Although thin, its density increases over almost seven orders of magnitude (five million times) from a low of 1.0 × 10−11 kg/m3 (1.0 × 10−14 g/cm3) at its boundary with the solar transition region, and increasing to a high of 2.0 × 10−4 kg/m3 (2.0 × 10−7 g/cm3) where it merges into the photosphere. See Figure 1. Skylab's solar atmosphere results chart for details of how its temperature and density vary with height.
The chromosphere is more visually transparent than the photosphere. The name comes from the fact that it has a reddish color, as the visual spectrum of the chromosphere is dominated by the deep red H-alpha spectral line of hydrogen. The coloration may be seen directly with the naked eye only during a total solar eclipse, where the chromosphere is briefly visible as a flash of color just as the visible edge of the photosphere disappears behind the Moon.
For reasons not fully understood, the temperature of the chromosphere is hotter than that of the photosphere. The photosphere is closer to the center of the sun and its temperature is around 4000 K to 6400 K but the chromosphere is about 4500 K to as high as 20,000 K. One theory is that acoustic turbulence is the source of this higher temperature, as the result of the dispersion of magnetohydrodynamic waves over the solar surface.
Without special equipment the chromosphere cannot normally be seen owing to its being washed out by the overwhelming brightness of the photosphere. It can be seen clearly through special narrow-band optical filters tuned to the H-alpha spectral line, and many observatories routinely observe the chromosphere using this technique, which displays filaments quite clearly. Filaments (and prominences, which are filaments viewed from the side) underlie many coronal mass ejections and hence are important to prediction of space weather.
The most common solar feature within the chromosphere are spicules, long thin fingers of luminous gas which appear like the blades of a huge field of fiery grass growing upwards from the photosphere below. Spicules rise to the top of the chromosphere and then sink back down again over the course of about 10 minutes.
Another feature found in the chromosphere are fibrils, horizontal wisps of gas similar in extent to spicules but with about twice the duration.
Finally, solar prominences rise up through the chromosphere from the photosphere, sometimes reaching altitudes of 150,000 kilometers. These gigantic plumes of gas are the most spectacular of solar phenomena, aside from the less frequent solar flares.
Above the chromosphere of some stars there is a so-called transition region, where the temperature increases rapidly to the hot corona, which forms the outermost part of the atmosphere.
See the flash spectrum of the solar chromosphere (Eclipse of March 7, 1970).
- Animated explanation of the Chromosphere (and Transition Region) (University of Glamorgan).
- Animated explanation of the temperature of the Chromosphere (and Transition Region) (University of Glamorgan).
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chromosphère — [ kromosfɛr; krɔmɔ ] n. f. • 1873; de chromo et sphère ♦ Astron. Partie superficielle extérieure de la couronne solaire. Protubérances de la chromosphère. ● chromosphère nom féminin (anglais chromosphere) Région de l atmosphère du Soleil ou d une … Encyclopédie Universelle
Chromosphere — Chromosphère Chromosphère solaire visible en France lors de l éclipse totale de 1999 La chromosphère est la basse atmosphère du Soleil. C est une fine couche rose de gaz, transparente pour la lumière visible, située entre la photosphère et la… … Wikipédia en Français
Chromosphère — solaire visible en France lors de l éclipse totale de 1999 La chromosphère est la basse atmosphère du Soleil. C est une fine couche rose de gaz, transparente pour la lumière visible, située entre la photosphère et la couronne solaire[1 … Wikipédia en Français
Chromosphere — Chro mo*sphere, n. [Gr. ? color + E. sphere.] (Astron.) An atmosphere of rare matter, composed principally of incandescent hydrogen gas, surrounding the sun and enveloping the photosphere. Portions of the chromosphere are here and there thrown up … The Collaborative International Dictionary of English
chromosphere — 1868, from chromo , from Gk. khroma color (see CHROMA (Cf. chroma)) + sphere. So called for its redness … Etymology dictionary
chromosphere — [krō′məsfir΄] n. [ CHROMO + SPHERE] the pinkish, glowing region around a star, esp. the sun, between the hot, dense photosphere and the much hotter, tenuous corona chromospheric [krō′məsfer′ik] adj … English World dictionary
chromosphere — chromospheric /kroh meuh sfer ik, sfear /, adj. /kroh meuh sfear /, n. Astron. 1. a scarlet, gaseous envelope surrounding the sun outside the photosphere, from which enormous quantities of hydrogen and other gases are erupted. 2. a gaseous… … Universalium
chromosphere — chromosfera statusas T sritis fizika atitikmenys: angl. chromosphere vok. Chromosphäre, f rus. хромосфера, f pranc. chromosphère, f … Fizikos terminų žodynas
chromosphère — chromosfera statusas T sritis fizika atitikmenys: angl. chromosphere vok. Chromosphäre, f rus. хромосфера, f pranc. chromosphère, f … Fizikos terminų žodynas
chromosphere — noun Date: 1868 the region of the atmosphere of a star (as the sun) between the star s photosphere and its corona • chromospheric adjective … New Collegiate Dictionary