Matricaria recutita


Matricaria recutita

Taxobox


image_width = 250px
image_caption = "Matricaria recutita"
regnum = Plantae
divisio = Magnoliophyta
classis = Magnoliopsida
ordo = Asterales
familia = Asteraceae
tribus = Anthemideae
genus = "Matricaria"
species = "M. recutita"
binomial = "Matricaria recutita"
binomial_authority = L.
synonyms ="Chamomilla chamomilla" (L.) Rydb.
"Chamomilla recutita" (L.) Rauschert
"Matricaria chamomilla" L.
"Matricaria suaveolens" L.
Sources: NRCS,NRCS Plants Profile
name = Matricaria recutita
symbol = MARE6
accessdate = 2008-06-15
] ITISITIS|ID=38079|taxon=Matricaria recutita|year=2008|date=15 June]

"Matricaria recutita" or German chamomile, also spelled camomile, is an annual plant of the sunflower family Asteraceae. Synonyms are: "Chamomilla chamomilla", "Chamomilla recutita" (accepted name according to the Flora Europaea), "Matricaria chamomilla", and "Matricaria suaveolens".

It usually grows near populated areas all over Europe and temperate Asia. It is widely introduced in temperate North America and Australia. As the seeds need open soil to survive, it often grows near roads, around landfills and in cultivated fields as a weed.

Other names include blue chamomile, wild chamomile, Hungarian chamomile, and scented mayweed.

The branched stem is erect and smooth and grows to a height of 15-60 cm. The long and narrow leaves are bipinnate or tripinnate.

The flowers are borne in paniculate capitula. The white ray florets are furnished with a ligule, while the disc florets are yellow. The hollow receptacle is swollen and lacks scales. This property distinguished German Chamomile from Corn Chamomile ("Anthemis arvensis"), which has a receptacle with scales. The flowers have a strong, aromatic smell, and bloom in early to mid summer.

The word chamomile comes from Greek "χαμαίμηλον" ("chamaimēlon"), "earth-apple", from "χαμαί" ("chamai"), "on the ground" + "μήλον" ("mēlon"), "apple", so called because of the applelike scent of the plant. (Note: The "ch-" spelling is used especially in science and pharmacology.)

Uses

Herbalism

German Chamomile is used medicinally against sore stomach, irritable bowel syndrome, and as a gentle sleep aid. It can also aid in the assistance of defecation. It can be taken as an herbal tea, two teaspoons of dried flower per cup of tea. For a sore stomach, some recommend taking a cup every morning without food for two to three months. It is also used as a mouthwash against oral mucositis. It has acaricidal properties against certain mites, such as "Psoroptes cuniculi". The primary known active ingredient of the essential oil from German Chamomile is bisabolol. [The People's Pharmacy Guide to Home and Herbal Remedies] Other active ingredients include chamazulene, flavonoids and coumarin.

A 2006 review of the medical literature reported a number of beneficial effects of chamomile in "in vitro" and animal tests but added that more human clinical trials are needed before firm conclusions can be drawn. [cite journal
last =
first =
authorlink = McKay DL, Blumberg JB.
coauthors =
title = A review of the bioactivity and potential health benefits of chamomile tea (Matricaria recutita L.)
journal = Phytother Res.
volume = 20
issue = 7
pages =519–30
date = 2006 Jul
url =
doi =
pmid = : 16628544
accessdate =
] Chamomile has speeded wound healing in animals. [cite journal
last =
first =
authorlink = Jarrahi M.
coauthors =
title = An experimental study of the effects of Matricaria chamomilla extract on cutaneous burn wound healing in albino rats
journal = Nat Prod Res.
volume = 22
issue = 5
pages = 423–8
date = 2008 Mar 20
url =
doi =
pmid = : 18404562
accessdate =
] [cite journal
last =
first =
authorlink = Nayak BS, Raju SS, Rao AV.
coauthors =
title = Wound healing activity of Matricaria recutita L. extract
journal = J Wound Care.
volume = 16
issue = 7
pages = 298–302
date = 2007 Jul
url =
doi =
pmid = : 17708380
accessdate =
] It also showed some benefit in an animal model of diabetes. [cite journal
last =
first =
authorlink = Cemek M, Kağa S, Simşek N, Büyükokuroğlu ME, Konuk M.
coauthors =
title = Antihyperglycemic and antioxidative potential of Matricaria chamomilla L. in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats
journal = Nat Med (Tokyo).
volume =
issue =
pages =
date = 2008 Feb 13
url =
doi =
pmid = : 18404309
accessdate =
] Very preliminary in-vitro results show potential against cancer. [cite journal
last =
first =
authorlink = Srivastava JK, Gupta S.
coauthors =
title = Antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of chamomile extract in various human cancer cells
journal = J Agric Food Chem.
volume = 55
issue = 23
pages = 9470–8
date = 2007 Nov 14
url =
doi =
pmid = : 17939735
accessdate =
] Potential risks include interference with warfarin and infant botulism in very young children. [cite journal
last =
first =
authorlink = Segal R, Pilote L.
coauthors =
title = Warfarin interaction with Matricaria chamomilla
journal = CMAJ.;():
volume = 174
issue = 9
pages = 1281–2
date = 2006 Apr 25
url =
doi =
pmid = : 16636327
accessdate =
] [cite journal
last =
first =
authorlink = Bianco MI, Lúquez C, de Jong LI, Fernández RA.
coauthors =
title = Presence of Clostridium botulinum spores in Matricaria chamomilla (chamomile) and its relationship with infant botulism
journal = Int J Food Microbiol.
volume = 121
issue = 3
pages = 357–60
date = 2008 Feb 10
url =
doi =
pmid = : 18068252
accessdate =
]

