Kirsten Gillibrand


Kirsten Gillibrand
Kirsten Gillibrand
A portrait shot of a smiling, middle-aged Caucasian female (Kirsten Gillibrand) looking straight ahead. She has long blonde hair, and is wearing a dark blazer with a grey top; on her left lapel is a gold pin that reads "United States Senator". She is placed in front of a dark background.
United States Senator
from New York
Incumbent
Assumed office
January 26, 2009
Serving with Chuck Schumer
Preceded by Hillary Rodham Clinton
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from New York's 20th district
In office
January 3, 2007 – January 26, 2009
Preceded by John E. Sweeney
Succeeded by Scott Murphy
Personal details
Born Kirsten Elizabeth Rutnik
December 9, 1966 (1966-12-09) (age 44)
Albany, New York, U.S.
Nationality American
Political party Democratic Party
Spouse(s) Jonathan Gillibrand (m. 2001)
Children Theodore Gillibrand (b. 2003)
Henry Gillibrand (b. 2008)
Residence Brunswick, New York
Alma mater Dartmouth College (B.A.)
University of California, Los Angeles School of Law (J.D.)
Occupation Attorney
Politician
Religion Roman Catholicism
Signature
Website Official Senate Website
Campaign Website

Kirsten Elizabeth Rutnik Gillibrand (/ˈkɪərstən ˈɪlɨbrænd/ keer-stən jil-ə-brand; born December 9, 1966) is an attorney and the junior United States Senator from the state of New York and a member of the Democratic Party. Prior to being appointed to the Senate by New York Governor David Paterson in 2009, she served two terms in the House of Representatives, representing New York's 20th congressional district.

Gillibrand was born and raised in the Albany area. She is a 1988 graduate of Dartmouth College, where she majored in Asian studies. She received her Juris Doctor from UCLA Law School in 1991 and passed the bar the same year. She was an associate in the law firm of Davis Polk & Wardwell in Manhattan before becoming a partner at Boies, Schiller & Flexner in Albany.

Gillibrand won an upset congressional election in November 2006, beating four-term incumbent John E. Sweeney 53% to 47%. Her reelection campaign in 2008 against Sandy Treadwell was significantly easier, winning 62% to 38%. In December 2008, President Barack Obama nominated Hillary Rodham Clinton as Secretary of State, leaving an empty seat in the New York senate delegation. After two months and many potential names considered, Governor David Paterson appointed Gillibrand to fill the seat. Gillibrand was required to run in a special election in 2010, which she easily won with 63% of the vote. Her term ends in 2013 and she is currently running for reelection in 2012.

Originally known in the House for conservative and centrist liberal views, since her appointment to the Senate, Gillibrand has been seen more as a progressive Democrat. In both cases, her viewpoints were significantly defined by her constituency (a heavily Republican congressional district versus a largely liberal US state). In the House, Gillibrand was an opponent of strict gun control, against amnesty for illegal immigrants, and she voted twice against the 2008 bailout of the US financial system. In the Senate she focused on support of gay rights, authored legislation to crack down on illegal guns and gun traffickers, scaled back her former support of gun rights, and changed her views on immigration through support of the DREAM Act; she is best known for successfully championing both the repeal of Don't ask, don't tell and the adoption of the James Zadroga 9/11 Health and Compensation Act.

Gillibrand currently resides in Brunswick with her husband, Jonathan Gillibrand, a venture capitalist and British national, and their two sons, Theodore and Henry.

Contents

Early years and education

A member of a politically active family, Kirsten Rutnik was born on December 9, 1966 to Douglas Rutnik and Polly Noonan Rutnik. Her father is an attorney and lobbyist and is known for his close ties to Republicans Alfonse D'Amato (former United States senator) and George Pataki (former governor), although he himself is a registered Democrat.[1] Gillibrand's mother is a retired attorney; the couple opened a law firm and practiced together until they divorced when Gillibrand was 22 years old.[2] Gillibrand has an older brother, Doug Rutnik, and a younger sister, Erin Rutnik Tschantret.[3][4] Her maternal grandmother was Dorothea "Polly" Noonan, founder of the Albany Democratic Women's Club and a leader in Albany Mayor Erastus Corning's powerful political machine, which lasted for more than 40 years.[1][3][Note 1]

Gillibrand grew up in Albany and was known by the nickname Tina, a name adopted by her brother when he couldn't pronounce "Kirsten".[2][3] In 1984 she graduated from Emma Willard School in Troy[5] and went on to Dartmouth College.[3] As an Asian Studies major, she became functionally fluent in Mandarin Chinese; she studied in both Beijing and Taiwan and adopted a Chinese name, Lu Tian Na (陸天娜).[6] She graduated magna cum laude with a Bachelor of Arts in 1988.[7] While at Dartmouth, Gillibrand was a member of the Kappa Kappa Gamma sorority.[7] During college, she interned at Senator D'Amato's Albany office.[8] Following Dartmouth, Gillibrand attended UCLA Law School and graduated with a Juris Doctor in 1991.[9] She passed the bar the same year.[2]

