List of English words of Turkic origin


List of English words of Turkic origin

This is a list of words that have entered into the English language from the Turkic languages. Many of them came via traders and soldiers from and in the Ottoman Empire. There are some Turkic words as well, most of them entered English via the Russian language.

Languages of Turkic peoples left numerous traces in different languages, including the English language. Turkic borrowings, which belong to the social and political vocabulary, are generally used in special literature and in the historical and ethnographical works, which relate to the life of Turkic and Muslim peoples. The ethnographical words are generally used in the scientific literature, and in the historical and ethnographical texts.

The adoption of Indian words, among which there were some Turkic borrowings, became one of the ways for the words of the Turkic origin to penetrate English. Additionally, several words of Turkic origin penetrated English through East European languages like Russian and Polish. German, Latin, Spanish, Italian, French, Hungarian and Serbo-Croatian were also intermediary languages for the Turkic origined words to penetrate English.

In the nineteenth century, Turkic loanwords, generally of Turkish origin, began to penetrate not only through the writings of the travelers, diplomats and merchants, and through the ethnographical and historical works, but also through the press. In 1847, there were two English-language newspapers in Istanbul – "The Levant Herald" and "The Levant Times", seven newspapers in French, one in German and 37 in Turkish. Turkish contributed the largest share of the Turkic loans, which penetrated into the English directly. This can be explained by the fact that Turkey had the most intensive and wide connections with England. Nevertheless, there are many Turkic loans in English, which were borrowed by its contacts with other peoples – Azerbaijanis, Tatars, Uzbeks, Kazakhs and Kirghiz.Most of the Turkic loans in English carry exotic or ethnographical connotations. They do not have equivalents in English, do not have synonymic relations with primordial words, and generally are used to describe the fauna, flora, life customs, political and social life, and an administrative-territorial structure of Turkic regions. But there are many Turkic loans, which are still part of the frequently used vocabulary. Some Turkic loans have acquired new meanings, unrelated to their etymology.

To conclude, the words of the Turkic origin began penetrating English as early as the Middle Ages, the Turkic loanwords found their way into English through other languages, most frequently through French. Since the 16c, beginning from the time of the establishment of the direct contacts between England and Turkey, and Russia, in English appeared new direct borrowings from Turkic languages. German, Polish, Russian, Serbo-Croatian, French, Arabic, Armenian, Afrikaans, Hungarian, Yiddish, Indian, Spanish, Italian, Latin, Malayan, to a different extent, took part in the process of the transfer of the Turkic words into English. The main language from which the borrowings were made, was Turkish.

