Cockfight


Cockfight
Cock fight in London, circa 1808
A Cockfight in Lucknow, 1784-1786, by Johann Zoffany.

A cockfight is a blood sport between two roosters (cocks), held in a ring called a cockpit. Cockfighting is now illegal throughout all states in the United States, Brazil, Australia and in most of Europe.[1] It is still legal in several U.S. territories.

The combatants, referred to as gamecocks, are specially bred birds, conditioned for increased stamina and strength. The comb and wattle are cut off in order to meet show standards of the American Gamefowl Society and the Old English Game Club and to prevent freezing in colder climates. Cocks possess congenital aggression toward all males of the same species. Cocks are given the best of care until near the age of two years old. They are conditioned, much like professional athletes prior to events or shows. Wagers are often made on the outcome of the match. While not all fights are to the death, the cocks may endure significant physical trauma. In many other areas around the world, cockfighting is still practised as a mainstream event; in some countries it is government controlled.

Cockfighting is considered a blood sport by animal welfare and animal rights activists[2] and others, due in some part to the physical trauma the cocks inflict on each other. Advocates of the sport[citation needed] often list cultural and religious relevance as reasons for perpetuation of cockfighting as a sport.

Contents

Process

Two owners place their gamecock in the cockpit. The "cocks" fight until ultimately one of them dies or is critically injured. Historically, this was in a cockpit, a term which was also used in the 16th century to mean a place of entertainment or frenzied activity. William Shakespeare used the term in Henry V to specifically mean the area around the stage of a theater.[3] In Tudor times, the Palace of Westminster had a permanent cockpit, called the Cockpit-in-Court.

History

According to one author, there is evidence that cockfighting was a pastime in the Indus Valley Civilization.[4] The Encyclopædia Britannica (2008) holds:[5]

The sport was popular in ancient times in India, China, Persia, and other Eastern countries and was introduced into Greece in the time of Themistocles (c. 524–460 BC). For a long time the Romans affected to despise this "Greek diversion," but they ended up adopting it so enthusiastically that the agricultural writer Columella (1st century AD) complained that its devotees often spent their whole patrimony in betting at the side of the pit.

The anthropologist Clifford Geertz wrote the influential essay Deep Play: Notes on the Balinese Cockfight, on the meaning of the cockfight in Balinese culture.

Regional variations

Spurs taped and tied onto legs

In some regional variations, the birds are equipped with either metal spurs (called gaffs) or knives, tied to the leg in the area where the bird's natural spur has been partially removed. A cockspur is a bracelet (often made of leather) with a curved, sharp spike which is attached to the leg of the bird. The spikes typically range in length from "short spurs" of just over an inch to long spurs almost two and a half inches long. In the highest levels of seventeenth century English cockfighting, the spikes were made of silver. Ironically, the sharp spurs have been known to injure or even kill the bird handlers.[6][7] In the naked heel variation, the bird's natural spurs are left intact and sharpened: fighting is done without gaffs or taping, particularly in India (especially in Tamil Nadu). There it is mostly fought naked heel and either three rounds of twenty minutes with a gap of again twenty minutes or four rounds of fifteen minutes each and a gap of fifteen minutes between them.[8]

Nicaragua, Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, France, Mexico, Dominican Republic, Philippines, Peru, Panama, Puerto Rico, Canary Islands, and Guam have arenas with seats or bleachers for spectators surrounding the ring. In many countries, the spectacle of cockfighting is as popular as baseball and American football are in the United States.[clarification needed] Among the competitors who raise fighting cocks, there is great pride in the prowess of their birds and in winning a championship.