Legal career

In 1991, Gillibrand joined the Manhattan office of Davis Polk & Wardwell as an associate.[2] In 1992 she took a leave from Davis Polk to serve as a law clerk to Judge Roger Miner on the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit in Albany.[4][10] It was at this time she dropped the childhood nickname Tina; Judge Miner refused to call her by a nickname, and Kirsten stuck.[3]

Gillibrand's tenure at Davis Polk is best known for her work as a defense attorney for tobacco giant Philip Morris during major litigation, including both civil lawsuits and U.S. Justice Department criminal and civil racketeering probes. According to The New York Times, "Gillibrand was involved in some of the most sensitive matters related to the defense of the tobacco giant as it confronted pivotal legal battles beginning in the mid-1990s."[11] Gillibrand rarely comments on her work for Philip Morris, citing attorney-client privilege.[Note 2] She states that she had no control over cases and clients she received,[12] though The New York Times claims otherwise.[13] While working on the Philip Morris case, Gillibrand was promoted to senior associate.[12] Gillibrand indicates her work for Philip Morris allowed her to take on multiple pro bono cases defending abused women and their children, as well as defending tenants seeking safe housing after lead paint and unsafe conditions were found in their homes.[4]

I was just a young lawyer thinking, What am I doing with my life? What am I doing with my career? As I watched her on that stage I thought, Why aren’t I there? It was so poignant for me. And that’s what made me figure out how to get involved in politics.

—Gillibrand describing Hillary Clinton's influence on her entering politics[4]

While working for Davis Polk, Gillibrand became involved in—and later the leader of—the Women's Leadership Forum, a program of the Democratic National Committee. Gillibrand states that a speech to the group by then-First Lady Hillary Clinton left an impressionable mark on her: "[Clinton] was trying to encourage us to become more active in politics and she said, 'If you leave all the decision-making to others, you might not like what they do, and you will have no one but yourself to blame.' It was such a challenge to the women in the room. And it really hit me: She’s talking to me."[2]

Following her time at Davis Polk, Gillibrand served as Special Counsel to the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), Andrew Cuomo during the last year of the Clinton administration.[5] She worked on HUD's Labor Initiative and its New Markets Initiative as well as on TAP's Young Leaders Of The American Democracy, on strengthening Davis–Bacon Act enforcement.[14]

In 1999, Gillibrand began working on Hillary Clinton's 2000 US Senate campaign. There, she focused on campaigning to young women and encouraging them to join the campaign. Many of those women would end up working on Gillibrand's future campaigns.[1] Gillibrand and Clinton became close during the election, with Clinton becoming something of a mentor to the young lawyer.[4] Gillibrand's fondness for Clinton has seen her donate more than $12,000 to Clinton's senate campaigns.[15]

In 2001, Gillibrand became a partner at the Manhattan office of Boies, Schiller & Flexner, where one of her clients was the Altria Group, Philip Morris' parent company. In 2002 she informed Boies of interest in running for office and was allowed to transfer to the firm's Albany office. She left Boies in 2005 to begin her 2006 campaign for congress.[4][11]

House of Representatives

2006 campaign

Gillibrand's first run for office was in the 2006 race in New York's 20th congressional district against four-term Republican incumbent John E. Sweeney.[Note 3] The 20th district encompasses all or part of Columbia, Dutchess, Delaware, Essex, Greene, Otsego, Rensselaer, Saratoga, Warren, and Washington counties.[16] Traditionally conservative, it had been considered a safe seat for Republicans to such an extent that after redistricting in 2002, then-Congressman Sweeney was quoted as saying that “no Republican can ever lose” the district.[17] In November 2006, the Republican Party held an enrollment advantage over Democrats of 82,737 voters (197,473 to 114,736).[18]

Engaging New York's electoral fusion election laws, Gillibrand ran on both the Democratic and Working Families lines. In addition to having the Republican nomination, Sweeney was endorsed by the Conservative and Independence parties.[19] During the campaign, Gillibrand was a popular candidate with Democrats. Mike McNulty, Democratic Congressman from the neighboring 21st congressional district, campaigned for her, as did both Hillary and Bill Clinton; the former president appeared twice at campaign events.[20]

