Ogonek


Ogonek
̨

Ogonek
Diacritics
accent
acute( ´ )
double acute( ˝ )
grave( ` )
double grave(  ̏ )
breve( ˘ )
inverted breve(  ̑ )
caron / háček( ˇ )
cedilla / cédille( ¸ )
circumflex / vokáň( ˆ )
dot( · )
hook / dấu hỏi(  ̉ )
horn / dấu móc(  ̛ )
macron( ¯ )
ogonek / nosinė( ˛ )
ring / kroužek( ˚, ˳ )
rough breathing / dasia( )
smooth breathing / psili( ᾿ )
diaeresis (diaeresis/umlaut)( ¨ )
Marks sometimes used as diacritics
apostrophe( )
bar( | )
colon( : )
comma( , )
hyphen( ˗ )
tilde( ~ )
titlo(  ҃ )
Diacritical marks in other scripts
Arabic diacritics
Gurmukhi diacritics
Hebrew diacritics
Indic diacritics
anusvara( )
chandrabindu( )
nukta( )
virama( )
IPA diacritics
Japanese diacritics
dakuten( )
handakuten( )
Khmer diacritics
Syriac diacritics
Thai diacritics
Related
Punctuation marks

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Ą ą
Ą̊ ą̊
Ę ę
Į į
Ǫ ǫ
Ǭ ǭ
Ų ų

The ogonek (Polish [ɔˈɡɔnɛk], "little tail", the diminutive of ogon; Lithuanian nosinė) is a diacritic hook placed under the lower right corner of a vowel in the Latin alphabet used in several European and Native American languages.

Ogonek

Contents

Use

Example in Polish:

Wół go pyta: „Panie chrząszczu,
Po co pan tak brzęczy w gąszczu?“
Jan Brzechwa, Chrząszcz

Example in Cayuga:

Ęyǫgwędę́hte⁷ — we will become poor

Example in Lithuanian:

Lydėdami gęstančią žarą vėlai
Pakilo į dangų margi sakalai
Vincas Mykolaitis-Putinas, Margi sakalai

Example in Elfdalian:

"Ja, eð war įe plåg að gęslkallum, dar eð war slaik uondlostjyner i gęslun."
— Vikar Margit Andersdotter, I fäbodlivet i gamla tider.

Values

Nasalization

The use of the ogonek to indicate nasality is common in the transcription of the indigenous languages of the Americas. This usage originated in the orthographies created by Christian missionaries to transcribe these languages. Later, the practice was continued by Americanist anthropologists and linguists who still follow this convention in phonetic transcription to the present day (see Americanist phonetic notation).

The ogonek is also used in academic transliteration of Old Church Slavonic. In Polish, Old Church Slavonic, Navajo, Western Apache, Chiricahua, and Dalecarlian it indicates that the vowel is nasalized. Even if ę is nasalized e in Polish, ą is nasalized o not a (this is so because of the vowel change — "ą" was a long nasal "a", which turned into short nasal "o", when the vowel quantity distinction disappeared).

Length

In Lithuanian, it formerly indicated nasalization but is no longer distinctive and indicates that a vowel is long. The Lithuanian word for "ogonek" is nosinė, which literally means "nasal".

Openness

In Rheinische Dokumenta, it marks vowels which are more open than those denoted by their base letters Ää, Oo, Öö. Here it can be combined with umlaut marks in two cases.

Similar diacritics

E caudata and o caudata

The E caudata (ę), a symbol similar to an e with ogonek, evolved from a ligature of a and e in medieval scripts, in Latin and Irish palaeography. The O caudata of Old Norse[3] (letter ǫ, with ǭ/ǫ́)[4][5] is used to write the open-mid back rounded vowel, /ɔ/. Medieval Nordic manuscripts show this "hook" in both directions, in combination with several vowels.[6] Despite this distinction, the term "ogonek" is sometimes used in discussions of typesetting and encoding Norse texts, as o caudata is typographically identical to o with ogonek.

Cedilla and comma

The ogonek is functionally equivalent to the cedilla and comma diacritics. If two of these three are used within the same orthography their respective use is restricted to certain classes of letters, i.e. usually the ogonek is used with vowels whereas the cedilla is applied to consonants. In handwritten text the marks may even look the same.

Typographical notes

character Unicode HTML
Ą
ą
U+0104
U+0105
Ą
ą
Ę
ę
U+0118
U+0119
Ę
ę
Į
į
U+012E
U+012F
Į
į
Ǫ
ǫ
U+01EA
U+01EB
Ǫ
ǫ
Ų
ų
U+0172
U+0173
Ų
ų
 ̨
(combining)
U+0328 ̨
˛
(spacing)
U+02DB ˛

The ogonek should be almost the same size as a descender (in larger type sizes may be relatively quite shorter) and should not be confused with the cedilla or comma diacritic marks used in other languages.

Other encodings

E with ogonek is present in both Latin-2 and Latin-4, as CA (uppercase) and EA (lowercase). In Latin-10 it is located at DD (uppercase) and FD (lowercase).

LaTeX2e

In LaTeX2e macro \k will typeset a letter with ogonek, if it is supported by the font encoding , e.g. \k{a} will typeset ą. (The default LaTeX OT1 encoding does not support it, but the newer T1 one does. It may be enabled by saying \usepackage[T1]{fontenc} in the preamble.) The package TIPA activated by using the command "\usepackage{tipa}", offers a different way: "\textpolhook{a}" will produce ą.

References

  1. ^ Gwich’in alphabetPDF, Yukon Native Language Centre
  2. ^ "Hoocąk Waaziija Haci Language Division". Mauston, Wisconsin: Ho-Chunk Nation. http://hocak.info/. Retrieved 2011-05-15. 
  3. ^ For this traditional and correct name, see e.g. Einar Haugen (ed. and trans.), First Grammatical Treatise, 2nd edition, Longman, 1972.
  4. ^ "Non-European and historic Latin". Unicode Consortium. http://unicode.org/charts/nameslist/n_0180.html. Retrieved 2011-05-15. 
  5. ^ Unicode 4.1 and Slavic Philology Problems and Perspectives (I) by Sebastian Kempgen, University of Bamberg, Germany
  6. ^ "Medieval Unicode Font Initiative". Gandalf.aksis.uib.no. 2003-02-05. http://gandalf.aksis.uib.no/mufi/proposal/range2F-v2.html. Retrieved 2011-05-15. 

External links

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz
Letters using ogonek sign ( ◌̨ )
Ąą Ą̈ą̈ Ęę Į į Ǫǫ Ǫ̈ǫ̈ Ųų
Related

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