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A

;Afshar: from Turkic "Afshar", "a Turkic tribe living majorly in Kerman province of Iran". A Shiraz rug of coarse weave. [ [http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com/cgi-bin/unabridged?va=afshar Merriam-Webster Unabridged - Afshar] ] [ [http://www.tdk.org.tr/TDKSOZLUK/sozbul.asp?KELIME=af%FEar TDK Online - Afşar] ] [ [http://www.turkotek.com/journal/afshar.html Parvis Tanavoli On Afshar Rugs] ] ;Aga or Agha: from Turkish "ağa", a title of rank, especially in Turkey. [ [http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?search=aga&searchmode=none Online Etymology Dictionary - Aga] ] [ [http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9003966/aga Encyclopaedia Britannica Online - Aga] ] ;Aga Khan: from Turkic "agha" and "khan", the divinely ordained head of the Ismaili branch of Shiism. [ [http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/aga%20khan Dictionary.com - Aga Khan] ] ;Airan: from Turkish "ayran" [ [http://www.answers.com/topic/ayran Answers.com - Ayran] ] [ [http://www.fao.org/docrep/003/t0251e/T0251E04.htm Fao.org - Airan in Main Categories of Products] ] [ [http://www.m-w.com/dictionary/airan Merriam-Webster Online - Airan] ] ;Akbash: from Turkish "akbaş", literally "a whitehead" [ [http://www.reference.com/browse/wiki/Akbash_Dog Reference.com - Akbash Dog] ] ;Akche: from Turkish "akçe", also "asper", an Ottoman monetary unit consisted of small silver coins. [ [http://www.britannica.com/eb/topic?idxStructId=11469&typeId=13 Encyclopaedia Britannica Online - Akche] ] [ [http://books.google.com/books?vid=ISBN0415125537&id=qigatP47eQUC&pg=PA82&lpg=PA82&dq=akche%2Bottoman&sig=2voAFL_cfmfyC4vsij4mVfob3W4 Economic Development in the Middle East - Akche] ] ;Akhissar: from Turkish "Akhisar", a town in Manisa, Turkey near İzmir. A kind of heavy modern carpet made at Akhisar, Turkey. [ [http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com/cgi-bin/unabridged?va=akhissar Merriam-Webster Unabridged - Akhissar] ] ;Altai: from Altay Mountains, range in Central Asia, which is from Turkic-Mongolian "altan", meaning "golden". 1. An Asiatic breed of small shaggy sturdy horses. 2. An animal of the Altai breed. [ [http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com/cgi-bin/unabridged?va=altai Merriam-Webster Unabridged - Altai] ] [ [http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9110519/Altai-Mountains Encyclopaedia Britannica Online - Altai Mountains] ] ;Altilik: from Turkish "altılık". A coin, originally of silver and equivalent to 6 piasters, formerly used in Turkey [ [http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com/cgi-bin/unabridged?va=altilik Merriam-Webster Unabridged - Altilik] ] ;Araba: from Russian "arba", which is from Turkish "araba". A carriage used in Turkey and neighboring countries. [ [http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com/cgi-bin/unabridged?va=araba Merriam-Webster Unabridged - Araba] ] ;Arnaut: from Turkish "arnavut", "an Albanian". An inhabitant of Albania and neighboring mountainous regions, especially an Albanian serving in the Turkish army. [ [http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com/cgi-bin/unabridged?va=arnaut Merriam-Webster Unabridged - Arnaut] ] ;Astrakhan: from "Astrakhan", Russia, which is from Tatar or Kazakh "hadžitarkhan". Karakul of Russian origin or a cloth with a pile resembling karakul. [ [http://www.m-w.com/dictionary/astrakhan Merriam-Webster Online - Astrakhan] ] [ [http://starling.rinet.ru/cgi-bin/response.cgi?root=config&morpho=0&basename=dataievasmer&first=434 Vasmer's Etymological Dictionary - Astrakhan] ] ;Atabeg: from Turkic "atabeg", from "ata", "a father" + "beg" "a prince". [ [http://www.m-w.com/dictionary/atabeg Merriam-Webster Online - Atabeg] ] [ [http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9032246/Eldeguzid-Dynasty Encyclopaedia Britannica Online - use of Atabeg in an article] ] ;Atabek: from Turkic, an alternative form of "Atabeg".;Ataghan: from Turkish "yatağan", an alternative form of "Yataghan". [ [http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com/cgi-bin/unabridged?va=ataghan Merriam-Webster Unabridged - Ataghan] ] ;Ataman: from Russian, from South Turkic "ataman", "leader of an armed band" : "ata", "father" + "-man", augmentative suffix. [ [http://www.bartleby.com/61/21/A0492100.html The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language - Ataman] ] ;Aul: from Russian, from Kazan Tatar & Kirghiz. [ [http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com/cgi-bin/unabridged?va=aul Merriam-Webster Unabridged - Aul] ]