Latin America

Mexico

Cockfight in Querétaro, Mexico
Cockfight in Lima, Peru
Two gamecocks fighting, Thailand, 1967

In Aguascalientes, a state capital, one of the city's principal concert halls is the cockfighting arena, the palenque. Palenques are very common throughout the country, with almost every major city having one, and are closely related to Mexican traditional music performers, such as Vicente Fernandez, and also being (as mentioned below) the stage for Pop artists as well. During the San Marcos Fair, well-known throughout Mexico, cockfights alternate with important concerts, where the singers or dancers perform from the cockpit. Many popular singers have performed there, e.g. Latin Grammy winners Alejandro Fernández and Alejandra Guzmán.[citation needed]

Peru

In Peru, cockfighting is allowed and it takes place in coliseums with round sand fields. Only a judge and two managers each carrying a cock are allowed in the field. Judges use tables to facilitate the refereeing of fights.

Cockfighting championships of Peru are of two kinds, Beak and Spur. The Peruvian Razor Rooster ('Gallo Navajero Peruano') features in Spur fights. In Spur fights the weight and size of the rooster varies. There are free weight championships as well.

The most important cockfighting championships take place in the Lima Region at the Coliseums Sandia, Rosedal, Abraham Wong, The Peruvian Cockfighting Circle's Coliseum and The Valentino, of the Rooster Breeders' Association of Peru.[9]http://kingghazi.blogspot.com/

Brazil

Cockfighting, known in Brazil as rinha de galos ("baiting the rooster"), was banned along with bullfighting in 1934 by President Getulio Vargas.[citation needed] Nevertheless, the sport remains very popular, especially among the lower classes.[citation needed]

Asia

Southeast Asia

Philippines

Is considered to be the true haven of Slasher Cockfighting. Twice a year the Olympics of Cockfighting is held on the prestigious Araneta Coleseum. The first event is held on January and the second event is held on June. International entries are competing and Millions of pesos are at stake for prizes reaching 15 Million pesos.

Cockfighting is common throughout all of Southeast Asia, where it is implicated in spreading bird flu.[10] Some local terms for cockfights:

In Bali, cockfights, known as tajen, have been forbidden since 1981 because the government of Indonesia says it constitutes gambling, although it continues to be practised in an ancient ritual to expel evil spirits called tabuh rah ("pouring blood"). The purpose of that cockfight is to spill blood. The spilled blood of the loser in the ground is offered to the evil spirits. Women are not allowed participate or even watch it. Until 1980, the bebebotoh (tajen gamblers) usually sacrificed their properties and family to continue their practices. In tajen, the cocks fight armed with a sharp knife called taji.[11][12]

In Southern India

A cockfight in India, 2008
A cockfight on the outskirts of Kabul, Afghanistan
A cockfight in Hilongos, Philippines

Cockfighting (Vetrukkaal seval porr in Tamil which means "naked heel cock fight") (Kodi Pandem in Telugu) (Kori katta in Tulu) is a favourite sport of people living in the coastal region of Andhra Pradesh, Dakshina Kannada and Udupi districts of Tulu Nadu region of Karnataka, and the state of Tamil nadu India. Three- or four-inch blades (Bal in Tulu) are attached to the cocks' legs. Knockout fights to the death are widely practised in Andhra Pradesh. In Tamil Nadu, the winner is decided after three or four rounds. People watch with intense interest surrounding the cocks. The sport has gradually become a gambling sport.

In Tamil Nadu, Chennai, Tanjore, Trichy and Salem Districts, only naked heel sport is performed. In Erode, Thiruppur, Karur and Coimbatore districts only bloody blade fight is conducted. During festival seasons, this is the major game show for men. Women Normally dont participate in this game. There many rare breeds are preserved by these cock fighters


