- Timeline of ancient Greece
This is a timeline of
All dates are BCE.
Aegean civilization (
* Early Helladic EH 2800-2100
* Middle Helladic MH 2100-1500
* Late Helladic LH 1500-1100
*Early Minoan EM 3650-2160
*Middle Minoan MM 2160-1600
*Late Minoan LM 1600-1170
*Early Cycladic 3300-2000
*Kastri = EH II-EH III (ca. 2500-2100)
*Convergence with MM from ca. 2000
Thera( Santorin Island) volcano dated probably between 1660 to 1613 BCE.
From 1100 BC to the
8th century BC
;776 :Traditional date for the first historic Olympic games. ;757 :The first Messenian war starts. (date disputed by
Jerome, Pausanias and Diodorus; this estimate is based on a reading of Diodorus' Spartan king lists and Pausanias' description of the war);757 :Office of Archonreduced to 10 years. Members of the ruling family to hold the office starting with Charops. (dating based on Pausanias);754 : Polydorusbecomes king of Sparta.;738 :Alternate date for the end of the first Messenian war. ;735 : Perdiccasflees from Argosto Macedonia and conquers the land.;734 : Polydorussends colonists to Italy.;727-717 : Hippomenes, archon of Athens, who killed his daughter's adulterer by yoking him up to his chariot and then locks his daughter up with a horse until she dies. (Pausanias and Aristotle);c. 725 : Lelantine Warbetween Chalcisand Eretria. Many Greek cities are allied with one or the other. Dates before this point uncertain.;719 : PolydorusThe king of Sparta is murdered by Polymarchus.;716 :The reign of the Heraklids over Lydiais ended when Candaules, known as Myrsilusto the Greeks, is murdered by Gyges because of his wife’s anger.;690 : Pheidonbecomes tyrant of Argos;687 :Annual office of Archonestablished. Any Athenian citizencan be elected to office if they meet the requirements. Creonelected first annual archon. (dating based on Pausanias);685 :The second Messenian war begins;665 :The second Messenian war ends;656 : Cypselussubjects Corinthto tyranny;645-560 : Spartan wars with Tegeaall unsuccessful ;642 or 634 : Battusestablishes a Greek colony in Cyrenein Libya;632 :Cylon, Athenian noble, seizes Acropolis and tries to make himself king, fails;630 :Formal pederasty is introduced, first in Crete, as a means of population control and an educational modality;621 :Draco, Athenian lawgiver, issues code of laws where everything is punishable by death – Draconian;594 : Solon, Athenian statesman, becomes Archon pre-582BC (cf. ML6 (death of Kypselos 585BC) and PlutarchSol. 14), captures Salamis from Megarians- later, when member of the Areopagusis appointed to effect social reforms in order to preserve order in Athens, which include the abolishment of the security of debts on the debtor's person (Aristotle Ath. Pol. 6), returning exiled Athenian slaves (Solon fr. 4 in Ath. Pol. 12), changing the value of weights and measures to the Korinthian standard, prohibiting the export of grain from Atticaand encouraging the planting of olives (Plut. Sol. 22-4), established the property classes (Ar. Ath. Pol. 7) and the council of 400 (Ar. Ath. Pol. 8);590 : Sappho, Greek poetess and priestess, flourishes on island of Lesbos;569 :Pythagoras was born.;565 :Peisistratos, Athenian general, organizes Diakrioi, party of poor people;546 :Pythagoras founded science and philosophy. ;510 :Pythagoras founded his own school.;500 :Pythagoras died in Crotona, Italy, when he was in Metapontum.