The election was noted as being vital to returning control of the House to Democrats. As such, both parties poured millions of dollars into the respective campaigns.[21] Both campaigns spent a portion of those dollars on heated campaign ads; each campaign accused the other of "fighting dirty with negative campaign advertising and of dragging the opponent's family into the campaign." Gillibrand was seen as a moderate by many conservatives. The American Conservative described her eventual win by saying, "Gillibrand won her upstate New York district by running to the right: she campaigned against amnesty for illegal immigrants, promised to restore fiscal responsibility to Washington, and pledged to protect gun rights."[22]

The probable turning point of the election was the November 1 release of a December 2005 police report of a 911 call made by Sweeney's wife, in which she claimed Sweeney was "knocking her around the house". The Sweeney campaign claimed it was a lie and promised to have the official report released by State Police, but never came through on that promise.[20] In response, the Sweeney campaign released an ad during which Sweeney's wife described Gillibrand's campaign as "a disgrace."[23] By November 5, a Siena College Research Poll showed Gillibrand ahead of Sweeney by three points (46% to 43%, although that was still within the 3.9% margin of error).[24]

Gillibrand ended up winning with 53.10 percent of the vote (a 6-point lead).[19] She began her first term on January 3, 2007 in the 110th Congress. Following her win, Republicans quickly began speculating about who would run against her in 2008. Len Cutler, director of the Center for the Study of Government and Politics at Siena College indicated that the seat would be difficult for Gillibrand to hold in 2008, noting the substantial Republican enrollment advantage.[20] Gillibrand was noted for her skill at fundraising, giving her a leg up in her future appointment to the senate.[3]

110th Congress

Upon the start of her tenure, Gillibrand became the first member of Congress to publish her official schedule, listing everyone she met with on a given day, as well as earmark requests and her personal financial statement. This "Sunlight Report", as her office termed it, was praised by a New York Times editorial in December 2006 as being a "quiet touch of revolution" in a non-transparent system.[25][26] She joined the Blue Dog Coalition, a group of fiscally conservative Democrats. She was noted for voting against 2007's Immigration Reform Act and George W. Bush's Wall Street bailout.[22]

During her first year, Gillibrand opened the earmarking process up to The New York Times. New rules requiring Representatives to tag their names to requests was seen as an increase in transparency, as was the invitation from the Congresswoman. Gillibrand stated she wanted what was best for her district "by requiring every project to pass a 'greatest-need, greatest-good' test."[27]

Gillibrand was noted as being an aggressive legislator and someone that sometimes stirs up minor controversy within the House; members of the New York congressional delegation were known to refer to her as Tracy Flick.[28]

2008 campaign

Gillibrand won her bid for re-election in 2008, enjoying a sophomore surge. Her challenger was former New York Secretary of State Sandy Treadwell. Despite significantly outspending Gillibrand, and promising to never vote to raise taxes, not accept a federal salary, and limit himself to three terms in office, Treadwell lost the election by a 24-point margin, which, for Gillibrand, was a four-fold increase in the differential from the 2006 election.[29] Gillibrand scored 62.13% of the vote with Treadwell getting 37.87%.[30] Democrats generally saw major successes during the 2008 congressional election, credited in part to a coattail effect from Barack Obama's election.[31]

Once again, Gillibrand ran on both the Democratic and Working Families party lines; Treadwell ran on the Republican, Independence, and Conservative lines.[30] Gillibrand's campaign ended up spending $3.5 million while Treadwell's spent $5.5 million. Like 2006, this election was also considered to be largely negative. Gillibrand emphasized bettering Wall Street regulation, pulling out of Iraq, and increasing local jobs by utilizing colleges and high tech companies.[29]

Committee assignments

While in the House of Representatives, Gillibrand served on the following committees:[32]

Senate

Appointment

On December 1, 2008, President-elect Barack Obama announced his choice of Hillary Rodham Clinton, the junior U.S. Senator from New York, as Secretary of State. This began a two-month search process to fill her vacant Senate seat.[33] Upon a Senate vacancy in New York, the governor appoints a replacement. In this case, Governor David Paterson was obliged to choose the new senator; Clinton's replacement would face a special election in 2010, with the final part of the term ending in January 2013.[34]

The selection process began with a number of prominent names and high-ranking New York Democrats vying for the spot. Gillibrand quietly campaigned to Paterson for the position, meeting secretly with the governor on at least one occasion; she says she made an effort to underscore her successful House elections in a largely conservative district, adding that she could be a good complement to Chuck Schumer.[3] Gillibrand was presumed a likely choice the days before the official announcement;[35] Paterson held a press conference at noon on January 23 announcing Gillibrand as his choice.[36]

