Stingray


Stingray
Stingrays
Temporal range: Early Cretaceous–Recent[1]
Southern stingray (Dasyatis americana)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Chondrichthyes
Subclass: Elasmobranchii
Order: Myliobatiformes
Suborder: Myliobatoidei
Families
  • Hexatrygonidae
  • Plesiobatidae
  • Urolophidae
  • Urotrygonidae
  • Dasyatidae
  • Potamotrygonidae
  • Gymnuridae
  • Myliobatidae

The stingrays are a group of rays, which are cartilaginous fishes related to sharks. They are classified in the suborder Myliobatoidei of the order Myliobatiformes, and consist of eight families: Hexatrygonidae (sixgill stingray), Plesiobatidae (deep water stingray), Urolophidae (stingarees), Urotrygonidae (round rays), Dasyatidae (whiptail stingrays), Potamotrygonidae (river stingrays), Gymnuridae (butterfly rays), and Myliobatidae (eagle rays).[1][2]

Most stingrays have one or more barbed stings (modified from dermal denticles) on the tail, which is used exclusively in self-defense. The stinger may reach a length of approximately 35 cm (14 in), and its underside has two grooves with venom glands.[3] The stinger is covered with a thin layer of skin, the integumentary sheath, in which the venom is concentrated.[4] A few members of the suborder, such as the manta rays and the porcupine ray, do not have stings.[5]

Stingrays are common in coastal tropical and subtropical marine waters throughout the world, and also includes species found in warmer temperate oceans such as Dasyatis thetidis, and those found in the deep ocean such as Plesiobatis daviesi. The river stingrays, and a number of whiptail stingrays (such as the Niger stingray), are restricted to fresh water. Most myliobatoids are demersal, but some, such as the pelagic stingray and the eagle rays, are pelagic.[6]

While most stingrays are relatively widespread and not currently threatened, there are several species (for example Taeniura meyeni, D. colarensis, D. garouaensis, and D. laosensis) where the conservation status is more problematic, leading to them being listed as vulnerable or endangered by IUCN. The status of several other species are poorly known, leading to them being listed as Data Deficient.[7]

Contents

Behavior

A stingray's underside showing its mouth and the double row of gill openings. The pair of claspers (at the base of the tail) identifies it as male.

The flattened bodies of stingrays allow them to effectively conceal themselves in their environment. Stingrays do this by agitating the sand and hiding beneath it. Because their eyes are on top of their bodies and their mouths on the undersides, stingrays cannot see their prey; instead, they use smell and electro-receptors (ampullae of Lorenzini) similar to those of sharks.[8] Stingrays feed primarily on molluscs, crustaceans, and occasionally on small fish. Some stingrays' mouths contain two powerful, shell-crushing plates, while other species only have sucking mouthparts. Stingrays settle on the bottom while feeding, often leaving only their eyes and tail visible. Coral reefs are favorite feeding grounds and are usually shared with sharks during high tide.[9]

Reproduction

When a male is courting a female, he will follow her closely, biting at her pectoral disc. He then places one of his two claspers into her valve.[10]

Stingrays are ovoviviparous, bearing live young in "litters" of five to thirteen. The female holds the embryos in the womb without a placenta. Instead, the embryos absorb nutrients from a yolk sac, and after the sac is depleted, the mother provides uterine "milk".[11]

At the Sea Life London Aquarium 2 female stingrays have delivered 7 baby stingrays, although the mothers have not been near a male for 2 years. "Rays have been known to store sperm and not give birth until they decide the timing is right".[12]

Stingray injuries

A stingray's stinger (ruler in cm)

Stingrays do not aggressively attack humans (a notable exception being the death of Steve Irwin), though stings do normally occur if a ray is accidentally stepped on.[13] To avoid stepping on a stingray in shallow water, the water should be waded through with a shuffle.[14] Alternatively, before wading, stones can be thrown into the water to scare stingrays away.[15] Contact with the stinger causes local trauma (from the cut itself), pain, swelling, muscle cramps from the venom, and later may result in infection from bacteria. The injury is very painful, but seldom life-threatening unless the stinger pierces a vital area.[13] The barb usually breaks off in the wound, and surgery may be required to remove the fragments.[16]

As food

Barbecued stingray is commonly served in Singapore and Malaysia.

