Vesak


Vesak

Infobox Holiday|Buddhism



holiday_name=Vesak
official_name=Wesak
Visakah Puja
Vaishaka
Buddha Purnima
Visakha Bucha
Saga Dawa
佛誕 (fó dàn)
Phật Đản
nickname=Buddha's Birthday or Buddha Day
observedby=Buddhists
date=First full moon of the Taurus, in May (common years) or June (leap years)
observances=Meditation, Observing the eight precepts, partaking in vegetarian food, giving to charity, "bathing" the Buddha
type=Buddhist
significance=The birth, enlightenment and passing away of Buddha
relatedto=Hanamatsuri
date2006=May 12
date2007=May 31
date2008=May 19
date2009=May 9
date2010=May 27

Vesak is an annual holiday observed by practicing Buddhists in many Asian countries like Thailand, Cambodia, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Myanmar, Singapore, Vietnam, and also Indonesia, Hong Kong, and Taiwan.

In Mahayana Buddhist traditions, the holiday is known by its Sanskrit equivalent, Vaiśākha. The word Vesak itself is the Sinhalese language word (වෙසක්) for the Pali variation, "Vesākha". Vesak is also known as Visaka Bochea in Cambodia, Visakah Puja, Buddha Purnima or Buddha Jayanti in India, Bangladesh and Nepal, Visakha Bucha in Thailand, Phật Đản in Vietnam, Waisak in Indonesia, Vesak (Wesak) in Sri Lanka and Malaysia, 佛誕 ("fó dàn") in Chinese-speaking countries, and Saga Dawa in Tibet. The equivalent festival in Laos is called Vixakha Bouxa and in Myanmar is called Ka-sone-la-pyae meaning "Fullmoon Day of Kasone" which is also the second month of the Myanmar Calendar.

The exact date of Vesak varies according to the various lunar calendars used in different traditions. In Theravada countries following the Buddhist calendar, it falls on the full moon Uposatha day (typically the 5th or 6th lunar month). In China it is the fourth month in the Chinese lunar calendar, coinciding with the first full moon of that month. The date varies from year to year in the Western Gregorian calendar but falls in April or May.

Sometimes informally called "Buddha's birthday," it actually encompasses the birth, enlightenment Nirvana, and passing (Parinirvana) of Gautama Buddha.

History

The decision to agree to celebrate Vesak as the Buddha’s birthday was formalized at the first Conference of the World Fellowship of Buddhists held in Sri Lanka in 1950, although festivals at this time in the Buddhist world are a centuries-old tradition. The Resolution that was adopted at the World Conference reads as follows:

On Vesak Day, Buddhists all over the world commemorate events of significance to Buddhists of all traditions: The birth, enlightenment and the passing away of Gautama Buddha. As Buddhism spread from India it was assimilated into many foreign cultures, and consequently Vesak is celebrated in many different ways all over the world.

The celebration of Vesak

May 2007 had two full moon days, the 1st and the 31st. Some countries (including Sri Lanka, Cambodia and Malaysia) celebrated Vesak on the 1st, while others (Thailand, Singapore) celebrated the holiday on the 31st.

On Vesak day, devout Buddhists and followers alike are expected and requested to assemble in their various temples before dawn for the ceremonial, and honorable, hoisting of the Buddhist flag and the singing of hymns in praise of the holy triple gem: The Buddha, The Dharma (his teachings), and The Sangha (his disciples). Devotees may bring simple offerings of flowers, candles and joss-sticks to lay at the feet of their teacher. These symbolic offerings are to remind followers that just as the beautiful flowers would wither away after a short while and the candles and joss-sticks would soon burn out, so too is life subject to decay and destruction. Devotees are enjoined to make a special effort to refrain from killing of any kind. They are encouraged to partake of vegetarian food for the day. In some countries, notably Sri Lanka, two days are set aside for the celebration of Vesak and all liquor shops and slaughter houses are closed by government decree during the two days. Also birds, insects and animals are released by the thousands in what is known as a 'symbolic act to liberation'; of giving freedom to those who are in captivity, imprisoned, or tortured against their will. Some devout Buddhists will wear a simple white dress and spend the whole day in temples with renewed determination to observe the observance of the Ten Precepts. Devout Buddhists undertake to lead a noble life according to the teaching by making daily affirmations to observe the eight Precepts. However, on special days, notably new moon and full moon days, they observe additional disciplines to train themselves to practice morality, simplicity and humility.