Late Archaic Period
Pisistratustakes power in Athensfor first time, ;555 : Pisistratusdriven out by Lycurguswho leads nobles;549 : Pisistratusrestored by help of Megacles;546 : Croesus, rich king of Lydia, captured at Sardisby Persians;542 : Pisistratusexpelled, makes fortune from Thracian mines;532 : Pisistratusrestored by Thessalyand Lygdamosof Naxos;527 : Pisistratusdies, succeeded by sons Hippias and Hipparchus;525 :Persian Darius I, son-in-law of Cyrus the Greattakes Egypt;515 :Hippias becomes sole ruler after the death of Hipparchus;508 :Hippias is forced to leave Athens.;507 : Cleisthenes, Greek reformer, takes power, increases democracy;490 : Themistoclesand Miltiades, Athenians, defeat Darius at Marathon, Phidippides runs with news;484 : Aeschylus, Athenian playwright, wins Athenian Prize
Leonidas, Spartan, makes sacrifice of 300 Spartans at the Battle of Thermopylaeso main force can escape, Xerxes son of Darius is leading the Persians;480 :Simultaenous with Thermopylae, the Greeks and Persians fight to a draw in the naval Battle of Artemisium;480 : Battle of Salamis- Themistocles, Athenian general, lures Persians into Bay of Salamis, Xerxes loses and goes home, leaves behind Mardonius;479 :Pausanias, Greek general routs Mardoniusat the Battle of Plataea;479 : Battle of Mycalefrees Greek coloniesin Asia. After the Battle of Salamis, Athens set up the Delian League, treasury on island of Delos, a confederacy of cities around the Aegean Sea. It was intended as a military defense association against Persia but was turned into an empire, collecting tribute and deciding policy of its associates. Spartaformed rival Peloponnesian League;476-462 : Cimonelected general each year, he was victorious over Persia and then enforced military power on Delian League;474 : Pindar, Greek poet moves to Thebes from court at Syracuse;471 : Themistoclesostracized;468 : Sophocles, Greek playwright, defeats Aeschylusfor Athenian Prize;461 : Cimonostracized;457 : Pericles, Athenian statesman begins Golden Age, he was taught by Anaxagoras, who believed in dualistic Universe and atoms;456 : Aeschylusdies;449 : Herodotus, Greek Historian, writes History of Greco-Persian Warfrom 490-479;448 : Ictinusand Callicrates, Greek architects rebuild Acropolis from Persian destruction;441 : Euripides, Greek playwright, wins Athenian prize;440 : Heraclitus, Greek philosopher, believes everything is mutable;435 : Phidias, Greek sculptor, completes Zeus at Elis 1 of 7 wonders;433 :Corinth, Sparta, Megaraand Aeginaally against Corfu, Athens, Rhegium, and Leontini;432 :End of Golden Age, Peloponnesian Wars begin Athens under Periclesblockades Potidaea( Battle of Potidaea), Corfudeclares war on Corinth ( Battle of Sybota);431 : Spartaled by Archidamus IIsets out to destroy Athensthus starting the Peloponnesian War;431 : Empedocles, Greek doctor, believes body has 4 humors.;430 :Failed peace mission by Athens, bubonic plagueyear, Spartatakes no prisoners;430 : Leucippus, Greek philosopher, believes every natural event has natural cause. Athenian Plague appears in Athens.;429 : Phormio, Athenian admiral, wins the Battle of Chalcis;429 : Periclesdies of Athenian Plague, possibly typhusor bubonic plague;429 : Hippocrates, Greek doctor, believes diseases have physical cause;428 : Platoborn.;428 : Mitylenerebels, chief city of Lesbos;427 : Archidamus IIdies, Alcidas, Greek admiral sent to help Lesbos, raids Ioniaand flees after seeing Athenian might Athenian Plague returns;427 : Mitylenesurrenders to Athens, Plataeanssurrender to Athens;427 : Aristophanes, Greek playwright, wins Athenian Prize;426 : Corfusecures island for Athens;426 :Demosthenes, Athenian general, and Cleon, Athenian demagogue, revitalizes Athenian forces, makes bold plans opposed by Nicias, his first military campaign barely succeeds;425 :Athenian