B

[
baklava.] ;Bahadur: from Hindi "bahādur" "brave, brave person", from Persian, probably from Mongolian, cf. Classical Mongolian "baγatur", which is from Turkic, perhaps originally a Turkic personal name. [ [http://dictionary.reference.com/search?q=bahadur&x=18&y=16 Dictionary.com - Bahadur] ] ;Bairam: from Turkish "bayram", literally "a festival" [ [http://www.m-w.com/dictionary/bairam Merriam-Webster Online - Bairam] ] [ [http://www.allwords.com/word-Bairam.html Allwords.com - Bairam] ] ;Baklava: from Turkish "baklava" [ [http://www.m-w.com/dictionary/baklava Merriam-Webster Online - Baklava] ] ;Balaclava: from Balaklava, village in the Crimea, which is from Turkish "balıklava". A hoodlike knitted cap covering the head, neck, and part of the shoulders and worn especially by soldiers and mountaineers. [ [http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com/cgi-bin/unabridged?va=balaclava Merriam-Webster Unabridged - Balaclava] ] [ [http://starling.rinet.ru/cgi-bin/response.cgi?root=/usr/local/share/starling/morpho&morpho=0&basename=usrlocalsharestarlingmorphovasmervasmer&first=569 Vasmer's Etymological Dictionary - Balaklava] ] ;Balalaika: from Russian "balalaika", of Turkic origin. [ [http://www.bartleby.com/61/55/B0035500.html The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language - Balalaika] ] [ [http://encarta.msn.com/dictionary_/balalaika.html Encarta Online - Balalaika] ] ;Balkan: from Turkish "balkan" "a mountain chain", relating to the states of the Balkan Peninsula, or their peoples, languages, or cultures. [ [http://encarta.msn.com/dictionary_/balkan.html Encarta Online - Balkan] ] ;Bamia: from Turkish "bamya". [ [http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com/cgi-bin/unabridged?va=bamia Merriam-Webster Unabridged - Bamia] ] ;Ban: from Romanian, from Serbo-Croatian "ban", "lord", which is from Turkic "bayan", "very rich person" : "bay", "rich" + "-an", intensive suff. [ [http://www.bartleby.com/61/17/B0051700.html The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language - Ban] ] ;Barbotte: from Canadian French "barbotte", which is from Turkish "barbut". A dice game [ [http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com/cgi-bin/unabridged?va=barbotte Merriam-Webster Unabridged - Barbotte] ] ;Barkhan: from Russian, which is from Kirghiz "barkhan". A moving sand dune shaped like a crescent and found in several very dry regions of the world [ [http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com/cgi-bin/unabridged?va=barkhan Merriam-Webster Unabridged - Barkhan] ] ;Bashaw: from Turkish "başa", a variant of "pasha" [ [http://www.m-w.com/dictionary/bashaw Merriam-Webster Online - Bashaw] ] ;Bashi-bazouk: from Turkish "başıbozuk" [ [http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9013598 Encyclopaedia Britannica Online - Bashi-bazouk] ] ;Bashlyk: from Turkish "başlık", "a hood", from "baş", "a head" [ [http://www.m-w.com/dictionary/bashlyk Merriam-Webster Online - Bashlyk] ] ;Batman: from Turkish "batman". Any of various old Persian or Turkish units of weight [ [http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com/cgi-bin/unabridged?va=batman Merriam-Webster Unabridged - Batman] ] ;Beetewk: from Russian "bityug", "bityuk", which is from Turkic "bitük", akin to Chagatai "bitü", Uzbek "bitäü". A Russian breed of heavy draft horses. [ [http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com/cgi-bin/unabridged?va=beetewk Merriam-Webster Unabridged - Beetewk] ] [ [http://starling.rinet.ru/cgi-bin/response.cgi?root=/usr/local/share/starling/morpho&morpho=0&basename=usrlocalsharestarlingmorphovasmervasmer&first=982 Vasmer's Etymological Dictionary - Bityug] ] ;Beg: from Turkic "beg", an alternative form of "bey" [ [http://www.reference.com/browse/wiki/Beg Reference.com - Beg] ] ;Beglerbeg: from Turkish "beylerbeyi", a variant of "beylerbey" [ [http://www.m-w.com/dictionary/beglerbeg Merriam-Webster Online - Beylerbey] ] ;Begum: from Hindi & Urdu "begam", which is from East Turkic "begüm" [ [http://www.bartleby.com/61/29/B0162900.html The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language - Begum] ] ;Behcet: from the name of Turkish scientist Hulusi Behçet, a multisystem, chronic recurrent disease. [ [http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/behcet Dictionary.com - Behcet] ] ;Bektashi: from Turkish "bektaşi" [ [http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9015166/Bektashi Encyclopaedia Britannica Online - Bektashi] ] ;Bergamot: from French "bergamote", from Italian "bergamotta", ultimately from Turkish "bey armudu", literally, "the