Gillibrand herself has expressed the belief that her ability to keep their interaction secret was vital to the outcome: while other candidates were discussing the process with reporters, Gillibrand was on a holiday vacation in London, far away from the excitement surrounding the selection. A July 2009 Elle magazine exposé stated, "Competing against an A-list cast that included [Caroline Kennedy and Andrew Cuomo], along with virtually every big-name Democrat in New York, Gillibrand succeeded in her stealth campaign to persuade Governor David Paterson to ­appoint her as Clinton’s successor."[3]

Gillibrand's official portrait, 112th Congress

The response to the appointment was mixed. The upstate media was generally optimistic about an upstate Senator,[37] which had not been seen since Charles Goodell left office in 1971;[38] downstaters focused on disappointment with a non-Kennedy selection, with some media outlets stating that the selection ignored the democratic influence New York City and downstate have on state politics (due to the area's population). One explicitly asked whether Paterson's administration was aware of "[where] statewide elections are won and lost".[37] The relative unfamiliarity with Gillibrand statewide was undeniable, though, with many finding the choice surprising.[5] One source states, "With every Democrat in New York...angling for the appointment, there was a sense of bafflement, belittlement, and bruised egos when Paterson tapped the junior legislator unknown outside of Albany."[3]

Gillibrand was sworn in on January 26, 2009; at 42, she entered the chamber as the youngest senator in the 111th Congress.[3]

Senate career

Senator Gillibrand speaks in support of the DREAM Act and the repeal of Don't ask, don't tell.

Soon after her appointment, Gillibrand's viewpoints on many political issues saw at least some change. Transitioning from representing a heavily Republican congressional district to a largely Democratic state is the given reason, though many in the 20th congressional district saw it as flip-flopping.[39]

Gillibrand, in association with Senator Schumer, was instrumental in Sonya Sotomayor's nomination to the US Supreme Court.[citation needed] On April 9, 2009, a combined Schumer-Gillibrand press release stated strong support of a Latino being nominated to the Surpreme Court at the time of the next vacancy. Sotomayor was their first choice.[40] The two senators introduced Sotomayor at the Senate confirmation hearing in July;[41] pundits and comedians took advantage of her long-windedness, which filled hours of television programming.

During the lame duck session of the 111th Congress, Senator Gillibrand scored two substantial legislative victories: the repeal of Don't Ask, Don't Tell and the passage of the James Zadroga 9/11 Health and Compensation Act. Both were issues she had championed during that session. In the aftermath of these victories, many commentators opined that these victories marked her emergence on the national stage.[42][43][44]

In 2011, Gillibrand visited her friend Congresswoman Gabby Giffords, who had been shot in the head during the shooting in Tucson, and Giffords opened her eyes for the first time and squeezed Gillibrand's hand.[45][46]

The National Journal declared Gillibrand to be the tenth most liberal member of the Senate in 2010 (she tied Chuck Schumer).[47]

Elections

2010

External videos
Gillibrand-DioGuardi Debate, WABC, October 17, 2010
Gillibrand won 54 of 62 counties in the 2010 Senate election.[48]

Gillibrand faced a Democratic primary election on September 14, 2010. Challengers surfaced as early as the time of her appointment, most notably, Long Island Congresswoman Carolyn McCarthy, who was unhappy with Gillibrand's stance on gun control.[49][Note 4] McCarthy ultimately decided not to run.[50] By March 2009, Harold Ford, Jr., former Congressman from Tennessee, considered a run but ultimately decided against it after pressure from Chuck Schumer and other high-ranking Democrats.[51] Congressman Steve Israel was also a contender but was talked out of it by President Obama. Concerned about a possible schism in the party that could lead to a heated primary, split electorate, and weakened stance, high-ranking members of the party backed Gillibrand and requested major opponents to back off.[51] In the end, Gillibrand faced Gail Goode, a lawyer from New York City,[52] and handily won the primary with 76% of the vote.[53]

Initially expected to be a heated race, Gillibrand easily won against Republican Joseph DioGuardi, a former New York Congressman. This was Gillibrand's first state-wide election.[48] By the end of October, a Quinnipiac University poll placed Gillibrand over DioGuardi by 23 points (57 to 34).[54] She won the November election 63% to 35%, carrying 54 of New York's 62 counties; those counties that supported DioGuardi did so by a margin no greater than 10%.[48]

Gillibrand is sworn in by Vice President Biden in January 2011.

