Geoffrey, Archbishop of York


Geoffrey, Archbishop of York

Infobox Archbishop of York
name = Geoffrey, Archbishop of York


consecrated = 18 August 1191
began = unknown
term_end = 12 December 1212
predecessor = Roger de Pont L'Evêque
successor = Walter de Gray
birth_date = about 1152
birthplace =
death_date = 12 December 1212
deathplace = Grandmont, Normandy
tomb = Grandmont

Geoffrey, Archbishop of York (c. 1152 – 12 December 1212) was an illegitimate son of Henry II, King of England. Geoffrey's history is chiefly one of quarrels, with the see of Canterbury, with the chancellor William Longchamp, with his half-brothers Richard and John, and especially with his canons at York.

Early life

He was distinguished from his legitimate half-brothers by his consistent attachment and fidelity to his father.Bartlett "England Under the Norman and Angevin Kings" p. 57] His mother was Ykenai, whom Walter Map described as 'a base-born, common harlot who stooped to all uncleanness'citequote. He was probably born before his father married Eleanor of Aquitaine,Warren "Henry II" p. 78 note] sometime around 1152. [http://british-history.ac.uk/report.asp?compid=8457 British History Online Archbishops of York] accessed on 15 September 2007]

He was Archdeacon of Lincoln by September of 1171, and probably retained the archdeaconry until he was confirmed as bishop-elect in 1175. [http://british-history.ac.uk/report.asp?compid=33566 British History Online Archdeacons of Lincoln] accessed on 15 September 2007] He was made Bishop of Lincoln at the age of twenty-one about May of 1173; he at first was refused confirmation by Pope Alexander III, and went to Rome in October of 1174 to secure confirmation, which happened before July of 1175. He was never ordained, however. [http://british-history.ac.uk/report.asp?compid=33560 British History Online Bishops of Lincoln] accessed on 15 September 2007] In 1173 and early 1174 he fought a campaign in northern England that supported his father's attempts to subdue the Scots. The campaign helped in the capture of William the Lion, king of Scots and also helped to compel Hugh du Puiset, Bishop of Durham to pledge fealty to Henry II.Lovatt "Geoffrey (1151?–1212)" "Oxford Dictionary of National Biography" [http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/10535 Online Edition revision of October 2007] accessed 12 November 2007] It was after this campaign that Henry is said to have told Geoffrey "My other sons are the real bastards. This is the only one who's proved himself legitimate!"quoted in Lovatt "Geoffrey (1151?–1212)" "Oxford Dictionary of National Biography" [http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/10535 Online Edition revision of October 2007] accessed 12 November 2007] He then was confrimed as bishop by Alexander, and was sent to study at Tours. It was during this period that he probably befriended Peter of Blois. He made a number of gifts to the cathedral at Lincoln, including two bells for the bell tower. While he was the bishop-elect at Lincoln, it appears that Adam, Bishop of St Asaph acted as bishop in the diocese of Lincoln.Richardson "Schools of Northampton" "English Historical Review" p. 599]

Chancellor

He resigned the see of Lincoln on 6 January 1182,Fryde "Handbook of British Chronology" p. 255] rather than be ordained as the pope had ordered. He then became his father's chancellor in 1181 and 1182,Fryde "Handbook of British Chronology" p. 84] holding a large number of lucrative benefices in plurality, including Treasurer of York from 1182, the Archdeaconry of Rouen from 1183, [http://british-history.ac.uk/report.asp?compid=7541 British History Online Treasurers of York] accessed on 15 September 2007] and probably the Archdeaconry of East Riding. [http://british-history.ac.uk/report.asp?compid=2951 British History Online Prebends of York] accessed on 15 September 2007] When Prince Richard and King Philip II of France declared war on Henry in 1187, Henry gave Geoffrey command of a quarter of the army. Geoffrey was with Henry when the king was driven from Le Mans in 1189, and Geoffrey was the one son of Henry II's that was present at the death of the king.Lyon "A Constitutional and Legal History of Medieval England" p. 233-236]

Archbishop

King Richard nominated him archbishop of York in September of 1189, but he was not consecrated until 18 August 1191,Fryde "Handbook of British Chronology" p. 281] at Tours, when he received his pallium. However, on his election, he either resigned or was stripped of his office of chancellor. After Richard took the throne of England, Geoffrey was made to become a full priest, to eliminate a potential rival to the throne.Warren "King John" p. 39] He was consecrated a priest at Southwell on 23 September 1189. In 1191, after being consecrated archbishop, he attempted to go to York, but was met at Dover by agents of the chancellor, William Longchamp, and even though he took refuge in the priory of St. Martin in Dover, was dragged from sanctuary and imprisoned in Dover Castle.Warren "King John" p. 42] Longchamp claimed that Geoffrey had not sworn fealty to Richard, but it was more likely just an excuse to eliminate a rival. He was soon released, and took part in the council at Loddon Bridge between Reading and Windsor which excommunicated Longchamp and led to the deposition of Longchamp from the chancellorship.Powell "The House of Lords" p. 98-99] It was during this time that Geoffrey started his feud with Hugh du Puiset, probably over Geoffrey's authority in Hugh's diocese of Durham. The feud dragged on for years, with many appeals to Rome and the king.