bey's pear" [ [http://www.m-w.com/dictionary/bergamot Merriam-Webster Online - Bergamot] ] ;Bey: from Turkish "bey" [ [http://www.m-w.com/dictionary/bey Merriam-Webster Online - Bey] ] ;Beylerbey: from Turkish "beylerbeyi" [ [http://www.m-w.com/dictionary/beylerbey Merriam-Webster Online - Beylerbey] ] ;Beylik: from Turkish "beylik" [ [http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-13859/Islamic-arts Encyclopaedia Britannica Online - Ottoman art] ] [ [http://www.answers.com/beylik Answers.com - Beylik] ] [ [http://www.m-w.com/dictionary/beylic Merriam-Webster Online - Beylic] ] ;Binbashi: from Turkish "binbaşı", "chief of a thousand", "bin" "thousand" + "bash" "head". (Mil.) A major in the Turkish army. [ [http://dictionary.reference.com/search?r=2&q=Binbashi Dictionary.com - Binbashi] ] ;Bogatyr: from Russian "bogatyr" "hero, athlete, warrior", from Old Russian "bogatyri", of Turkic origin; akin to Turkish "batur" "brave" [ [http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com/cgi-bin/unabridged?va=bogatyr Merriam-Webster Unabridged - Bogatyr] ] ;Borunduk: from Russian "burunduk", which is from Mari "uromdok" or from Turkic "burunduk". A Siberian ground squirrel. [ [http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com/cgi-bin/unabridged?va=borunduk Merriam-Webster Unabridged - Borunduk] ] [ [http://starling.rinet.ru/cgi-bin/response.cgi?root=/usr/local/share/starling/morpho&morpho=0&basename=usrlocalsharestarlingmorphovasmervasmer&first=1504 Vasmer's Etymological Dictionary - Burunduk] ] [ [http://www.nicomant.fils.us.edu.pl/jrn/2000/j12/pril/etim-zv.html Этимологический Словарь - Piotr Czerwinski → Burunduk] ] ;Bosh: from Turkish "boş", which means "nonsense, empty" [ [http://www.m-w.com/dictionary/bosh Merriam-Webster Online - Bosh] ] ();Bostanji: from Turkish "bostancı", literally "a gardener" [ [http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com/cgi-bin/unabridged?va=bostanji Merriam-Webster Unabridged - Bostanji] ] ;Bouzouki: from modern Greek "mpouzoúki", which is from Turkish "bozuk" "broken, ruined, depraved" or "büzük" "constricted, puckered". [ [http://dictionary.reference.com/search?r=2&q=bouzouki Dictionary.com - Bouzouki] ] ;Boyar: from Russian "boyarin", from Old Russian "boljarin", from Turkic "baylar", plural of "bay", "rich"; akin to Turkish "bay", "rich, gentleman". [ [http://www.bartleby.com/61/49/B0434900.html The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language - Boyar] ] ;Bridge game: the word came into English from the Russian word, "biritch", which in turn originates from a Turkic word for "bugler" (in modern Turkish: "borucu", "borazancı") or might have come from a Turkish term "bir, üç", or "one, three" [ [http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?search=biritch&searchmode=none Online Etymology Dictionary - Biritch] ] ;Bugger: from Middle English "bougre", "heretic", from Old French "boulgre", from Medieval Latin "Bulgarus", from Greek "Boulgaros", ultimately from Turkic "bulghar", "of mixed origin, promiscuous", from "bulgamaq", "to mix". [ [http://www.bartleby.com/61/50/B0535000.html The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language - Bugger] ] [ [http://www.bartleby.com/61/95/B0539500.html The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language - Bulgar] ] ;Bulgar: from "Bolgar", "Bolghar", former kingdom on the Volga river around Kazan. A Russian leather originally from Bolgar. [ [http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com/cgi-bin/unabridged?va=bulgar Merriam-Webster Unabridged - Bulgar] ] [ [http://www.bartleby.com/61/95/B0539500.html The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language - Bulgar] ] ;Bulgur: from Turkish "bulgur", which means "pounded wheat" [ [http://www.m-w.com/cgi-bin/dictionary?va=bulgur Merriam-Webster Online - Bulgur] ] ;Buran: from Russian "buran", of Turkic origin, probably from Tatar "buran" [ [http://www.bartleby.com/61/57/B0555700.html The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language - Buran] ] [ [http://starling.rinet.ru/cgi-bin/response.cgi?root=/usr/local/share/starling/morpho&morpho=0&basename=usrlocalsharestarlingmorphovasmervasmer&first=1472 Vasmer's Etymological Dictionary - Buran] ] ;Burka: from Russian, probably from "buryi" "dark brown (of a horse)", probably of Turkic origin; akin to Turkish "bur" "red like a fox"; the Turkic word probably from Persian "bor" "reddish brown"; akin to Sanskrit "babhru" "reddish brown". [ [http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com/cgi-bin/unabridged?va=burka Merriam-Webster Unabridged - Burka] ]

