- Shanxi clique
The Shanxi clique(晉系) was one of several military factions that split off from the
Beiyang Armyduring China's warlord era.
Though a close associate of
Duan Qirui, Shanxi's military governor, Yan Xishan, did not join Duan's Anhui clique. He kept his province neutral from the various civil wars the nation was facing. He would fight troops from other cliques if they encroached the provincial boundaries. In 1927, faced with the overwhelming forces of the National Revolutionary Army, the Fengtian cliqueissued an ultimatum to Yan to join their side. Yan joined the NRA instead and drove Fengtian armies from Beijing. As a reward, the Kuomintangallowed the Shanxi clique to expand all the way to the sea at Shandong. Displeased with the dictatorship of Chiang Kaishek, the Shanxi clique together with several other cliques launched the Central Plains Warbut was defeated. The clique was significantly weakend by the Japanese invasion which occupied most of their base province. After the war, Yan was unable to defend his province which fell to the Communists in 1949.
History of the Republic of China
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