Some temples also display a small image of the baby Buddha in front of the altar in a small basin filled with water and decorated with flowers, allowing devotees to pour water over the statue; it is symbolic of the events following the Buddha's birth, when devas and spirits made heavenly offerings to him.

The Ten Precepts are:

#Not to kill
#Not to steal
#Not to engage in improper sexual activity
#Not to indulge in wrong speech
#Not to take intoxicating drinks and drugs
#To abstain from taking food at unreasonable times
#To refrain from sensual pleasures such as dancing, singing and self-adornment
#To refrain from using high and luxurious seats in order to practice humility.
#To refrain from wearing scent or garlands
#To refrain from handling gold or silver so as not to incite greed

Devotees are expected to listen to talks given by monks. On this day monks will recite verses uttered by the Buddha twenty-five centuries ago, to invoke peace and happiness for the Government and the people. Buddhists are reminded to live in harmony with people of other faiths and to respect the beliefs of other people as the Buddha had taught.

Bringing happiness to others

Celebrating Vesak also means making special efforts to bring happiness to the unfortunate like the aged, the handicapped and the sick. To this day, Buddhists will distribute gifts in cash and kind to various charitable homes throughout the country. Vesak is also a time for great joy and happiness, expressed not by pandering to one’s appetites but by concentrating on useful activities such as decorating and illuminating temples, painting and creating exquisite scenes from the life of the Buddha for public dissemination. Devout Buddhists also vie with one another to provide refreshments and vegetarian food to followers who visit the temple to pay homage to the Enlightened One.

Paying homage to the Buddha

Tradition ascribes to the Buddha himself instruction on how to pay him homage. Just before he died, he saw his faithful attendant Ananda, weeping. The Buddha advised him not to weep, but to understand the universal law that all compounded things (including even his own body) must disintegrate. He advised everyone not to cry over the disintegration of the physical body but to regard his teachings (The Dhamma) as their teacher from then on, because only the Dhamma truth is eternal and not subject to the law of change. He also stressed that the way to pay homage to him was not merely by offering flowers, incense, and lights, but by truly and sincerely striving to follow his teachings. This is how devotees are expected to celebrate Vesak: to use the opportunity to reiterate their determination to lead noble lives, to develop their minds, to practise loving-kindness and to bring peace and harmony to humanity.

Vesak in Sri Lanka

Vesak is celebrated as a religious and a cultural festival in Sri Lanka on the full moon of the month of May, for a duration of one week. During this week, the selling of alcohol and flesh is usually prohibited. Prisoners who are eligible for parole are often released. Celebrations include various religious and alms giving activities. Electrically lit pandols called "toranas" are erected in various locations in Colombo and elsewhere, most sponsored by donors, religious societies and welfare groups. Each pandol illustrates a story from the 550 Jataka Katha or the 550 Past Life Stories of the Buddha. In addition, colourful lanterns called "Vesak koodu" are hung along streets and in front of homes. They signify the light of the Buddha, Dhamma and the Sangha. Food stalls set up by Buddhist devotees called "dansälas" provide free food and drinks to passersby. Groups of people from various community organisations, businesses and government departments sing "bhakti gee" or Buddhist devotional songs. Colombo experiences a massive influx of public from all parts of the country during this week.

Related holidays

In Japan, Vesak is also practiced as 灌仏会(かんぶつえ or Kan-butsu-e, or a meeting to soak Buddha)but there are many common names for the celebration, including Hana-matsuri. It is not a public holiday. It is based on a legend that a dragon appeared in the sky on his birthday and poured soma over him.