C

;Cafeneh: from Turkish "kahvane", "kahvehane" "a coffee shop, café", from "kahve" "coffee" + "hane" "house" [ [http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com/cgi-bin/unabridged?va=cafeneh Merriam-Webster Unabridged - Cafeneh] ] [ [http://dictionary.reference.com/search?r=2&q=Cafeneh Dictionary.com - Cafeneh] ] ;Caïque: from Turkish "kayık" [ [http://www.m-w.com/dictionary/caique Merriam-Webster Online - Caique] ] ;Caiquejee: alteration (influenced by "caique") of earlier "caikjee", from Turkish "kayıkçı", "a boatman" [ [http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com/cgi-bin/unabridged?va=caiquejee Merriam-Webster Unabridged - Caiquejee] ] ;Calpack: from Turkish "kalpak" [ [http://www.m-w.com/dictionary/calpac Merriam-Webster Online - Calpac] ] ;Caracal: from Turkish "karakulak", which means "black ear" [ [http://www.m-w.com/dictionary/caracal Merriam-Webster Online - Caracal] ] ;Caraco: from French, perhaps from Turkish "kerrake" "alpaca coat". A woman's short coat or jacket usually about waist length. [ [http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com/cgi-bin/unabridged?va=caraco Merriam-Webster Unabridged - Caraco] ] ;Caracul: from Uzbek "karakul", an alteration of "karakul" [ [http://www.m-w.com/cgi-bin/dictionary?va=caracul Merriam-Webster Online - Caracul] ] ;Caragana: from New Latin, of Turkic origin; akin to Kirghiz "karaghan" "Siberian pea tree". [ [http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com/cgi-bin/unabridged?va=caragana Merriam-Webster Unabridged - Caragana] ] ;Caramoussal: from Turkish "karamürsel", "karamusal", perhaps from "kara" "black" + "mürsel" "envoy, apostle" [ [http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com/cgi-bin/unabridged?va=caramoussal Merriam-Webster Unabridged - Caramoussal] ] ;Casaba: from a town called "Kasaba" (now Turgutlu) in Turkey [ [http://www.m-w.com/dictionary/casaba Merriam-Webster Online - Casaba] ] ;Cassock: from Middle French "casaque" "long coat", probably ultimately from Turkic "quzzak" "nomad, adventurer" (the source of Cossack), an allusion to their typical riding coat. Or perhaps from Arabic "kazagand", from Persian "kazhagand" "padded coat". [ [http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?search=cassock&searchmode=none Online Etymology Dictionary - Cassock] ] ;Cathay: "Cathay" "China", from Medieval Latin "Cataya", "Kitai", of Turkic origin; akin to Kazan Tatar "Kytai" "China", Old Turkic "Qytan" "Khitan" [ [http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com/cgi-bin/unabridged?va=cathay Merriam-Webster Unabridged - Cathay] ] [ [http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?search=cathay&searchmode=none Online Etymology Dictionary - Cathay] ] ;Cham: from French, which is from Turkish "khan", "lord, prince" [ [http://www.bartleby.com/61/7/C0230700.html The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language - Cham] ] ;Chekmak: from Turkish, a Turkish fabric of silk and cotton, with gold thread interwoven. [ [http://dictionary.reference.com/search?r=2&q=Chekmak Dictionary.com - Chekmak] ] ;Chiaus: from Turkish "çavuş". [ [http://www.m-w.com/dictionary/chiaus Merriam-Webster Online - Chiaus] ] ;Chibouk: from Turkish "çubuk". [ [http://www.m-w.com/dictionary/chibouk Merriam-Webster Online - Chibouk] ] ;Choga: from Sindhi, of Altaic origin; akin to Turkish "çuha" "cloth". A long-sleeved long-skirted cloak for men worn mainly in India and Pakistan. [ [http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com/cgi-bin/unabridged?va=choga Merriam-Webster Unabridged - Choga] ] ;Chouse: perhaps from Turkish "çavuş" "a doorkeeper, messenger" [ [http://www.m-w.com/dictionary/chouse Merriam-Webster Online - Chouse] ] ;Cluck: from Turkish "çulluk", one of the words for turkey. [ [http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?search=cluck&searchmode=none Online Etymology Dictionary - Cluck] ] ;Corsac: from Russian "korsak", from Kirghiz "karsak", "a small yellowish brown bushy-tailed fox" [ [http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com/cgi-bin/unabridged?va=corsac Merriam-Webster Unabridged - Corsac] ] ;Cosaque: from French, literally, "Cossack", from Russian "kazak" & Ukrainian "kozak", which is from Turkic "kazak". A cracker. [ [http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com/cgi-bin/unabridged?va=cosaque Merriam-Webster Unabridged - Cosaque] ] ;Cossack: from Turkic "quzzaq" which means "adventurer, guerilla, nomad" [ [http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?search=cossack&searchmode=none Online Etymology Dictionary - Cossack] ] ()