Chamomile is also used cosmetically, primarily to make a rinse for blonde hair.

Agriculture

Chamomile is sometimes known as "the plant doctor", because it is thought to help the growth and health of many other plants, especially ones that produce essential oils. It is thought to increase production of those oils, making certain herbs, like mints (spearmint, sage, oregano) and basil taste stronger in scent and flavor.

Chamomile tea is also thought to be useful to suppress fungal growth, for example, misting it over seedlings may prevent damping off.

Chamomile is frequently an invasive species in agricultural fields. Farmers often must control chamomile's spread to maintain productivity of their fields.

Possible side effects

Chamomile is a relative of ragweed and can cause allergy symptoms and can cross-react with ragweed pollen in individuals with ragweed allergies. It also contains coumarin and thus care should be taken to avoid potential drug interactions, e.g. with blood thinners.

While extremely rare, very large doses of Chamomile may cause nausea and vomiting. Even more rarely, rashes may occur. [Readers' Digest Association]

Conditions for growing and reproduction

Soil Type: German chamomile will tolerate many soils, but prefers a sandy, well-drained soil with a pH of 7.0-7.5 and lots of sun. Cultivation: Space plants 15-30 cm apart. Chamomile does not require large amounts of fertilizer but depending on soil tests, small amounts of nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium should be applied before planting.

The amounts of major nutrients that German chamomile needs for growing and reproduction are:
*C = Carbon 430,000 ppm
*H = Hydrogen 60,000 ppm
*O = Oxygen 430,000 ppm
*P = Phosphorus 2,000 ppm
*K = Potassium 10,000 ppm
*N = Nitrogen 8,500 ppm
*S = Sulfur 1,000 ppm
*Ca = Calcium 5,000 ppm
*Mg = Magnesium 2000 ppm [http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/crops/hort/herbs/chamom.htm]

References

Footnotes

General references

*cite book| last =Graedon| first =Joe| authorlink =| coauthors =Theresa Graedon| title =The People's Pharmacy Guide to Home and Herbal Remedies| publisher =St. Martin's Griffin| date =2001| location =| pages =283| url =| doi =| id = | isbn =978-0312267643

*cite book| last =Reader's Digest Association| first =| authorlink =| coauthors =| title =The Healing Power of Vitamins, Minerals, and Herbs| publisher =Reader's Digest| date =1999| location =| pages =259| url =| doi =| id = | isbn =978-0762101320

Gallery

External links

* [http://www.eherbal.org/data/chamomile.html Chamomile medical uses, side effects, dosage and general information]
* [http://ibscrohns.about.com/od/alternativeremedies/p/chamomile.htm Chamomile for IBS]
* [http://altmed.creighton.edu/preg/chamomile.htm Herbal Supplements in Pregnancy] - Lists active chemical components of chamomile
* [http://www.wildflowers.co.il/english/plant.asp?ID=337 Wild Chamomile in wildflowers of Israel]
* [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/7617294.stm Chamomile tea 'may ease diabetes - BBC]


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