Cockfighting in Tamil Nadu is mentioned in ancient literature like Manu Needhi Sastiram, Kattu Seval Sastiram, and other sangam-age literature, 2,000 years old. It is referred to as the favourite past-time for Maravars or the warriors of Tamil Country. It is acknowledged as one of the 64 "arts" widely spoken by the scholars and mastered by the ancestors/scholars of this part of the world. In earlier days they were fighting with the jungle fowl and its variants later, due to the naval expeditions to Java and Malay by the Pandian Rulers the local poultry of that land might have found its way to Tamil Nadu and a new strain/breed started its development in here which later spread to many places such as India. The newer breeds which are known now are The "Reja" (which is a short Variety), "Sonatol", "Calcutta Asil", "Madras Asil", "Kalkatiya" (Also known as "Kadhar" synonymous to Black Asils), The Reds (Also known locally as "Yakuth"), The Yellow Variants (Also known as The "Peela" Asil), The Grey is known locally as "Java" and its variants reddish grey as "Dummer". Also they have a "henny" variety cock known locally as "Pettai Madhiri" the literal meaning is "it looks like a hen", though this variety is said to have come from "Singala Island", or Sri Lanka.In tamilnadu instead of rings line is drawn and if the cock comes out of the line or falls or dies it means the cock has lost there are several Tamil films based on cock fights.

Pakistan

Cockfighting is popular in Pakistan.[citation needed] Betting is illegal, but police often turn a blind eye towards it. In Sindh (one of 4 major provinces), people are fond of keeping fighting cock breed, known as "Sindhi aseel" in Pakistan. These cocks are noted being tall, heavy and good at fighting.

Philippines

Cockfighting in the Philippines is called "Sabong". There are illegal and legal cockfights. Legal cockfights are held on cockpits every week. Illegal cockfights, called "tupada" or "tigbakay", are held in secluded cockpits where the authorities would not be able to operate raids. In both kind of cockfights, knives or "gaffs" are used. There are two kinds of knives used in Philippine cockfighting. The single edge blade (use in derbies) and double edged blades, lengths of knives also vary. All knives are attached on the left leg of the cock. But depending on the agreement between owners, blades can be attached on the right leg, or even on both legs. "Sabong" and illegal "tupada", are judged by a referee called "sentensyador" or "koyme", whose verdict is final and not subject to any appeal.[13]

The Philippines has hosted several "World Slasher Cup" derbies, held twice a year and staged in Araneta Coliseum. The world's leading game fowl breeders gather twice a year during this event.

Pacific Islands

In Guam the sport of cockfighting has been accepted as a cultural tradition dating back to the Spanish rule. Cockfighting became more popular with an influx of Filipino immigrants to the island before and after World War II. Cockfighting events are held throughout the week at a government licensed pit in the village of Dededo and in other villages during "fiestas" where a patron saint of that village is celebrated. Imported roosters and hens from the U.S. Mainland fetch heavy price that could reach as much as a thousand dollars each. On the island of Saipan, just north of Guam, cockfighting is also accepted as a cultural tradition. Legal cockfighting takes place several times a week in an arena called the "Dome", in the village of Gualo Rai.

Other bird species

In 2009, authorities caught and shut down an illegal songbird-fighting ring in Shelton, Connecticut that had been using Saffron Finches and canaries. The American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals commented that such songbird fighting is extremely rare. The ancient Greeks used to practice quail fighting, using the common quail Coturnix coturnix[14]

Legal issues

Cockfight in Vietnam.
Cockfight in Otavalo, Ecuador

In many places, cockfights and other animal fights have been outlawed, often based on opposition to gambling or animal cruelty. In the United States cockfighting is against the law. It is not illegal to possess, raise, train, advertise, or trade cocks or accoutrements that could be used for cockfighting. However, actively participating in a cockfight in any manner is illegal: advertising, transporting participants or spectators, placing wagers, hosting an event, etc. It is common for law enforcement to confiscate property associated with any cockfighting activity.[15]

Europe

Spain

Cockfighting is banned in Spain except in the Canary Islands. Organisations as WWF/Adena and some political parties are trying to ban there too.[16][17][18] The law allows it but tries to make it disappear "naturally" by blocking its expansion.[19] Contrasting with the rest of the country, bullfighting is instead forbidden in the Canary Islands, since it is not considered traditional, unlike cockfighting.