D

;Desemer: from German, from Low German, alteration of Middle Low German "bisemer", "besemer", of Baltic origin; akin to Lithuanian "bezmnas", of Slavic origin; akin to Old Russian "bezmenu" "desemer, small weight", Polish "bezmian", "przezmian" "balance without pans", perhaps of Turkic origin; akin to Turkish "batman" "small weight". An ancient balance. [ [http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com/cgi-bin/unabridged?va=desemer Merriam-Webster Unabridged - Desemer] ] ;Devshirmeh: from Turkish "devşirme", which means "gathering" [ [http://lexicorient.com/e.o/devsirme.htm Lexicorient.com - Devsirme] ] [ [http://www.britannica.com/eb/topic?idxStructId=160392&typeId=13 Encyclopaedia Britannica Online - Topic: Devsirme] ] ;Dey: from Turkish "dayı", literally "a maternal uncle" [ [http://www.m-w.com/dictionary/dey Merriam-Webster Online - Dey] ] ;Dolma: from Turkish "dolma", which means "filled" or "stuffed" [ [http://www.m-w.com/dictionary/dolma Merriam-Webster Online - Dolma] ] ;Dolman: ultimately from Turkish "dolaman", a robe, from "dolamak" "to wind" [ [http://www.m-w.com/dictionary/dolman Merriam-Webster Online - Dolman] ] [ [http://www.bartleby.com/61/99/D0329900.html The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language - Dolman] ] ;Domra: from Kazakh "dombra", a musical instrument [ [http://www.m-w.com/dictionary/domra Merriam-Webster Online - Domra] ] [ [http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9011897/balalaika Encyclopaedia Britannica Online - Domra] ] ;Doner kebab: (Canadian: "donair") from Turkish "döner kebap" [ [http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1O33-donerkebab.html The Oxford Essential Dictionary of Foreign Terms in English - Doner kebab] ] [] ;Donmeh: from Turkish "dönme", which literally means "a convert" [ [http://www.m-w.com/dictionary/donmeh Merriam-Webster Online - Donmeh] ] [ [http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9030930/Donme Encyclopaedia Britannica Online - Donme] ] ;Donum: from Turkish "dönüm", an alternative form of "dunam" [ [http://www.m-w.com/dictionary/donum Merriam-Webster Online - Donum] ] [ [http://www.proz.com/kudoz/1093989 Proz.com - Donum] ] ;Doodle: from German "dudeln" "to play (the bagpipe)", from "dudel" "a bagpipe", from Czech or Polish "dudy" "a bagpipe", from Turkish "düdük" "a flute". [ [http://www.antlionpit.com/doodle1.html Antlion Pit - Doodle] ] ;Dunam: from Turkish "dönüm", from "dönmek" "go round" [ [http://www.m-w.com/dictionary/dunam Merriam-Webster Online - Dunam] ] []

E

;Elchee or elchi: from Turkish "elçi", which means "an ambassador". [ [http://www.absp.org.uk/words/turkish.html ABSP - Turkish words - Elchee] ] ;Eleme figs: from Turkish "eleme" "selected, sifted". Smyrna figs of superior quality packed flat. [ [http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com/cgi-bin/unabridged?va=eleme+figs Merriam-Webster Unabridged - Eleme figs] ]

F

G

;Galiongee: from Turkish "kalyonçi", "kalyoncu", "a Turkish sailor", from "kalyon", Italian "galeone" + "çi" or "cu", the Turkish suffix. [ [http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com/cgi-bin/unabridged?va=galiongee Merriam-Webster Unabridged - Galiongee] ] ;Ganch: modification of Turkish "kancalamak" "to put on a hook", from Turkish "kanca" "large hook", modification of Greek "gampsos" "curved" + Turkish suffix "-lamak". [ [http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com/cgi-bin/unabridged?va=ganch Merriam-Webster Unabridged - Ganch] ] ;Ghiordes: from Turkish "Gördes", a town in Manisa, Turkey. An Anatolian rug characterized by fine knotting, mellow colors, a wool pile, and a cotton web; especially : a fine prayer rug of the 17th and 18th centuries. [ [http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com/cgi-bin/unabridged?va=ghiordes Merriam-Webster Unabridged - Ghiordes] ] ;Gilet: from French, from Spanish "gileco", "jaleco", "chaleco", from Arabic "jalikah", "a garment worn by slaves in Algeria", from Turkish "yelek" "waistcoat, vest" [ [http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com/cgi-bin/unabridged?va=gilet Merriam-Webster Unabridged - Gilet] ]

