Socialist People's Republic of Albania


Socialist People's Republic of Albania

Infobox Former Country
native_name = "Republika Popullore Socialiste e Shqipërisë"
conventional_long_name = Socialist People's Republic of Albania
common_name = Albania
continent = Europe
region = Balkans
country = Albania
era = Cold War
event_start =
year_start = 1946
date_start =
event_end = Multi-party elections
year_end = 1992
date_end = March 22
event_pre = Provisional government
date_pre = November 28, 1944
p1 = Albania under Nazi Germany
flag_p1 = Flag of German occupied Albania.svg
s1 = Albania
flag_s1 = Flag of Albania.svg







image_map_caption =
capital = Tirana
common_languages = Albanian
religion = State atheism
currency = Albanian lek
government_type = Socialist republic
title_leader = First Secretary¹
leader1 = Enver Hoxha
year_leader1 = 1944-1985
leader2 = Ramiz Alia
year_leader2 = 1985-1992
legislature = People's Assembly
footnotes = ¹ First Secretary of the Albanian Party of Labour

Socialist People's Republic of Albania (Albanian "Republika Popullore Socialiste e Shqipërisë") was the official name of Albania during the communist rule between 1976 and 1992. The first name of the state was the People's Republic of Albania (Albanian "Republika Popullore e Shqipërisë") which was used from 1946 to 1976. After the adoption of a new constitution in 1976, the state's name was changed to the People's Socialist Republic.

Origins

In November 1944 Albania was liberated from the Italian invasion, and a provisional government led by communists ruled the country until the abolishment of the monarchy and the establishment of a people's republic. Albania remained closely related with the Soviet Union, Hungary, Bulgaria, Romania, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Yugoslavia, and Finland

From 1944 Albania became a Communist country, with a Stalinist [Albania: From Anarchy to a Balkan IdentityISBN 1850652791,by Miranda Vickers & James Pettifer, 1999,page 222,"the French Communist Party, then ultra-Stalinist in orientation. He [Hoxha] may have owed some aspects of his political thought and general psychology to that"] regime classified as one of the most repressive. [Albania: From Anarchy to a Balkan IdentityISBN 1850652791,by Miranda Vickers & James Pettifer, 1999,,page 138] Because of its association with the years of communism, Albanians have developed an aversion to collective life in any form. A one-party state political system was adopted, and Enver Hoxha was appointed 1st General Secretary of the Albanian Communist Party, Head of the State and Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces.

1960s and 1970s, Supression of Religion

Howevever, with Stalin's death (1953), on the occasion of Sino-Soviet split (1960), Enver Hoxha sided with China, his last political supporter.

In 1967 Albania was declared an atheist state and all religions were outlawed.

Upon China's establishing diplomatic relations with US in 1978, Hoxha denounced even the "new friendship" and decided to pursue a policy of self-reliance. The result was an extreme isolation [Albania: From Anarchy to a Balkan IdentityISBN 1850652791,by Miranda Vickers & James Pettifer, 1999,page 2,"Enver Hoxha's regime was haunted by fears of external intervention and internal subversion. Albania thus became a fortress state"]

1978 to 1992: Further isolation

From 1978 to 1992, Albania was an extremely isolated country following anti-revisionist views. Enver Hoxha, as well as his successor Ramiz Alia, emphasized the necessity to remain loyal to Marxist-Leninist ideals and conducted his rule in much of a Stalinist way. Albania became an autarktic in its economy, despite a few cultural ties with European countries such as France. It is noted that the Albanian population had steadily increased during this period and the communist government could hardly supply the people with food.

Following bureaucratic struggles, Alia began to moderate his policies, and the SPR of Albania came to an end in 1992 when the single-party constitution was abrogated in order to introduce democratic, political, and economic reforms which led to the current Republic of Albania.

Huge funds were spent between 1974 and 1986 to build approximately 700,000 concrete bunkers (pill-boxes) to defend the country against a hypothetic multi-front attack.

Upon Hoxha’s death in 1985, Ramiz Alia succeeded him as State and communist party leader. Alia was Hoxha’s protégé, but was less repressive than the former leader and tolerated minor insignificant reforms. The process was accelerated due to following changes in other communist countries of Central and Eastern Europe.

List of leaders

General Secretaries of the Party of Labour of Albania:
* Enver Hoxha (1944-1985)
* Ramiz Alia (1985-1992)

Chairmen of the Presidium of the People's Assembly:
* Omer Nishani (1946-1953)
* Haxhi Lleshi (1953-1982)
* Ramiz Alia (1982-1992)

Prime Ministers:
* Mehmet Shehu (1954-1981)
* Adil Çarçani (1982-1992)

References

See also

*Albania
*Communism
*History of Communist Albania
*Enver Hoxha
*Ramiz Alia


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