Cockfighting is also legal in Andalusia in the cities and villages where it is considered traditional.

United Kingdom

Cockfighting was banned outright in England and Wales and in the British Overseas Territories with the Cruelty to Animals Act 1835. Sixty years later, in 1895, cockfighting was also banned in Scotland, where it had been relatively common in the eighteenth century.[20] The Museum of Welsh Life contains a reconstructed cockpit[21] and a reference exists in 1774 to a cockpit at Stanecastle in Scotland.[22]

According to the RSPCA, cockfighting in England and Wales still takes place, but has declined in recent years.[23]

France

Holding cockfights is a crime in France, but there is an exemption under subparagraph 3 of article 521-1 of the French penal code for cockfights and bullfights in locales where an uninterrupted tradition exists for them. Thus, cockfighting is allowed in the Nord-Pas de Calais region, in Metropolitan France, where it takes place in a small number of towns including Raimbeaucourt, La Bistade[24] and other villages around Lille.[25] On Réunion Island, there are five officially authorized gallodromes (i.e. cockfighting arenas). The Nord-Pas-de-Calais has a dozen gallodromes.

There is currently a flow of British aficionados to cockfights that come from January to June to the Nord-Pas-de-Calais to participate in the cockfights. Some of them have been arrested at the British border for transporting cockerels or material for cockfights, what has led to the implementation of British cockerels farms and carers in Nord-Pas-de-Calais for the British who cannot transport and care for them in the United Kingdom.

North America

United States

Cockfighting club in Puerto Rico, 1937.

Cockfighting has a tradition in some American cultures and history. It is said that some presidents participated in cockfighting including Washington, Lincoln and Jefferson.

In the United States, cockfighting is now illegal in all 50 U.S. states and Washington, D.C. The last state to implement a state law banning cockfighting was Louisiana; the Louisiana State Legislature voted to approve a Louisiana ban in June 2007.[26] The ban took effect in August 2008.[27] Thirty-three states and the District of Columbia have made cockfighting a felony, and it is illegal in 40 states and the District of Columbia to be a spectator at cockfights. Animal welfare activists continue to lobby for a ban on the sport. Cockfighting remains legal in the United States territories of Puerto Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands, the Northern Mariana Islands, and Guam, although in 2006, the Virgin Islands adopted a law banning modifications such as the use of artificial spurs.

The Animal Fighting Prohibition Enforcement Act, a federal law that made it a federal crime to transfer cockfighting implements across state or national borders and increasing the penalty for violations of federal animal fighting laws to three years in prison became law in 2007. It passed the House of Representatives 368-39 and the Senate by unanimous consent and was signed into law by President George W. Bush.[28]

In popular culture

Sunday Cockfight at Madrid, an 1873 wood engraving

Cockfighting has inspired artists in several fields to create works which depict the activity. Several organizations, including the University of South Carolina, Jacksonville State University in Jacksonville, Alabama, and London football team Tottenham Hotspur F.C. have a gamecock as their mascot.

Nathanael West's 1939 novel The Day of the Locust includes a detailed and graphic cockfighting scene, as does the Alex Haley novel Roots: The Saga of an American Family and the miniseries based on it. Films that include scenes of the sport include the 1964 Mexican film El Gallo De Oro, the 1965 film The Cincinnati Kid, and the 1974 film Cockfighter, directed by Monte Hellman (based on the novel of the same name by Charles Willeford). In literature, a description of a bordertown cockfight fiesta can be found in On the Border: Portraits of America's Southwestern Frontier.[29]

Cockfighting has also been mentioned in songs such as Kings of Leon's Four Kicks and Bob Dylan's song "Cry a While" from the album Love and Theft. The story song El Gallo del Cielo by Tom Russell is entirely about cockfighting, and the lyrics utilize detailed imagery of fighting pits, gamecocks, and gambling on the outcome of the fights.