Geoffrey long faced opposition from part of his cathedral chapter, with the opposition led by Henry Marshal, who was dean of York, Burchard du Puiset, who was Hugh du Puiset's nephew and treasurer of York, and Roger of London who was abbot of Selby. The chapter objected to Geoffrey having given a large part of York's treasury towards Richard's ransom, and to some of Geoffrey's appointments in the church of York. Charges of simony, extortion, and neglect of his duties were lodged against Geoffrey, who in return excommunicated the ringleaders more than once, and locked the canons out of church.

In 1194 he went into debt to the crown for the sum of 3000 marks in order to buy the office of Sheriff of Yorkshire.Gillingham "Richard I" p. 270] He quarrelled with Richard in 1196 and Richard forbade Geoffrey from administering York.Lyon "A Constitutional and Legal History of Medieval England" p. 305-306] In 1200 he refused to allow the collection of carucage on his property, and was in return forced to submit to the new sheriff of Yorkshire, James de Poterna, who had wasted the lands in revenge. In January of 1201, John then made peace with his half brother.Joliffe "Angevin Kingship" p.114-115] In 1207, Geoffrey led the clergy in their refusal to be taxed by John and was forced to flee the kingdom.Warren "King John" p. 149] He died while still in exile at Grandmont in Normandy on 12 December 1212. He was buried at Notre-Dame de Grandmont.

Notes

References

*Bartlett, Robert "England Under the Norman and Angevin Kings: 1075-1225" Oxford:Clarendon Press 2000 ISBN 0-19-822741-8
* [http://british-history.ac.uk/report.asp?compid=8457 British History Online Archbishops of York] accessed on 15 September 2007
* [http://british-history.ac.uk/report.asp?compid=33566 British History Online Archdeacons of Lincoln] accessed on 15 September 2007
* [http://british-history.ac.uk/report.asp?compid=33560 British History Online Bishops of Lincoln] accessed on 15 September 2007
* [http://british-history.ac.uk/report.asp?compid=2951 British History Online Prebends of York] accessed on 15 September 2007
* [http://british-history.ac.uk/report.asp?compid=7541 British History Online Treasurers of York] accessed on 15 September 2007
*cite book |author=Fryde, E. B. |coauthors=Greenway, D. E.; Porter, S.; Roy, I. |title=Handbook of British Chronology|edition=Third Edition, revised |publisher=Cambridge University Press |location=Cambridge |year=1996 |isbn=0-521-56350-X
*Gillingham, John "Richard I" New Haven:Yale University Press 1999 ISBN 0-300-07912-5
*Joliffe, J. E. A. "Angevin Kingship" London:Adam and Charles Black 1955
*Lovatt, Marie "Geoffrey (1151?–1212)" "Oxford Dictionary of National Biography" Oxford University Press, Sept 2004 [http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/10535 Online Edition revision of October 2007] accessed 12 November 2007
*Lyon, Bryce "A Constitutional and Legal History of Medieval England" Second Edition New York:Norton 1980 ISBN 0-393-958132-4
*Powell, J. Enoch and Keith Wallis "The House of Lords in the Middle Ages: A History of the English House of Lords to 1540" London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson 1968
*
*Warren, W. L. "Henry II" Berkeley: University of California Press 1973 ISBN 0-520-03494-5
*Warren, W. L. "King John" Berkley: University of California Press 1978 ISBN 0-520-03643-3
*1911

External links

* [http://www.britannia.com/bios/abofy/gplantagenet.html Geoffrey at Britannia Biographies]
* [http://www.1911encyclopedia.org/Geoffrey_Of_York Geoffrey at 1911 Britannica Encyclopedia Online]

Persondata
NAME= Geoffrey
ALTERNATIVE NAMES= Plantagenet, Geoffrey
SHORT DESCRIPTION=Bishop of Lincoln; Lord Chancellor; Archbishop of York
DATE OF BIRTH=about 1142
PLACE OF BIRTH=
DATE OF DEATH=12 December 1212
PLACE OF DEATH=Normandy


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