Rays are edible, and may also be caught as food by fishing lines or spears.[17] Stingray recipes abound throughout the world, with dried forms of the wings being most common. For example, in Singapore and Malaysia, stingray is commonly barbecued over charcoal, then served with spicy sambal sauce. Generally, the most prized parts of the stingray are the wings (flaps is the proper terminology), the "cheek" (the area surrounding the eyes), and the liver. The rest of the ray is considered too rubbery to have any culinary uses.[18]

While not independently valuable as a food source, the stingray's capacity to damage shell fishing grounds can lead to bounties being placed on their removal.[19]

Eco-tourism

Stingray City in Grand Cayman allows swimmers, snorkelers, and divers to swim with and feed the stingrays.

Stingrays are usually very docile and curious, their usual reaction being to flee any disturbance, but will sometimes brush their fins past any new object they come across. Nevertheless, certain larger species may be more aggressive and should be approached with caution, as the stingray's defensive reflex (use of its poisoned stinger) may result in serious injury or death.[20]

Dasyatids are not normally visible to swimmers, but divers and snorkelers may find them in shallow sandy waters, more so when the water is warm. In the Cayman Islands there are several dive sites called Stingray City, Grand Cayman, where divers and snorkelers can swim with large southern stingrays (D. americana) and feed them by hand.[21] There is also a "Stingray City" in the sea surrounding the Caribbean island of Antigua. It consists of a large, shallow reserve where the rays live, and snorkeling is possible, since the rays are used to the presence of humans.[22]

In Belize, off the island of Ambergris Caye, there is a popular marine sanctuary called Hol Chan. Here, divers and snorkelers often gather to watch stingrays and nurse sharks that are drawn to the area by tour operators who feed the animals.

Many Tahitian island resorts regularly offer guests the chance to "feed the stingrays and sharks". This consists of taking a boat to the outer lagoon reefs then standing in waist-high water while habituated stingrays swarm around, pressing right up against tourists seeking food from their hands or that being tossed into the water. The boat owners also "call in" sharks which, when they arrive from the ocean, swoop through the shallow water above the reef and snatch food offered to them.[23]

Other uses

Stingray Wallets

The skin of the ray (same in Japanese) is used as an under layer for the cord or leather wrap (known as ito in Japanese) on Japanese swords due to its hard, rough, skin texture that keeps the braided wrap from sliding on the handle during use. They are also used to make exotic shoes, boots, belts, wallets, jackets, and also cellphone cases.[24]

Several ethnological sections in museums[25] such as the British Museum display arrowheads and spearheads made of stingray stingers, used in Micronesia and elsewhere. [26] Henry de Monfreid states in his books that before World War II, in the Horn of Africa, whips were made from the tail of big stingrays, and that this device inflicted cruel cuts, so in Aden the British forbid its use on women and slaves. In former Spanish colonies a stingray is called raya làtigo ("whip ray"). [27]

Monfreid also writes in several places about men of his crew suffering stingray wounds while stranding and wading into Red Sea shallows to load or unload smuggled wares: he wrote that to "save the man's life" searing the wound with a red-hot iron was necessary.[28]

Fossils

Early Eocene fossil stingray Heliobatis radians

Although stingray teeth are rare on sea bottoms compared to the similar shark teeth, scuba divers searching for the latter do encounter the teeth of stingrays. Permineralized stingray teeth have been found in sedimentary deposits around the world, including fossiliferous outcrops in Morocco. [29]