fleet bottles up Spartan navy at Navarino Bay, Niciasresigns;424 :Syracuse sends Athenians home;424 : Pagondasof Thebes crushes Athenian army at the Battle of Delium, Brasidasa Spartan general makes a successful campaign, Cleonexiles Thucydidesfor 20 years for arriving late;423 : Truce of Lachessupposed to stop Brasidasbut doesn't, Niciasleads Athenian forces in retaking Mende;422 : Cleonmeets Brasidasoutside of Amphipolis, both are killed ( Battle of Amphipolis);421 : Peace of Niciasbrings temporary end to war, but Alcibiades, a nephew of Pericles, makes anti-Sparta alliance;420 :Quadruple alliance of Athens, Argos, Mantinea, and Elisconfronts Spartan- Boeotian alliance;419 :King Agis, ruler of Sparta, attacks Argos, makes treaty;418 : Battle of Mantinea, greatest land battle of war, gives Spartavictory over Argos, which broke treaty, Alcibiadesthrown out, alliance broken;416 : Alcibiadesmakes plans, is restored to power;415 : Hermai are mutilated in Athens, Alcibiadesaccused, asks for inquiry, told to set sail for battle ( Sicilian Expedition), is condemned to death in absentia, he defects to Sparta;414 : Lemachus, Athenian commander killed at Syracuse;413 : Niciasand Demosthenes killed at Syracuse;412 : Alcibiadesis thrown out of Sparta, conspires to come back to Athens;411 :Democracy ends in Athens by Antiphon, Peisander, and Phrynichus, overthrown by Theramenes, Constitution of the 5000, Athenian navyrecalls Alcibiades, confirmed by Athenians;410 :After several successes, Athenian demagogue Cleophon rejects Sparta peace overtures;409 : Byzantiumrecaptured by Alcibiadesfor Athens;408 : Alcibiadesreenters Athensin triumph, Lysander, a Spartan commander, builds fleet at Ephesus;407 : Lysanderbegins destruction of Athenian fleet, Alcibiadesstripped of power;406 : Callicratides, Spartan naval leader, loses Battle of Arginusaeover blockade of Mityleneharbor, Spartasues for peace, rejected by Cleophon;405 : Lysandercaptures Athenian fleet, Spartan king Pausanius lays siege to Athens, Cleophonexecuted, Corinth and Thebes demand destruction of Athens;404 : Athenscapitulates Apr 25 Theramenessecures terms, prevents total destruction of Athens, Theramenes and Alcibiadesare killed;401 : Thucydides, Greek historian, leaves account of Golden Age of Periclesand Peloponnesian Warat his death ( History of the Peloponnesian War);399 : Socrates, Greek philosopher, condemned to death for corrupting youth.;387 : Peace of Antalcidasconcluded between the Greeks and the Persians.;347 : Plato, Greek philosopher, founder of Academy, dies.;342 : Aristotle, Greek philosopher, begins teaching Alexander, son of Philip of Macedon;338 :Philip of Macedon defeats Athensand Thebes at Chaeronea Aug 2 and establishes League of Corinthin winter of 338 BC/337 BC .
;336 :Alexander succeeds father, who was assassinated by
Pausanias of Orestis;333 :Alexander defeats Persians at Battle of Issus, Oct, but Darius IIIescapes;332 :Alexander conquers Egypt;331 :at Battle of GaugamelaOct 1, Alexander ends AchaemenidDynasty and takes Persian Empire;330 : Democritus, Greek philosopher, develops Atomic theory, believes cause and necessity, nothing comes out of nothing
;323 :Alexander dies, his generals vie for power in
Wars of the Diadochi:Antigonus- Macedon, Antipater- Macedon, Seleucus- Babyloniaand Syria, Ptolemy- Egypt, Eumenes- Macedon, Lysimachus, later Antipater's son Cassanderalso vies for power;316 : Menander, Greek playwright, wins Athenian prize;300 : Euclid, Greek mathematician, publishes "Elements," treating both geometry and number theory (see also Euclidean algorithm);295 : Athensfalls to Demetrius, Lachareskilled;265 : Archimedes, Greek mathematician, develops screw, specific gravity, center of gravity; anticipates discoveries of integral calculus.
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