- Socialist People's Republic of Albania
Infobox Former Country
native_name = "Republika Popullore Socialiste e Shqipërisë"
conventional_long_name = Socialist People's Republic of Albania
common_name = Albania
continent = Europe
region = Balkans
country = Albania
era = Cold War
year_start = 1946
event_end = Multi-party elections
year_end = 1992
date_end = March 22
event_pre = Provisional government
date_pre = November 28, 1944
p1 = Albania under Nazi Germany
flag_p1 = Flag of German occupied Albania.svg
s1 = Albania
flag_s1 = Flag of Albania.svg
capital = Tirana
common_languages = Albanian
religion = State atheism
currency = Albanian lek
government_type = Socialist republic
title_leader = First Secretary¹
leader1 = Enver Hoxha
year_leader1 = 1944-1985
leader2 = Ramiz Alia
year_leader2 = 1985-1992
legislature = People's Assembly
footnotes = ¹ First Secretary of the
Albanian Party of Labour
Socialist People's Republic of Albania (Albanian "Republika Popullore Socialiste e Shqipërisë") was the official name of
Albaniaduring the communist rule between 1976 and 1992. The first name of the state was the People's Republic of Albania (Albanian "Republika Popullore e Shqipërisë") which was used from 1946 to 1976. After the adoption of a new constitution in 1976, the state's name was changed to the People's Socialist Republic.
In November 1944 Albania was liberated from the Italian invasion, and a provisional government led by communists ruled the country until the abolishment of the monarchy and the establishment of a
people's republic. Albania remained closely related with the Soviet Union, Hungary, Bulgaria, Romania, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Yugoslavia, and Finland
From 1944 Albania became a
Communistcountry, with a Stalinist[Albania: From Anarchy to a Balkan IdentityISBN 1850652791,by Miranda Vickers & James Pettifer, 1999,page 222,"the French Communist Party, then ultra-Stalinist in orientation. He [Hoxha] may have owed some aspects of his political thought and general psychology to that"] regime classified as one of the most repressive. [Albania: From Anarchy to a Balkan IdentityISBN 1850652791,by Miranda Vickers & James Pettifer, 1999,,page 138] Because of its association with the years of communism, Albanians have developed an aversion to collective life in any form. A one-party statepolitical system was adopted, and Enver Hoxhawas appointed 1st General Secretary of the Albanian Communist Party, Head of the State and Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces.
1960s and 1970s, Supression of Religion
Stalin's death (1953), on the occasion of Sino-Soviet split(1960), Enver Hoxha sided with China, his last political supporter.
In 1967 Albania was declared an atheist state and all religions were outlawed.
Upon China's establishing diplomatic relations with
USin 1978, Hoxha denounced even the "new friendship" and decided to pursue a policy of self-reliance. The result was an extreme isolation [Albania: From Anarchy to a Balkan IdentityISBN 1850652791,by Miranda Vickers & James Pettifer, 1999,page 2,"Enver Hoxha's regime was haunted by fears of external intervention and internal subversion. Albania thus became a fortress state"]
1978 to 1992: Further isolation
From 1978 to 1992, Albania was an extremely isolated country following
anti-revisionistviews. Enver Hoxha, as well as his successor Ramiz Alia, emphasized the necessity to remain loyal to Marxist-Leninist ideals and conducted his rule in much of a Stalinistway. Albania became an autarktic in its economy, despite a few cultural ties with European countries such as France. It is noted that the Albanian population had steadily increased during this period and the communist government could hardly supply the people with food.
Following bureaucratic struggles, Alia began to moderate his policies, and the SPR of Albania came to an end in 1992 when the single-party constitution was abrogated in order to introduce democratic, political, and economic reforms which led to the current
Republic of Albania.
Huge funds were spent between
1974and 1986to build approximately 700,000 concrete bunkers (pill-boxes) to defend the country against a hypothetic multi-front attack.
Upon Hoxha’s death in 1985,
Ramiz Aliasucceeded him as State and communist party leader. Alia was Hoxha’s protégé, but was less repressive than the former leader and tolerated minor insignificant reforms. The process was accelerated due to following changes in other communist countries of Central and Eastern Europe.
List of leaders
General Secretaries of the
Party of Labour of Albania:
Enver Hoxha( 1944- 1985)
Ramiz Alia( 1985- 1992)
Chairmen of the Presidium of the People's Assembly:
Omer Nishani( 1946- 1953)
Haxhi Lleshi( 1953- 1982)
Ramiz Alia( 1982- 1992)
Mehmet Shehu( 1954- 1981)
Adil Çarçani( 1982- 1992)
History of Communist Albania
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Albania, Socialist People’s Republic Of — The 1944 liberation of Albania from the Third Reich led to the inauguration of a communist government led by the hugely influential leader Enver Hoxha. Over the next half century the Albanian regime was fairly successful in pursuing an… … Historical dictionary of Marxism
People's Socialist Republic of Albania — Republika Popullore Socialiste e Shqipërisë Satellite state of the Soviet Union (Until 1961) … Wikipedia
People's Republic — (rarely Popular Republic) is a title that is often used by Marxist Leninist governments to describe their state. The motivation for using this term lies in the claim that Marxist Leninists govern in accordance with the interests of the vast… … Wikipedia
People's Republic of Poland — Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa Satellite state of the Soviet Union ← … Wikipedia
People's Republic of Bulgaria — Народна република България Narodna republika Balgariya Satellite state of the Soviet Union ← … Wikipedia
People's Republic of Hungary — Not to be confused with Hungarian Soviet Republic. People s Republic of Hungary Magyar Népköztársaság Satellite state of the Soviet Union … Wikipedia
Socialist People's Party (Denmark) — Socialist People s Party Socialistisk Folkeparti Leader Villy Søvndal Founded … Wikipedia
People's Republic of Benin — République populaire du Bénin ← … Wikipedia
People's Republic of the Congo — République Populaire du Congo ← … Wikipedia
People's Republic of Mozambique — República Popular de Moçambique ← … Wikipedia