H

;Haremlik: from Turkish "haremlik", from "harem" (from Arabic harim & Arabic haram) + the Turkish suffix "-lik" "a place" [ [http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com/cgi-bin/unabridged?va=haremlik Merriam-Webster Unabridged - Haremlik] ] ;Horde: from Turkic "ordu" or "orda" ("khan's residence") [ [http://www.m-w.com/dictionary/horde Merriam-Webster Online - Horde] ] [ [http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?search=horde&searchmode=none Online Etymology Dictionary - Horde] ] ();Hun: from Medieval Latin "Hunni", apparently ultimately from Turkic "Hun-yü", the name of a tribe. [ [http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?search=Hun&searchmode=none Online Etymology Dictionary - Hun] ]

I

;Imam bayildi: from Turkish "imambayıldı", "the imam fainted", an eggplant dish prepared with olive oil. [ [http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1O33-imambayildi.html The Oxford Essential Dictionary of Foreign Terms in English - Imam bayildi] ] ;Imbat: from Turkish "imbat", a cooling etesian wind in the Levant (as in Cyprus). [ [http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com/cgi-bin/unabridged?va=imbat Merriam-Webster Unabridged - Imbat] ]

J

;Janissary: from Turkish "yeniçeri", which means "a new soldier" [ [http://www.m-w.com/dictionary/janissary Merriam-Webster Online - Janissary] ] ();Jelick: from Turkish "yelek", the bodice or vest of a Turkish woman's dress. [ [http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com/cgi-bin/unabridged?va=jelick Merriam-Webster Unabridged - Jelick] ] ;Jettru: from Turkic, a union of seven Turkic peoples of Central Asia formed at the end of the 17th or beginning of the 18th century under one khan. [ [http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com/cgi-bin/unabridged?va=jettru Merriam-Webster Unabridged - Jettru] ]

