Fumarole


Fumarole

A fumarole (Latin "fumus", smoke) is an opening in Earth's (or any other astronomical body's) crust, often in the neighborhood of volcanoes, which emits steam and gases such as carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrochloric acid, and hydrogen sulfide. The name solfatara, from the Italian "solfo", sulfur (via the Sicilian dialect), is given to fumaroles that emit sulfurous gases.

Fumaroles may occur along tiny cracks or long fissures, in chaotic clusters or fields, and on the surfaces of lava flows and thick deposits of pyroclastic flows. A fumarole field is an area of thermal springs and gas vents where magma or hot igneous rocks at shallow depth are releasing gases or interacting with groundwater. From the perspective of groundwater, fumaroles could be described as a hot spring that boils off all its water before the water reaches the surface.

A good example of fumarole activity on Earth is the famous Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes, which was formed during the 1912 eruption of Novarupta in Alaska. Initially, there were thousands of fumaroles in the cooling ash from the eruption, but over time most of them have become extinct. Fumaroles may persist for decades or centuries if they are above a persistent heat source, or disappear within weeks to months if they occur atop a fresh volcanic deposit that quickly cools. There are also an estimated four thousand fumaroles within the boundaries of Yellowstone National Park.

Another example is an array of fumaroles in the Valley of Desolation in Morne Trois Pitons National Park in Dominica.


=Other



See also

* Mudpot
* Mud volcano
* Mofetta

References

* [http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/Products/Pglossary/fumarole.html USGS Photo Glossary: Fumarole]


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  • Fumarole — in den Kaldaklofsfjöll, Landmannalaugar, Island …   Deutsch Wikipedia

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  • fumarolė — statusas T sritis chemija apibrėžtis Karšta dujų srovė, trykštanti iš ugnikalnio plyšių arba iš ką tik išsiliejusios lavos paviršiaus. atitikmenys: angl. fumarole rus. фумарол …   Chemijos terminų aiškinamasis žodynas

  • Fumarole — Fu ma*role, n. [It. fumaruola, fr. fumo smoke, L. fumus: cf. F. fumerolle, fumarolle.] A hole or spot in a volcanic or other region, from which fumes issue. [1913 Webster] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • fumaróle — ž mn mjesta na kojima kroz pukotine lave izbijaju iz zemlje vrući plinovi i vodena para ✧ {{001f}}tal …   Veliki rječnik hrvatskoga jezika

  • fumarole — [fyo͞o′mə rōl΄] n. [It fumaruolo < LL fumariolum, smoke hole, dim. of LL fumarium, chimney < fumus, smoke: see FUME] a vent in a volcanic area, from which smoke and gases arise fumarolic [fyo͞o′məräl′ik] adj …   English World dictionary

  • fumarole — fumarolic /fyooh meuh rol ik/, adj. /fyooh meuh rohl /, n. a hole in or near a volcano, from which vapor rises. [1805 15; < F fumerolle < LL fumariolum, dim. of L fumarium smoke chamber, equiv. to fum(us) smoke + arium ARIUM; see OLE1] * * * Vent …   Universalium

  • fumarole — ALASKA VOLCANO OBSERVATORY GLOSSARY A small volcanic vent from which gases and vapors are emitted. GLOSSARY OF VOLCANIC TERMS A vent which releases volcanic gases. These include steam (H2O), carbon dioxide (CO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), hydrogen… …   Glossary of volcanic terms

  • Fumarole — Fu|ma|ro|le 〈f. 19〉 vulkan. Gas u. Dampfausströmungen aus Spalten erstarrender Lavamassen [<ital. (mundartl.) fumarola in derselben Bedeutung, eigtl. fumaiolo „Schornstein“; zu fumo „Rauch“] * * * Fu|ma|ro|le [slat. fumariolum = Dampfloch,… …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Fumarole — Fu|ma|ro|le die; , n <aus gleichbed. it. fumarole, eigtl. »Mündung eines Schornsteins«, zu spätlat. fumariolum »Rauchloch«, dies zu lat. fumus »Rauch«> das Ausströmen von Gas u. Wasserdampf aus Erdspalten in vulkanischen Gebieten …   Das große Fremdwörterbuch


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