The Expressionist painter Sir Robin Philipson, of Edinburgh, was well known for his series of works that included depictions of cockfighting.

The term "human cockfighting" was used by United States senator John McCain to describe mixed martial arts, which at the time he was campaigning to ban.[30]

The Spike TV show 1000 Ways to Die features a death involving a cockfight, where a man who bets on a rooster attaches razors to its claws to ensure its winning, but is slashed to death himself.

In the Seinfeld episode "The Little Jerry", Kramer enters his rooster into a cockfight in order to get one of Jerry's bounced checks removed from a local bodega where the cockfights actually take place.

In the HBO series Eastbound & Down, Kenny Powers moves to Mexico and is in the cockfighting business until his cock "Big Red" dies.

The 2011 Tamil film Aadukalam starring Dhanush revolves around the practice of cockfighting in Madurai, Tamil Nadu.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Cockfighting Illegal, but not gone". Charleston.net. http://www.charleston.net/news/2008/aug/15/cockfighting_illegal_but_not_gone50928/. Retrieved 2008-08-15. 
  2. ^ CockfightingOC: A blood sport for roosters In Defense of Animals
  3. ^ Shakespeare, W.. "Henry V". www.shakespeare-literature.com. http://www.shakespeare-literature.com/Henry_V/1.html. Retrieved 2008-02-22. 
  4. ^ Sherman, David M. (2002). Tending Animals in the Global Village. Blackwell Publishing. 46. ISBN 0-683-18051-7.
  5. ^ Cockfighting. Encyclopædia Britannica 2008
  6. ^ Cockfighting bird stabs, kills man The New York Post, 2/6/11
  7. ^ Champion rooster slashes its owner's throat for being asked to fight once too often UK Daily Mail, 1/22/2011
  8. ^ "Help expose illegal cockfighters". Irish Council Against Bloodsports. http://www.banbloodsports.com/camp-cf.htm. Retrieved 2008-02-22. 
  9. ^ Crónica Sobre el Gallo Navajero Peruano gallosnavajeros.com Razor Roosters in Peru (Spanish)
  10. ^ "Animal Protection Group Calls on World Health Organization to Combat Cockfighting as Key Factor in Spread of Avian Flu". Humane Society of the United States. 2005-02-18. http://www.hsus.org/press_and_publications/press_releases/animal_protection_group_calls_on_world_health_organization_to_combat_cockfighting_as_key_factor_in_spread_of_avian_flu.html. Retrieved 2008-02-22. 
  11. ^ Tajen - Balinese Cockfighting BaliAround.com
  12. ^ Balinese gambling of cock fighting
  13. ^ gmanews.tv/video, Emergency: 'Sentensyador', 07/12/2008
  14. ^ Amanda Cuda, "Experts: Shelton songbird fighting bizarre", the Greeks said to hold quail fights, with a domestic strain of the Eurasian quail. Connecticut Post, Jul. 27, 2009.
  15. ^ Oregon House Bill 2086
  16. ^ ¿Tradición o salvajismo? La Opinión de Tenerife (Spanish)
  17. ^ Los Verdes solicitan al Parlamento europeo que prohíba las peleas de gallo 21/07/2005 La Voz de Lanzarote (Spanish)
  18. ^ Las peleas de gallos, entre la tradición y la polémica 27/06/2006 La Voz de Lanzarote (Spanish)
  19. ^ "Canary Islands Government. Law 8/1991, dated April the 30th, for animal protection (in Spanish)". Gobiernodecanarias.org. 1991-05-13. http://www.gobiernodecanarias.org/boc/1991/062/001.html. Retrieved 2010-03-28. 
  20. ^ Collins, T. (2005). Encyclopedia of Traditional British Rural Sports. Routledge. ISBN 9780415352246. http://books.google.com/books?id=jKjYyGF8hSwC&pg=PP7&dq=Encyclopedia+of+Traditional+British+Rural+Sports&sig=jClrlXIMAEfBI9VFPQFhwW0D24o. Retrieved 2007-12-05. 
  21. ^ John Ball (2002). "Denbigh Cockpit". Archived from the original on 2008-05-15. http://web.archive.org/web/20080515060954/http://myweb.tiscali.co.uk/wfha2000/walespic/050123.htm. Retrieved 2008-02-26. 
  22. ^ McClure, David (1994). Tolls and Tacksmen. Ayr Arch & Nat Hist Soc. Ayrshire Monograph No. 13. p. 53. 
  23. ^ Hilpern, Kate (2007-10-20). "What lies behind the rise in animal fighting?". London: Independent. http://www.independent.co.uk/environment/nature/what-lies-behind-the-rise-in-animal-fighting-395210.html. Retrieved 2008-03-14. 
  24. ^ Foggo, D. & Campbell, M. (2006-01-22). "British fans flock to French cockfights". London: The Times. http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/uk/article717208.ece. Retrieved 2008-02-22. 
  25. ^ "Le Guide bu Nord de Pas de Calais" (in French). Region Nord Pas de calais. http://www.guide-nord-pas-calais.com/les_combats_et_concours_de_coqs_dans_le_nord_pas_de_calais.htm. Retrieved 2008-02-22. 
  26. ^ Louisiana State House passes Cockfighting ban
  27. ^ Legisladores de Luisiana aprueban prohibición a pelea de gallos 06/27/2007 La Voz (Spanish)
  28. ^ "H.R. 137: Animal Fighting Prohibition Enforcement Act of 2007". GovTrack.us. http://www.govtrack.us/congress/bill.xpd?bill=h110-137. Retrieved 2008-02-22. 
  29. ^ Miller, Tom. On the Border: Portraits of America's Southwestern Frontier, pp. 39-45.
  30. ^ John McCain talks UFC and MMA, MMARoot

