhahran has one commissary and one mini mart. Dhahran's restaurants are very varied, there is the Chuckwagon (or Hobby Farm) which serves mainly barbecue. The Tandoori serves Pakistani and Italian cuisine, it is only a one minute walk from the Cafe Najar which serves Mediterranean and Middle Eastern food (it is also a very nice place to stop for dessert after eating at Tandoori). There is a Snackbar by each pool. The Golf Course serves basically everything and they have a very nice bakery if you're just looking for a snack. Then there is the Dining Hall, it is open almost 24/7 and has every cuisine.

There are 5 pools and more than 15 soccer fields, there are 2 huge super markets and one mini mart, this is only in aramco there a whole lot more in dahran area

References

  1. ^ "Climatological Information for Dhahran, Saudi Arabia". Hong Kong Observatory. http://www.weather.gov.hk/wxinfo/climat/world/eng/asia/westasia/dhahran_e.htm. 
  2. ^ Cohen, Saul B. The Columbia Gazeteer of the World (New York: Columbia University Press, 1998) p. 828
  3. ^ Columbia-Lippincott Gazeteer (New York: Columbia University Press, 1952) p. 510
  4. ^ "Contact Us." Saudi Aramco. Retrieved on 5 November 2009.

External links


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