- Francisco Zurbarán
Francisco de Zurbarán (
November 7 1598– August 27 1664) was a Spanish painter. He is known primarily for his religious paintings depicting monks, nuns, and martyrs, and for his still-lifes. Zurbarán gained the nickname "Spanish Caravaggio", owing to the forcible, realistic use of chiaroscuroin which he excelled.
He was born at
Fuente de Cantosin Extremadura, the son of Luis Zurbarán, a haberdasher, and his wife, Isabel Márquez. In childhood he set about imitating objects with charcoal. In 1614 his father sent him to Sevilleto apprentice for three years with Pedro Díaz de Villanueva, an artist of whom very little is known. [Gállego and Gudiol, 1987, p. 13.]
It is unknown whether Zurbarán had the opportunity to copy the paintings of
Michelangelo da Caravaggio; at any rate, he adopted Caravaggio's realistic use of chiaroscuro. The painter who may have had the greatest influence on his characteristically severe compositions was Juan Sánchez Cotán. [Gállego and Gudiol, 1987, p. 15.] Polychrome sculpture—which by the time of Zurbarán's apprenticeship had reached a level of sophistication in Seville that surpassed that of the local painters—provided another important stylistic model for the young artist; the work of Juan Martínez Montañésis especially close to Zurbarán's in spirit. [Gállego and Gudiol, 1987, p. 15.]
He painted directly from nature, and he made great use of the lay-figure in the study of draperies, in which he was particularly proficient. He had a special gift for white draperies; as a consequence, the houses of the white-robed
Carthusiansare abundant in his paintings. To these rigid methods, Zurbarán is said to have adhered throughout his career, which was prosperous, wholly confined to Spain, and varied by few incidents beyond those of his daily labour. His subjects were mostly severe and ascetic religious vigils, the spirit chastising the flesh into subjection, the compositions often reduced to a single figure. The style is more reserved and chastened than Caravaggio's, the tone of color often quite bluish. Exceptional effects are attained by the precisely finished foregrounds, massed out largely in light and shade.
While in Seville, Zurbarán married Leonor de Jordera, by whom he had several children. Towards 1630 he was appointed painter to Philip IV; and there is a story that on one occasion the sovereign laid his hand on the artist's shoulder, saying "Painter to the king, king of painters." After 1640 his austere, harsh, hard edged style was unfavorably compared to the sentimental religiosity of Murillo and Zurbarán's reputation declined. It was only in 1658, late in Zurbarán's life that he moved to
Madridin search of work and renewed his contact with Velázquez. Zurbarán died in poverty and obscurity.
in the cathedral.
Santa Maria de Guadalupehe painted various large pictures, eight of which relate to the history of St. Jerome; and in the church of Saint Paul, Seville, a famous figure of the Crucified Saviour, in grisaille, creating an illusion of marble. In 1633 he finished the paintings of the high altar of the Carthusians in Jerez. In the palace of Buenretiro, Madrid are four large canvases representing the Labours of Hercules, an unusual instance of non-Christian subjects from the hand of Zurbarán. A fine example of his work is in the National Gallery, London: a whole-length, life-sized figure of a kneeling Franciscan holding a skull. His principal scholars were Bernabe de Ayalaand the brothers Polanco (painters).
In 1756 Richard Trevor who was Prince Bishop of Durham from 1752 to 1771 bought a series of 12 of the 13 portraits of Jacob and his 12 sons. These are still in
Auckland Castle, Bishop Auckland, near Durham, England, Great Britain.
*Gállego, Julián; Gudiol, José (1987). "Zurbarán". London: Alpine Fine Arts Collection, Ltd. ISBN 0-88168-115-6
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Francisco De Zurbarán — (1598–1664) est un peintre du siècle d or espagnol. Contemporain et ami de Vélasquez, Zurbarán se distingue dans les peintures religieuses où son art révèle une grande force visuelle et un profond mysticisme et il devient un artiste emblématique… … Wikipédia en Français
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Francisco de zurbarán — (1598–1664) est un peintre du siècle d or espagnol. Contemporain et ami de Vélasquez, Zurbarán se distingue dans les peintures religieuses où son art révèle une grande force visuelle et un profond mysticisme et il devient un artiste emblématique… … Wikipédia en Français