External links


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Cockfight — Cock fight , n. A match or contest of gamecocks. [1913 Webster] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • cockfight — [käk′fīt΄] n. a fight between gamecocks, usually wearing metal spurs on the legs, with informal betting on the outcome and with prize money awarded to the owner of the winner: cockfights are illegal in the U.S. cockfighting n …   English World dictionary

  • cockfight — UK [ˈkɒkˌfaɪt] / US [ˈkɑkˌfaɪt] noun [countable] Word forms cockfight : singular cockfight plural cockfights an organized fight between two male chickens with sharp metal spurs on their feet. Cockfights are illegal in many countries. Derived word …   English dictionary

  • cockfight — /ˈkɒkfaɪt / (say kokfuyt) noun 1. a fight between gamecocks, often with metal spurs attached to their legs, on the outcome of which spectators place bets. 2. a game, often in water, in which contestants on piggyback try to unseat one another by… …   Australian English dictionary

  • cockfight — cockfighting ► NOUN ▪ the sport (illegal in the UK and some other countries) of setting two cocks to fight each other. DERIVATIVES cockfight noun …   English terms dictionary

  • cockfight — noun Date: circa 1566 a contest in which gamecocks usually fitted with metal spurs are pitted against each other • cockfighting adjective or noun …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • cockfight — cockfighting, n., adj. /kok fuyt /, n. a fight between specially bred gamecocks usually fitted with spurs. [1485 95; COCK1 + FIGHT] * * * …   Universalium

  • cockfight — 1. noun A contest, in a cockpit, between gamecocks fitted with cockspurs 2. verb To participate in (as a rooster), or organize and run (as a gambler or bookie), a cockfighting event. See Also: cockfighter, cockfighti …   Wiktionary

  • cockfight — cock|fight [ kak,faıt ] noun count an organized fight between two male chickens with sharp metal SPURS on their feet. Cockfights are illegal in many countries. ╾ cock|fight|ing noun uncount …   Usage of the words and phrases in modern English

  • cockfight — n. contest between gamecocks armed with spurs …   English contemporary dictionary


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