2012

Gillibrand is currently running for reelection. After winning the 2010 special election, Gillibrand serves the rest of Clinton's unfinished term, which ends in January 2013. The next election is in November 2012.[55]

Committee assignments

While in the Senate, Gillibrand served on the following committees:[56][57][58][59]

Caucus memberships

  • Healthy Kids Caucus
  • International Conservation Caucus
  • Senate Women’s Caucus
  • Sportsmen's Caucus

Political views

Gillibrand's views on many issues can be defined as an evolution based on constituent needs; some have characterized this progression as flip-flopping. In the House, she was known as a conservative liberal[60] or centrist,[61] serving at the will of a highly conservative electorate.[60] She was a member of the Blue Dog Coalition, a caucus of fiscally conservative Democrats.[62] In the Senate, she is known more as a populist-leaning liberal, as she represents a heavily Democratic state. At the time of her appointment to the Senate, a Salon.com editorial said that Gillibrand's reputation in the House characterized her as "a hybrid politician who has remained conservative enough to keep her seat while appearing progressive enough to raise money downstate."[60]

On social issues, Gillibrand is generally liberal, supporting a pro-choice agenda,[63] legalization of same-sex marriage,[64] and health care reform with a public option.[65] She is a strong advocate for government transparency, being one of a few members of Congress that releases as much personal and scheduling information.[66] She is also a strong supporter of female equality and involvement, having begun the website offthesidelines.org in 2011. Although a supporter of gun rights while in the House, Gillibrand has since moved in the direction of gun control.[67] On economic issues, Gillibrand has been more fiscally conservative.[citation needed]

Gillibrand has received an 8% rating from the American Conservative Union,[68] 70% from Americans for Democratic Action,[69] and 90% from the American Civil Liberties Union.[70] OnTheIssues.org rates Gillibrand as a "populist-leaning liberal."[71]

Personal life

Gillibrand with her husband and sons on Halloween 2009

Gillibrand lives in the town of Brunswick with her husband and two sons. She is married to Jonathan Gillibrand, a venture capitalist and British national. The two met on a blind date; Jonathan was only meant to be in the United States for a year while studying for his MBA at Columbia University, however he stayed in the country because of his relationship with Kirsten. The two were married in a Catholic church in Manhattan in 2001.[2][3] Due to the requirements of the office, the family spends most of its time in Washington;[4] in 2011, the Gillibrand family sold their house in Hudson and purchased a home in Brunswick to be closer to Kirsten's family in Albany.[72]

The Gillibrands welcomed their first child, Theodore, in 2003.[4] Their second son, Henry, was born in 2008. Gillibrand is the sixth woman to have a child while serving as a member of congress.[73] She continued to work until the day of Henry's delivery, for which she received a standing ovation from her colleagues in the House the next day.[4]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ For more information on the Corning-Noonan relationship, see: Grondahl, Paul. Mayor Erastus Corning: Albany Icon, Albany Enigma. Albany: State University of New York Press; 2007. ISBN 9780791472941.
  2. ^ More controversy stirred when Gillibrand's 2008 reelection campaign accepted over $18,000 worth of contributions from tobacco companies and executives.[11]
  3. ^ Gillibrand had considered running as early as 2004, but Hillary Clinton advised to wait until the 2006 midterm elections, when circumstances would be more favorable for Gillibrand.[4]
  4. ^ McCarthy has been a supporter of strict gun control since her husband was murdered in a 1993 commuter train shooting spree.[49]