It used to be celebrated on the 8th day of the fourth month in the Chinese Lunar Calendar, based on one of the legends that proclaims the day as Buddha's birthday. At present, the celebration is observed on April 8 of the Solar Calendar since the Meiji government adopted the western solar calendar as the official calendar. Since the 8th day of the fourth month in the lunar calendar commonly falls in May of the current solar calendar, it is now celebrated about a month earlier.

In Japan, the general populace are not practicing Buddhists (and may be called casual Buddhists), so most Buddhist temples provide a way to allow the general public to celebrate and participate in only the aspect of the day being Buddha's birthday, providing the statue of baby Buddha and allowing the populace to worship or pay respect by pouring 甘茶(あまちゃ) tea made of Hydrangea. In Buddhist temples, monasteries and nunneries, more involved ceremonies are conducted for practicing Buddhists, priests, monks and nuns. Also, there are public festivals made out of the day in some areas.

In Hong Kong, Macau and South Korea, the 8th day of the fourth moon in the Chinese Lunar Calendar is a public holiday, observed as "Buddha's Birthday".

External links

* [http://www.buddhanet.net/vesak.htm The Significance of Vesak - Buddha Day]
* [http://www.buddhistchannel.tv/index.php?id=6,4043,0,0,1,0 Vesak 2007 article]
* [http://www.kaputa.com/thorana/index.htm Vesak festival - Vesak Thorana (pandol)]
* [http://www.geocities.jp/buddha_marga/ Buddha-marga, Way of Buddha]
* [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6FEZwhAGSfw&feature=PlayList&p=3EDB6E21C463FFEF&index=0&playnext=1 Vesak Music]
* [http://www.budsas.org/ebud/ebdha192.htm How the Buddha died] Dr Mettanando
* [http://www.flickr.com/photos/shehal/sets/72157600834656936/ Pictures of Pandols, Lanterns and Lights during Vesak Festival, Colombo, Sri Lanka]
* [http://www.sihaderana.com/buddhism_jathaka.php Jathaka Katha]
* [http://www.flickr.com/photos/eugenemoore/sets/72157601776913216/show/ Photos - Maha Vihara Temple, Brickfields, Malaysia (1 May 2007)]
* [http://www.buddhamind.info/leftside/actives/vesak-lite.htm How to make a Vesak Lantern]


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Vesak — Rueda del dharma Origen de la celebración Budismo Día de celebración La luna llena del mes de mayo …   Wikipedia Español

  • Vesak — Anniversaire de Bouddha L anniversaire de Gautama Bouddha (en chinois traditionnel : 佛誕 ; Hanyu pinyin : fo dàn ; cantonais : fātdàahn) est traditionnellement célébré dans l Asie de l Est le 8e jour du 4e mois du… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Vesak — [ vɛsak] (also Wesak or Visākha) noun the most important Buddhist festival, commemorating the birth, enlightenment, and death of the Buddha. Origin Sinhalese vesak, via Pali from Sanskrit vaiśākha, denoting the month April–May …   English new terms dictionary

  • Vesak — noun A Buddhist holiday celebrating the birth, enlightenment, and passing of the Buddha. Syn: Buddha Day …   Wiktionary

  • Vesak — Ve|sak [ ve,sæk, vi,sæk ] noun count or uncount the day in April or May when Buddhists in many countries celebrate the birth of Buddha …   Usage of the words and phrases in modern English

  • Vesak — n. ceremonial ritual celebrated by Buddhists in commemoration of the birth and enlightenment and passing of Buddha into Nirvana …   English contemporary dictionary

  • Vesak — /ˈvɛsak/ (say vesahk) noun a major Buddhist festival celebrating the life, enlightenment and death of the Buddha; held on the day of the first full moon of the fifth month (falling in May or June according to whether the solar or lunar calendar… …   Australian English dictionary

  • veşak — (A.) [ ﻖﺵو ] vaşak …   Osmanli Türkçesİ sözlüğü

  • VESAK — Bağ. Rabıta. Yeminleşerek anlaşmak. * Sözleşme yeri …   Yeni Lügat Türkçe Sözlük

  • VEŞAK — Dağ köpeği …   Yeni Lügat Türkçe Sözlük


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