Matricaria

Matricaria
Matricaria
German chamomile
(Matricaria recutita)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Asterids
Order: Asterales
Family: Asteraceae
Tribe: Anthemideae
Genus: Matricaria
L., 1753
Type species
Matricaria recutita L.
Species

Matricaria aurea (Loefl.) Sch. Bip.
Matricaria discoidea DC.
Matricaria recutita L.
See text.

Synonyms

Chamomilla Gray
Source: ING[1]

Matricaria is a genus of flowering plants in the sunflower family (Asteraceae). Some of the species have the common name of "mayweed," but this name also refers to plants not in this genus.

Most are very common in the temperate regions of Europe, Asia, and America, as well as in northern and southern Africa, and some are naturalised in Australia. M. occidentalis is native to North America; other species have been introduced there.

These are hardy, pleasantly aromatic annuals, growing along roadsides in ruderal communities and in fallow land rich in nutrients. Though many are considered nuisance weeds, they are suitable for rock gardens and herb gardens, and as border plants.

Their many-branched stems are prostrate to erect, glabrous, and very leafy. Their bipinnate leaves have numerous linear, narrowly lobed leaflets.

The flowers are radially symmetrical. The greenish-yellow capitula are semi-spherical. The white ray florets can be present (M. recutita) or lacking (M. discoidea). The disc florets are 4- to 5-dentate. The receptacle is 2–3 times as high as wide. The pappus may be crown-shaped and short, or lacking.

Matricaria species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species (caterpillars) including Lime-speck Pug.

The extract of German chamomile (M. recutita) is taken as a strong tea. It has been used in herbal medicine as a carminative and anti-inflammatory. It is also used in ointments and lotions, and as a mouthwash against infections of mouth and gums. Aromatherapy uses two essential oils of chamomile: the "true chamomile" oil (or German chamomile oil, from M. recutita) and the Roman chamomile oil (from Anthemis nobilis).

The taxonomy of Matricaria is controversial and very confused. Several species are classified either in Tripleurospermum or Matricaria depending on the interpretation of the author. The distinction is made according to the number of the seed ribs: Tripleurospermum has one adaxial and two lateral seed ribs, while Matricaria has four or five adaxial seed ribs.

Contents

Species

Matricaria
  • Matricaria acutiloba
  • Matricaria albida
  • Matricaria arabica
  • Matricaria arlgirdensis
  • Matricaria aurea (Loefl.) Sch. Bip.
  • Matricaria auriculata
  • Matricaria brachyglossa
  • Matricaria burchellii
  • Matricaria capitellata
  • Matricaria confusa
  • Matricaria coreana
  • Matricaria corymbifera
  • Matricaria courrantiana DC. -- Crown Mayweed
  • Matricaria decipiens
  • Matricaria dichotoma
  • Matricaria discoidea DC. -- Disc Mayweed, Pineapple Weed, Rounded Chamomile
  • Matricaria fuscata
  • Matricaria glabra (synonym of Otospermum glabrum (Lag.) Willk.)
  • Matricaria glabrata
  • Matricaria globifera
  • Matricaria grandiflora
  • Matricaria hirsutifolia
  • Matricaria hirta
  • Matricaria hispida
  • Matricaria intermedia
  • Matricaria lamellata
  • Matricaria lasiocarpa
  • Matricaria laxa
  • Matricaria macrotis
  • Matricaria melanophylla
  • Matricaria microcephala
  • Matricaria nigellifolia
  • Matricaria occidentalis Greene—Valley Mayweed
  • Matricaria otaviensis
  • Matricaria pinnatifida
  • Matricaria recutita L. -- German Chamomile, Scented Mayweed, Wild Chamomile, Common Chamomile
  • Matricaria raddeana
  • Matricaria schinzinna
  • Matricaria spathipappus
  • Matricaria subglobosa
  • Matricaria suffruticosa
  • Matricaria tridentata
  • Matricaria tzvelevii (synonym of Chamomilla tzvelevii (Pobed.) Rauschert)

See also

References

External links


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Синонимы:

См. также в других словарях:

  • Matricaria — prop. n. A genus of chiefly Old World strong smelling weedy herbs; it comprises plants sometimes included in other genera, such as {Tanacetum} and {Tripleurospermum}. Syn: genus {Matricaria}. [WordNet 1.5] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • matricaria — Tanacetum parthenium, una planta medicinal utilizada en el tratamiento de trastornos de tipo nervioso, gota y cefaleas. Regula la menstruación. Desencadena las contracciones del parto y facilita la expulsión de la placenta. No tomar durante el… …   Diccionario médico

  • Matricarĭa — (M. L.), Pflanzengattung aus der Familie der Compositae Senecionideae Antherideae Chrysanthemeae, 19. Kl. 2. Ordn. L.; Fruchtboden nackt, fast walzig kegelförmig, sonst wie Chrysanthemum; Arten: M. chamomilla, M. suaveolens (s. Kamille); M.… …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Matricarĭa — L. (Kamille, Chamille), Gattung der Kompositen, einjährige Kräuter mit doldentraubig verästeltem Stengel, zerstreut stehenden, zwei bis dreifach fiederteiligen Blättern, kleinen bis mittelgroßen, einzeln an den Zweigenden, seltener ebensträußig… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Matricaria — Matricarĭa L., Pflanzengattg. der Kompositen; in Deutschland nur M. Chamomilla L. (gemeine oder echte Kamille [Abb. 1145]), mit weißen Strahl und gelben Scheibenblütchen und hohlem Blütenboden und stiel. Die Blütenköpfe, ein beliebtes Hausmittel… …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

  • Matricaria —   [lateinisch, zu Matrix], wissenschaftlicher Name der Pflanzengattung Kamille.   * * * Ma|tri|ca|ria, die; [nlat., zu spätlat. matrix, ↑Matrix] (Bot.): Kamille …   Universal-Lexikon

  • matricária — s. f. [Botânica] Gênero de plantas da família das compostas …   Dicionário da Língua Portuguesa

  • matricaria — (Forma mod. del lat. matricālis [herba]). f. Planta herbácea anual, de la familia de las Compuestas, con tallo ramoso, de cuatro a seis decímetros de altura, hojas en forma de corazón, pecioladas, partidas en gajos de margen serrado y contornos… …   Diccionario de la lengua española

  • Matricaria —   Manzanilla …   Wikipedia Español

  • Matricaria — Matricaire Matricaria …   Wikipédia en Français


Поделиться ссылкой на выделенное

Прямая ссылка:
Нажмите правой клавишей мыши и выберите «Копировать ссылку»