References

  1. ^ a b Nelson, J.S. (2006). Fishes of the World (fourth ed.). John Wiley. pp. 76–82. ISBN 0471250317. 
  2. ^ Helfman, G.S., B.B. Collette and D.E. Facey (1997). The Diversity of Fishes. Blackwell Science. pp. 180. ISBN 9780865422568. 
  3. ^ Ternay, A.. "Dangerous and Venomous Aquarium Fish". fishchannel.com. http://www.fishchannel.com/media/fish-magazines/aquarium-fish-international/july-2008/venom2.aspx.pdf. 
  4. ^ Meyer, P. (1997). "Stingray injuries". Wilderness Environ Med 8 (1): 24–8. doi:10.1580/1080-6032(1997)008[0024:SI]2.3.CO;2. PMID 11990133. 
  5. ^ Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2009). "Urogymnus asperrimus" in FishBase. September 2009 version.
  6. ^ Bester, C., H. F. Mollett, & J. Bourdon. "Pelagic Stingray". Florida Museum of Natural History, Ichthyology department. http://www.flmnh.ufl.edu/fish/gallery/descript/pelagicstingray/pelagicstingray.html. 
  7. ^ "IUCN Red List". International Union for Conservation of Nature. http://www.iucnredlist.org/. 
  8. ^ Stingray behavior?
  9. ^ Stingray City - Altering Stingray Behavior & Physiology?
  10. ^ FAQs on Freshwater Stingray Behavior
  11. ^ Florida Museum of Natural History Ichthyology Department: Atlantic Stingray
  12. ^ "Zoo staff thought stingrays in female-only tank were bloated... that was until they gave birth to SEVEN pups". Daily Mail. August 10, 2011. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2024350/Stingrays-London-Aquarium-birth-seven-babies.html?ITO=1490. 
  13. ^ a b Slaughter RJ, Beasley DM, Lambie BS, Schep LJ (2009). "New Zealand's venomous creatures". N Z Med J 122 (1290): 83–97. PMID 19319171. http://www.nzma.org.nz/journal/122-1290/3494/. 
  14. ^ Parsons GR (2006) Sharks, skates, and rays of the Gulf of Mexico: a field guide Page 46–47. University Press of Mississippi. ISBN 9781578068272
  15. ^ Vaitilingam A and Thomas P The Rough Guide to Jamaica Edition 2, Page 417. ISBN 9781843531111
  16. ^ Flint D, Sugrue W (1999). "Stingray injuries: a lesson in debridement". N Z Med J 112 (1086): 137–8. PMID 10340692. 
  17. ^ Can you eat stingray? - Spearboard Spearfishing Community
  18. ^ Deep End Dining: The Delicious and Deadly Stingray. Nyonya. New York, NY. (Partially from the Archives.)
  19. ^ eating stingray - Spearboard Spearfishing Community
  20. ^ The Right Blue: Stingrays: Dangerous or Not?
  21. ^ Stingray City, Grand Cayman, Cayman Islands. Stingray City & Cayman snorkel tours, Cayman Islands
  22. ^ Adam, David (May 29, 2009). "Stingrays suffering from wildlife tourism, study finds". The Guardian (London). http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2009/may/29/wildlife-tourism-stingray. 
  23. ^ Petting a stingray - Tahiti Scuba & Snorkelling | Viator.com
  24. ^ Swordmaking Anatomy.
  25. ^ FLMNH Ichthyology Department: Daisy Stingray
  26. ^ Dasyatis rudis (Smalltooth Stingray)
  27. ^ PADI IDC Spain – Altantic Stingray | PADI IDC Videos
  28. ^ Stingray Injury Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention Information on eMedicineHealth.com
  29. ^ Heliobatis radians Stingray Fossil from Green River

Bibliography

External links


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Stingray — (englisch für „Stechrochen“) bezeichnet: ein experimentelles Flugzeug, siehe Stingray (Flugzeug) zwei Modelle des Sportwagens Corvette („Sting Ray“ und „Stingray“) einen leichter Kampfpanzer aus den USA, siehe Stingray (Panzer) einen Torpedo der… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • stingray — 1620s, from STING (Cf. sting) + RAY (Cf. ray) (2) …   Etymology dictionary

  • stingray — ► NOUN ▪ a marine ray with a long poisonous serrated spine at the base of the tail …   English terms dictionary

  • stingray — ☆ stingray [stiŋ′rā΄ ] n. any of a family (Dasyatidae, order Myliobatiformes) of large rays having a long, whiplike tail with one or more usually poisonous spines that can inflict painful wounds …   English World dictionary

  • Stingray — Cette page d’homonymie répertorie les différents sujets et articles partageant un même nom. Sommaire 1 Cinéma 2 Télévision 3 …   Wikipédia en Français

  • stingray — /sting ray /, n. any of the rays, esp. of the family Dasyatidae, having a long, flexible tail armed near the base with a strong, serrated bony spine with which they can inflict painful wounds. [1605 15; STING + RAY2] * * * or whip tailed ray Any… …   Universalium

  • stingray — UK [ˈstɪŋˌreɪ] / US noun [countable] Word forms stingray : singular stingray plural stingrays a large flat fish with a narrow tail that can sting …   English dictionary

  • Stingray — Sting ray Sting ray or Stingray Sting ray , n. Any one of numerous rays of the family {Dasyatid[ae]}, syn. {Trygonid[ae]}, having one or more large sharp barbed dorsal spines, on the whiplike tail, capable of inflicting severe wounds. Some… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • stingray — [[t]stɪ̱ŋreɪ[/t]] stingrays N COUNT A stingray is a type of large flat fish with a long tail which it can use as a weapon …   English dictionary

  • stingray — /ˈstɪŋreɪ / (say stingray) noun any of the rays, especially of the family Dasyatidae, having a long, flexible tail armed near the base with a strong, serrated bony spine with which they can inflict severe and very painful wounds. {sting + ray2} …   Australian English dictionary