References

  1. ^ a b c Tumulty, Karen (January 23, 2009). "Kirsten Gillibrand". Time (Time Inc.). http://swampland.blogs.time.com/2009/01/23/kirstin-gillibrand. Retrieved January 27, 2011. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f Van Meter, Jonathan (November 2010). "In Hillary’s Footsteps: Kirsten Gillibrand". Vogue (Condé Nast Publications). http://www.vogue.com/magazine/article/in-hillarys-footsteps-kirsten-gillibrand. Retrieved January 26, 2011. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Shapiro, Walter (July 8, 2009). "Who’s Wearing the Pantsuit Now?: The story of Kirsten Gillibrand’s polite meteor ride to the top". Elle (Hachette Filipacchi Médias). http://www.elle.com/Life-Love/Society-Career-Power/Kirsten-Gillibrand. Retrieved January 27, 2011. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Rodrick, Stephen (June 7, 2009). "The Reintroduction of Kirsten Gillibrand". New York (magazine) (New York Media Holdings). http://nymag.com/news/politics/57197/. Retrieved February 4, 2011. 
  5. ^ a b c Powell, Michael; Raymond Hernandez (January 23, 2009). "Senate Choice: Folksy Centrist Born to Politics". The New York Times (The New York Times Company). http://www.nytimes.com/2009/01/24/nyregion/24gillibrand.html. Retrieved January 26, 2011. 
  6. ^ Chen, David W. (February 14, 2009). "Ni Hao. My Name Is Gillibrand, but Lu Will Do". The New York Times (The New York Times Company). http://www.nytimes.com/2009/02/15/nyregion/15kirsten.html. Retrieved January 27, 2011. 
  7. ^ a b Perret, Anya (January 23, 2009). "Gillibrand ‘88 picked for N.Y. Senate seat". The Dartmouth (The Dartmouth, Inc.). http://thedartmouth.com/2009/01/23/news/senate. Retrieved January 29, 2011. 
  8. ^ No author given (February 9, 2009). "Gillibrand Says D’Amato Isn’t in the Picture". The New York Times (The New York Times Company). http://www.nytimes.com/2009/02/10/nyregion/10damato.html. Retrieved January 29, 2011. 
  9. ^ No author given (January 26, 2009). "UCLA law alumna appointed U.S. senator from New York". UCLA Today. University of California, Los Angeles. http://www.today.ucla.edu/portal/ut/ucla-law-alumna-appointed-u-s-79380.aspx. Retrieved January 29, 2011. 
  10. ^ McShane, Larry; Kenneth Lovett and Elizabeth Benjamin (January 23, 2009). "Who is Kirsten Gillibrand? New York congresswoman to take Clinton's Senate seat". Daily News (New York) (Mortimer Zuckerman). http://www.nydailynews.com/news/politics/2009/01/22/2009-01-22_who_is_kirsten_gillibrand_new_york_congr.html. Retrieved February 4, 2011. 
  11. ^ a b c Hernandez, Raymond; David Kocieniewski (March 26, 2009). "As New Lawyer, Senator Was Active in Tobacco’s Defense". The New York Times (The New York Times Company). http://www.nytimes.com/2009/03/27/nyregion/27gillibrand.html?pagewanted=1&ref=kirstengillibrand. Retrieved February 4, 2011. 
  12. ^ a b Odato, James (October 16, 2008). "Gillibrand's tobacco past includes Philip Morris". Times Union (Albany) (Hearst Newspapers). http://albarchive.merlinone.net/mweb/wmsql.wm.request?oneimage&imageid=7067847. Retrieved February 4, 2011. 
  13. ^ Samuels, Dorothy (April 9, 2009). "Smoke and Politics: Considering Senator Gillibrand’s Tobacco Past". The New York Times (The New York Times Company). http://www.nytimes.com/2009/04/10/opinion/10observer.html?_r=1. Retrieved February 4, 2011. 
  14. ^ "Biography of Kirsten Gillibrand". Dartmouth College Office of Alumni Relations. http://alumni.dartmouth.edu/events/Celebrating35YearsofWomenatDartmouth/SpeakerList/KirstenGillibrand. Retrieved May 8, 2011. 
  15. ^ "Campaign Contributions: Kirsten Gillibrand". newsmeat.com. January 31, 2011. http://www.newsmeat.com/washington_political_donations/Kirsten_Gillibrand.php. Retrieved February 7, 2011. 
  16. ^ "Congressional District 20" (PDF). National Atlas of the United States. http://www.nationalatlas.gov/printable/images/pdf/congdist/NY20_110.pdf. Retrieved November 16, 2010. 
  17. ^ Romano, Andrew (November 3, 2010). "Murphy's Law: One Democrat's defeat explains how the party lost the House". Newsweek (The Newsweek Daily Beast Company). http://www.newsweek.com/2010/11/03/the-anatomy-of-one-democrat-s-loss.html#. Retrieved November 14, 2010. 
  18. ^ "NYSVoter Enrollment Statistics by District" (PDF). New York State Board of Elections. November 1, 2006. p. 5. http://www.elections.state.ny.us/NYSBOE/enrollment/congress/congress_nov06.pdf. Retrieved February 2, 2011. 
