- Absolute horizon
general relativity, an absolute horizon is a boundary in spacetime, defined with respect to the external universe, inside of which events cannot affect an external observer. Light emitted inside the horizon can never reach the observer, and anything that passes through the horizon from the observer's side is never seen again. An absolute horizon is the boundary of a black holeby definition.
In the context of black holes, the absolute horizon is almost exclusively referred to as an
event horizon, though this is often used as a more general term for all types of horizons. The absolute horizon is just one type of horizon. For example, important distinctions must be made between absolute horizons and apparent horizons. See also the articles on ergosphere, Cauchy horizon, the Reissner-Nordström solution, photon sphere, Killing horizonand naked singularity; the notion of a horizon in general relativity is subtle, and depends on fine distinctions.
An absolute horizon is only defined in an
asymptotically flat spacetime— a spacetime which approaches flat space as one moves far away from any massive bodies. Examples of asymptotically flat spacetimes include Schwarzschild and Kerr black holes. The FRW universe — which is believed to be a good model for our universe — is generally "not" asymptotically flat. Nonetheless, we can think of an isolated object in an FRW universe as being "nearly" an isolated object in an asymptotically flat universe.
The particular feature of asymptotic flatness which is needed is a notion of "
future null infinity". This is the set of points which are approached asymptotically by null rays (light rays, for example) which can escape to infinity. This is the technical meaning of "external universe". These points are only defined in an asymptotically flat universe. An absolute horizon is defined as the boundary of a region from which null rays cannot escape to future null infinity. [cite book | title=The large scale structure of space-time | author=S. W. Hawking and G. F. R. Ellis | publisher=Cambridge University Press | year=1975] [cite book | author=Wald, Robert M. | title=General Relativity | location=Chicago | publisher=University of Chicago Press | year = 1984] [cite book | author=Thorne, Kip S.; Misner, Charles; Wheeler, John | title=Gravitation | publisher=W. H. Freeman and Company | year=1973]
Nature of the absolute horizon
The definition of an absolute horizon is sometimes referred to as "teleological", meaning that it cannot be known where the absolute horizon is without knowing the entire evolution of the universe, including the future. This is both an advantage and a disadvantage. The advantage is that this notion of a horizon is very geometrical, and does not depend on the observer, unlike
apparent horizons, for example. The disadvantage is that it requires the full history (all the way into the future) of the spacetime to be known. In the case of numerical relativity, where a spacetime is simply being evolved into the future, only a finite portion of the spacetime can be known.
*cite book | title=Black Holes and Time Warps | author=Kip Thorne | publisher=W. W. Norton | year=1994 This is a popular book, aimed at the lay reader, containing good discussion of horizons and black holes.
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Horizon (disambiguation) — Horizon is the line at which the sky and the earth s surface appear to meet.Horizon or horizons may also refer to:Business* Horizon Global, a corporation specializing in media compression technology, peer to peer video telephony, and video on… … Wikipedia
Horizon (general relativity) — There are several types of spacetime horizons that play a role in Einstein s theory of general relativity:* Absolute horizon, a boundary in spacetime in general relativity inside of which events cannot affect an external observer * Apparent… … Wikipedia
Apparent horizon — An apparent horizon is a surface defined in general relativity as the boundary between light rays which are directed outwards and moving outwards, and those which are directed outwards but moving inwards.Apparent horizons are not invariant… … Wikipedia
Event horizon — In general relativity, an event horizon is a boundary in spacetime, an area surrounding a black hole or a wormhole, inside which events cannot affect an outside observer. Light emitted from inside the horizon can never reach the observer, and… … Wikipedia
Shattered Horizon — Shattered Horizon: Взорвать горизонт Официальная обложка Shattered Horizon Разработчик … Википедия
No Line on the Horizon — For the title track of this album, see No Line on the Horizon (song). No Line on the Horizon … Wikipedia
Ace Combat: Assault Horizon — Разработчик Project Aces … Википедия
Soil horizon — Soil samples illustrating horizons (subsoil on right) A soil horizon is a specific layer in the land area that is parallel to the soil surface and possesses physical characteristics which differ from the layers above and beneath … Wikipedia
Artificial horizon — Ein künstlicher Horizont (engl. attitude indicator oder artificial horizon auch gyro horizon) ersetzt den natürlichen Horizont, der die Grenzlinie zwischen der sichtbaren Erde und dem Himmel darstellt, wenn man den Horizont nicht sehen kann oder… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Gyro horizon — Ein künstlicher Horizont (engl. attitude indicator oder artificial horizon auch gyro horizon) ersetzt den natürlichen Horizont, der die Grenzlinie zwischen der sichtbaren Erde und dem Himmel darstellt, wenn man den Horizont nicht sehen kann oder… … Deutsch Wikipedia