- Accredited investor
Accredited investor is a term defined by various securities laws that delineates investors permitted to invest in certain types of higher risk investments including seed money, limited partnerships, hedge funds, and angel investor networks. The term generally includes wealthy individuals and organizations such as a corporation, endowment, or retirement plans.
In the United States, for an individual to be considered an accredited investor, they must have a net worth of at least one million US dollars not including the value of one's residence or have made at least $200,000 each year for the last two years ($300,000 with his or her spouse if married) and have the expectation to make the same amount this year." This rule came into effect in 1933 by way of the Securities Act of 1933.
"The federal securities laws define the term accredited investor in Rule 501 of Regulation D and as amended by the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act as:
- a bank, insurance company, registered investment company, business development company, or small business investment company;
- an employee benefit plan, within the meaning of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act, if a bank, insurance company, or registered investment adviser makes the investment decisions, or if the plan has total assets in excess of $5 million;
- a charitable organization, corporation, or partnership with assets exceeding $5 million;
- a director, executive officer, or general partner of the company selling the securities;
- a business in which all the equity owners are accredited investors;
- a natural person who has individual net worth, or joint net worth with the person's spouse, that exceeds $1 million at the time of the purchase, excluding the value of their primary residence;
- a natural person with income exceeding $200,000 in each of the two most recent years or joint income with a spouse exceeding $300,000 for those years and a reasonable expectation of the same income level in the current year; or
- a trust with assets in excess of $5 million, not formed to acquire the securities offered, whose purchases a sophisticated person makes."
Proposed new accredited investor class for hedge funds
The U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) has considered a change to the definition of "accredited investor" to create a new class of potential investors: "accredited natural persons". The proposed changes would stipulate that an "accredited natural person" must be both "accredited investors" under the existing standards and also own not less than $2.5 million in investments (as currently defined in the Investment Company Act for purposes of the Section 3(c)(7) exemption) on the date an investment is made. The $2.5 million test will be periodically adjusted for inflation.
An "Accredited Investor" (as defined in NI 45 106) is:
- a person registered under the securities legislation of a jurisdiction of Canada, as an adviser or dealer, other than a person registered solely as a limited market dealer under one or both of the Securities Act (Ontario) or the Securities Act (Newfoundland and Labrador); or
- an individual registered or formerly registered under the securities legislation of a jurisdiction of Canada as a representative of a person referred to in paragraph (a); or
- an individual who, either alone or with a spouse, beneficially owns financial assets having an aggregate realizable value that before taxes, but net of any related liabilities, exceeds $1,000,000; or
- an individual whose net income before taxes exceeded $200,000 in each of the two most recent calendar years or whose net income before taxes combined with that of a spouse exceeded $300,000 in each of the two most recent calendar years and who, in either case, reasonably expects to exceed that net income level in the current calendar year; or
- an individual who, either alone or with a spouse, has net assets of at least $5,000,000; or
- a person, other than an individual or investment fund, that has net assets of at least $5,000,000 as shown on its most recently prepared financial statements; or
- a trust company or trust corporation registered or authorized to carry on business under the Trust and Loan Companies Act (Canada) or under comparable legislation in a jurisdiction of Canada or a foreign jurisdiction, acting on behalf of a fully managed account managed by the trust company or trust corporation, as the case may be; or
- an investment fund that distributes or has distributed its securities only to (i) a person that is or was an accredited investor at the time of the distribution, (ii) a person that acquires or acquired securities in the circumstances referred to in sections 2.10 of NI 45 106 [Minimum amount investment] or 2.19 of NI 45 106 [Additional investment in investment funds], or (iii) a person described in paragraph (i) or (ii) that acquires or acquired securities under section 2.18 of NI 45 106 [Investment fund reinvestment];
- a person acting on behalf of a fully managed account managed by that person, if that person is registered or authorized to carry on business as an adviser or the equivalent under the securities legislation of a jurisdiction of Canada or a foreign jurisdiction; or
- a person in respect of which all of the owners of interests, direct, indirect or beneficial, except the voting securities required by law to be owned by directors, are persons that are accredited investors (as defined in NI 45 106); or
- an investment fund that is advised by a person registered as an adviser or a person that is exempt from registration as an adviser.
Retail clients requesting treatment as 'elective' professional clients (as defined by Markets in Financial Instruments Directive (MiFID)) must satisfy at least two of the following quantitative criteria in assessing the client's expertise, experience and knowledge:
- the client has carried out transactions, in significant size (at least EUR 50,000), on the relevant market at an average frequency of 10 per quarter over the previous four quarters;
- the size of the client's financial instrument portfolio, defined as including cash deposits and financial instruments, exceeds EUR 500,000;
- the client works or has worked in the financial sector for at least one year in a professional position which requires knowledge of the transactions or services envisaged.
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
accredited investor — ac·cred·it·ed investor /ə kre də təd / n: an investor that qualifies under the Securities Act of 1933 and related Securities and Exchange Commission regulations as one having at least a specified net worth and a certain level of knowledge and… … Law dictionary
Accredited Investor — A term used by the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) under Regulation D to refer to investors who are financially sophisticated and have a reduced need for the protection provided by certain government filings. Accredited investors include … Investment dictionary
accredited investor — Refers to an individual whose net worth, or joint net worth with a spouse, exceeds $1,000,000; or whose individual income exceeded $200,000 or whose joint income with a spouse exceeded $300,000 in each of the 2 most recent years and can be… … Financial and business terms
Non-Accredited Investor — An investor who does not meet the net worth requirements for an accredited investor under the Securities Exchange Commission s Regulation D. A non accredited individual investor is one who has a net worth of less than $1 million (including… … Investment dictionary
Institutional investor — Institutional investors are organizations which pool large sums of money and invest those sums in companies. They include banks, insurance companies, retirement or pension funds, hedge funds and mutual funds. Their role in the economy is to act… … Wikipedia
institutional accredited investors — (IAIs) USA Any institutional investor which falls within any of the following categories of accredited investor at the time of the sale of the securities to that investor: • Any bank; any savings and loan association, whether acting in its… … Law dictionary
sophisticated investor — USA An investor who either alone or together with his, her or its purchaser representative, has sufficient knowledge and experience with financial and business matters that the investor can evaluate the risks and merits of the investment. This… … Law dictionary
Angel investor — An angel investor or angel (known as a business angel or informal investor in Europe), is an affluent individual who provides capital for a business start up, usually in exchange for convertible debt or ownership equity. A small but increasing… … Wikipedia
Hedge fund — A hedge fund is a private investment fund open to a limited range of investors which is permitted by regulators to undertake a wider range of activities than other investment funds and which pays a performance fee to its investment manager.… … Wikipedia
Dodd–Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act — Full title An Act to promote the financial stability of the United States by improving accountability and transparency in the financial system, to end too big to fail , to protect the American taxpayer by ending bailouts, to protect consumers… … Wikipedia