  19. ^ a b "2006 Election Results". New York State Board of Elections. December 14, 2006. http://www.elections.state.ny.us/2006ElectionResults.html. Retrieved January 26, 2011. 
  20. ^ a b c O'Brien, Tim (November 9, 2006). "Gillibrand Brings Clout to House". Times Union (Albany) (Hearst Newspapers): p. B1. http://albarchive.merlinone.net/mweb/wmsql.wm.request?oneimage&imageid=6367342. Retrieved February 2, 2011. 
  21. ^ "Congressional Elections: New York's 20th Congressional Distirct 2006 Election, Total Raised and Spent". Center for Responsive Politics (opensecrets.org). August 20, 2007. http://www.opensecrets.org/races/summary.php?cycle=2006&id=NY20. Retrieved February 2, 2011. 
  22. ^ a b Dougherty, Michael Brendan (April 6, 2009). "Rebranding Gillibrand". The American Conservative (Ron Unz). http://www.amconmag.com/article/2009/apr/06/00012/. Retrieved February 2, 2011. 
  23. ^ "John & Gayle Sweeney Stand Side-By-Side, Firing Back". WTEN. 2009-11. http://www.wten.com/Global/story.asp?s=5622725. Retrieved February 2, 2011. 
  24. ^ Benjamin, Elizabeth (November 5, 2006). "Siena: Gillibrand 46, Sweeney: 43". Blog of Times Union (Albany) (Hearst Newspapers). http://blog.timesunion.com/capitol/archives/2673/siena-gillibrand-46-sweeney-43/. Retrieved February 2, 2011. 
  25. ^ No author listed (editorial) (December 14, 2006). "Congress and the Benefits of Sunshine". The New York Times (The New York Times Company). http://www.nytimes.com/2006/12/14/opinion/14thu3.html. Retrieved February 4, 2011. 
  26. ^ Hernandez, Raymond (May 15, 2007). "Barely in Office, but G.O.P. Rivals Are Circling". The New York Times (The New York Times Company). http://www.nytimes.com/2007/05/15/nyregion/15freshman.html. Retrieved February 4, 2011. 
  27. ^ Hernandez, Raymond (March 21, 2007). "Earmarked for Success?". The New York Times (The New York Times Company). http://www.nytimes.com/2007/03/21/nyregion/21freshman.html. Retrieved February 4, 2011. 
  28. ^ O'Connor, Patrick; Glenn Thrush (January 25, 2009). "Gillibrand unpopular among peers". Politico (Allbritton Communications). http://www.politico.com/news/stories/0109/17877.html. Retrieved February 7, 2011. 
  29. ^ a b Hornbeck, Leigh (November 5, 2008). "Gillibrand is Repeat Winner". Times Union (Albany) (Hearst Newspapers): p. A13. http://albarchive.merlinone.net/mweb/wmsql.wm.request?oneimage&imageid=7147108. Retrieved February 2, 2011. 
  30. ^ a b "2008 Election Results". New York State Board of Elections. December 4, 2008. http://www.elections.state.ny.us/2008ElectionResults.html. Retrieved January 26, 2011. 
  31. ^ No author listed (November 5, 2008). "Democrats Ride Obama's Coat-tails to Victory in Congressional Elections". Daily Mail (Associated Newspapers Ltd). http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/worldnews/article-1083129/Democrats-ride-Obamas-coat-tails-victory-Congressional-elections.html#ixzz1CrL3T5Yr. Retrieved February 2, 2011. 
  32. ^ Joint Committee on Printing (August 9, 2007). "Standing Committees of the House" (PDF). Official Congressional Directory (110th Congress). United States Government Printing Office. http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CDIR-2007-08-09/pdf/CDIR-2007-08-09-HOUSECOMMITTEES.pdf. Retrieved February 20, 2011. 
  33. ^ Hernandez, Javier C.; Danny Hakim and Nicholas Confessore (January 23, 2009). "Paterson Announces Choice of Gillibrand for Senate Seat". The New York Times (The New York Times Company). http://www.nytimes.com/2009/01/24/nyregion/24choice.html?ref=nyregion. Retrieved January 26, 2011. 
  34. ^ Seiler, Casey; (with wire reports) (December 2, 2008). "From Foe to Secretary of State". Times Union (Albany) (Hearst Newspapers): p. A1. http://albarchive.merlinone.net/mweb/wmsql.wm.request?oneimage&imageid=7239251. Retrieved January 29, 2011. 
  35. ^ Hornbeck, Leigh (January 23, 2009). "Paterson Poised for Senate Pick". Times Union (Albany) (Hearst Newspapers): p. A1. http://albarchive.merlinone.net/mweb/wmsql.wm.request?oneimage&imageid=7411044. Retrieved January 29, 2011. 
  36. ^ Silverleib, Alan (January 23, 2009). "N.Y. Governor Names Clinton Successor". Cable New Network (CNN). http://articles.cnn.com/2009-01-23/politics/gillibrand.profile_1_rep-kirsten-gillibrand-hillary-clinton-hardball-politics?_s=PM:POLITICS. Retrieved January 29, 2011. 
  37. ^ a b Germano, Sara (January 28, 2009). "Upstate/Downstate Divide in Gillibrand Coverage". Columbia Journalism Review (Columbia University). http://www.cjr.org/the_kicker/upstatedownstate_divide_in_gil.php. Retrieved January 30, 2011. 
  38. ^ Editorial (no author attributed) (January 25, 2009). "Week in Review: Some of the Top Stories in the Capital Region". Times Union (Albany) (Hearst Newspapers): p. B2. http://albarchive.merlinone.net/mweb/wmsql.wm.request?oneimage&imageid=7419034. Retrieved January 30, 2011. 
  39. ^ Halbfinger, David M. (February 8, 2009). "To Some in Gillibrand’s Old District, Her Evolution Is a Betrayal". The New York Times (The New York Times Company). http://www.nytimes.com/2009/02/09/nyregion/09district.html. Retrieved February 4, 2011. 
  40. ^ "Schumer, Gillibrand Make Direct Appeal to President Obama Recommending He Nominate the First Ever Latino to the Surprime Court Should a Vacancy Occur During His Term" (Press release). Senate Offices of Chuck Schumer and Kirsten Gillibrand. April 9, 2009. http://schumer.senate.gov/new_website/record.cfm?id=311344. Retrieved February 26, 2011. 
  41. ^ Halbfinger, David M. (July 13, 2009). "Gillibrand Gets the Gavel on Big Stage". The New York Times (The New York Times Company). http://www.nytimes.com/2009/07/14/nyregion/14gillibrand.html. Retrieved February 26, 2011. 
  42. ^ Gillibrand Gains Foothold With Victory on 9/11 Aid Bill
  43. ^ The Education of Kirsten Gillibrand
  44. ^ Sen. Gillibrand's moment
  45. ^ Sen. Gillibrand On Giffords' Eye-Opening Moment
  46. ^ Carleo-Evalgelist, Jordan (January 14, 2011). "Gillibrand touched by visit with Giffords". Times Union (Albany: Hearst Corporation): p. D3. http://www.timesunion.com/default/article/Gillibrand-touched-by-visit-with-Giffords-955322.php. Retrieved April 10, 2011. 
  47. ^ Mihalcik, Carrie (February 26, 2011). "Most Liberal Members of Congress". National Journal. Atlantic Media Company. http://www.nationaljournal.com/congress/most-liberal-members-of-congress-20110226?mrefid=mostViewed. Retrieved February 26, 2011. 
  48. ^ a b c "Election 2010 Results: New York". The New York Times (The New York Times Company). http://elections.nytimes.com/2010/results/new-york?scp=5&sq=dioguardi%20gillibrand&st=cse. Retrieved April 15, 2011. 
  49. ^ a b Hakim, Danny (January 22, 2009). "With Kennedy Out, N.R.A. Becomes Issue". The New York Times (The New York Times Company). http://cityroom.blogs.nytimes.com/2009/01/22/congresswomen-could-be-in-senate-showdown/. Retrieved February 7, 2011. 
  50. ^ Brune, Tom (June 4, 2009). "McCarthy Won't Seek Gillibrand's Senate Seat". News Day. http://www.newsday.com/long-island/politics/mccarthy-won-t-seek-gillibrand-s-senate-seat-1.1240653?qr=1. Retrieved February 7, 2011. 
  51. ^ a b "Ford: Dems 'Bullied Me Out' of N.Y. Senate Race". Associated Press. Fox News. March 2, 2009. http://www.foxnews.com/politics/2010/03/01/ford-wont-run-gillibrand-new-york/?test=latestnews. Retrieved February 7, 2011. 
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  55. ^ Hill, Michael (Associated Press) (November 3, 2010). "Day after win, NY Sen. Gillibrand is running again". The Buffalo News (Berkshire Hathaway). http://www.buffalonews.com/wire-feeds/state/article240192.ece. Retrieved January 27, 2011. 
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  64. ^ "Marriage Equality". Gillibrand for Senate. http://www.kirstengillibrand.com/issues/marriage-equality. Retrieved 2011-08-16. 
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External links

United States House of Representatives
Preceded by
John E. Sweeney
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from New York's 20th congressional district

2007–2009
Succeeded by
Scott Murphy
United States Senate
Preceded by
Hillary Rodham Clinton
United States Senator (Class 1) from New York
2009–present
Served alongside: Chuck Schumer
Incumbent
Preceded by
Max Baucus
Chairman of the Senate Agriculture Subcommittee on Domestic and Foreign Marketing, Inspection, and Plant and Animal Health
2009–2011
Subcommittee renamed
Subcommittee renamed Chairman of the Senate Agriculture Subcommittee on Livestock, Dairy, Poultry, Marketing and Agriculture Security
2011–present
Incumbent
Honorary titles
Preceded by
Michael Bennet
Youngest Member of the United States Senate
2009
Succeeded by
George LeMieux
New title Honorary Chairman of the College Democrats of America
2011–present
Incumbent
Party political offices
Preceded by
Hillary Rodham Clinton
Democratic nominee for U.S. Senator from New York
(Class 1)

2010
Most recent
United States order of precedence
Preceded by
Michael Bennet
D-Colorado
United States Senators by seniority
81st
Succeeded by
Al Franken
D-Minnesota

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