K

;Kaftan: from Turkish "kaftan" (also in Persian) [ [http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?search=caftan&searchmode=none Online Etymology Dictionary - Caftan] ] ;Kaique: from Turkish "kayık", an alternative form of "caïque". [ [http://dictionary.reference.com/search?r=2&q=Kaique Dictionary.com - Kaique] ] ;Kangal: from Turkish "kangal" or "sivas kangal köpeği" [ [http://www.petplanet.co.uk/petplanet/breeds/Anatolian_Shepherd_Dog.htm PetPlanet.com - Kangal] ] [ [http://www.reference.com/browse/wiki/Kangal_Dog Reference.com - Kangal] ] ;Karabagh: from Azeri "Karabagh", a region in Azerbaijan. A small Caucasian rug. [ [http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com/cgi-bin/unabridged?va=karabagh Merriam-Webster Unabridged - Karabagh] ] ;Karabash: from Turkish "karabaş", literally "a blackhead" [ [http://www.petplanet.co.uk/petplanet/breeds/Anatolian_Shepherd_Dog.htm PetPlanet.com - Karabash] ] [ [http://www.reference.com/browse/wiki/Anatolian_Shepherd_Dog Reference.com - Karabash] ] ;Karadagh: from Azeri "Karadagh", a mountain range in Azerbaijan province, northwestern Iran. a Persian rug having a bold design and rich coloring. [ [http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com/cgi-bin/unabridged?va=karadagh Merriam-Webster Unabridged - Karadagh] ] ;Karagane: from Russian "karagan", which is from Turkic "karagan". A species of gray fox found in Russia. [ [http://dictionary.reference.com/search?r=2&q=Karagane Dictionary.com - Karagane] ] [ [http://starling.rinet.ru/cgi-bin/response.cgi?root=/usr/local/share/starling/morpho&morpho=0&basename=usrlocalsharestarlingmorphovasmervasmer&first=5097 Vasmer's Etymological Dictionary - Karagan] ] ;Karakul: from Uzbek "karakul", literally a village in Uzbekistan [ [http://www.m-w.com/dictionary/karakul Merriam-Webster Online - Karakul] ] ;Karakurt: from Russian, of Turkic origin, "karakurt", "a venomous spider". [ [http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com/cgi-bin/unabridged?va=nagaika Merriam-Webster Unabridged - Karakurt] ] ;Kasseri: from New Greek "kaseri", from Turkish "kaşer", "kaşar" [ [http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com/cgi-bin/unabridged?va=kasseri Merriam-Webster Unabridged - Kasseri] ] ;Kavass: from Turkish "kavas" [ [http://www.m-w.com/dictionary/kavass Merriam-Webster Online - Kavass] ] [ [http://dictionary.reference.com/search?q=kavass Dictionary.com - Kavass] ] ;Kazak: from "Kazak", a town in Azerbaijan, an Oriental rug in bold colors with geometric designs or stylized plant and animal forms. [ [http://www.m-w.com/dictionary/kazak Merriam-Webster Online - Kazak] ] ;Kefir: from Russian, probably ultimately from Old Turkic "köpür", "milk, froth, foam", from "köpürmäk", "to froth, foam". [ [http://www.bartleby.com/61/98/K0029800.html The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language - Kefir] ] [ [http://encarta.msn.com/dictionary_/kefir.html Encarta Online - Kefir] ] ;Kelek: from Turkish "kelek", a raft or float supported on inflated animal skins. [ [http://dictionary.reference.com/search?q=kelek Dictionary.com - Kelek] ] ;Kendyr: from Russian "kendyr", from Turkish "kendir". A strong bast fiber that resembles Indian hemp and is used in Asia as cordage and as a substitute for cotton and hemp. [ [http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com/cgi-bin/unabridged?va=kendyr Merriam-Webster Unabridged - Kendyr] ] [ [http://starling.rinet.ru/cgi-bin/response.cgi?root=/usr/local/share/starling/morpho&morpho=0&basename=usrlocalsharestarlingmorphovasmervasmer&first=5375 Vasmer's Etymological Dictionary - Kendyr] ] ;Ketch: probably from Middle English "cacchen" "to capture", or perhaps from Turkish "kayık" "a boat, skiff". [ [http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=ketch Online Etymology Dictionary - Ketch] ] [ [http://books.google.com/books?id=aDhGlKL3h00C&pg=PA231&dq=ketch&hl=en&sig=-krz75dsUGBTecQeKoblgrIbSH8 The Concise Dictionary of English Etymology - Ketch] ] ;Khagan: from Turkic "kaghan", an alternative form of "khan" [ [http://www.m-w.com/dictionary/khagan Merriam-Webster Online - Khagan] ] ;Khan: from Turkic "khan", akin to Turkish "han" (title meaning "ruler") [ [http://www.m-w.com/dictionary/khan Merriam-Webster Online - Khan] ] ;Khanum: from Turkic "khanum", akin to Turkish "hanım", "a female derivation of Khan" [ [http://www.m-w.com/dictionary/khanum Merriam-Webster Online - Khanum] ] ;Khatun: from Turkic "khatūn", perhaps from Old Turkic or from Sogdian "kwat'yn", "a queen" [ [http://www.m-w.com/dictionary/khatun Merriam-Webster Online - Khatun] ] [ [http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1O33-khatun.html Highbeam.com - Khatun] ] ;Kibitka: from Russian, of Turkic origin; akin to Kazan Tatar "kibit" "booth, stall, tent", Uyghur "käbit". [ [http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com/cgi-bin/unabridged?va=kibitka Merriam-Webster Unabridged - Kibitka] ] ;Kibosh: looks Yiddish, but origin in early 19c. English slang seems to argue against this. One candidate is Irish "caip bháis", "caipín báis" "cap of death". Or it may somehow be connected with Turkish "bosh". [ [http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?search=kibosh&searchmode=none Online Etymology Dictionary - Kibosh] ] ;Kielbasa: from Polish "kiełbasa", from East and West Slavic "*kŭlbasa", from East Turkic "kül bassï", "grilled cutlet", from Turkic "kül bastï" : "kül", "coals, ashes" + "bastï", "pressed (meat)" (from basmaq, to press) [ [http://www.bartleby.com/61/68/K0056800.html The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language - Kielbasa] ] ;Kilij: from Turkish "kılıç", a Turkish saber with a crescent-shaped blade. [ [http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/kilij Dictionary.com - Kilij] ] ;Kipchak: from Russian, which is from Chagatai. 1. One of the ancient Turkic peoples of the Golden Horde related to the Uyghurs and Kyrgyz. 2. The Turkic language of the Kipchaks. [ [http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com/cgi-bin/unabridged?va=kipchak Merriam-Webster Unabridged - Kipchak] ] ;Kis Kilim: from Turkish "kızkilim", a kind of carpet. [ [http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com/cgi-bin/unabridged?va=kis+kilim Merriam-Webster Unabridged - Kis Kilim] ] ;Kizilbash: from Turkish "kızılbaş", literally "a red head" [ [http://www.m-w.com/dictionary/kizilbash Merriam-Webster Online - Kizilbash] ] [ [http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9045706/Kizilbash Encyclopaedia Britannica Online - Kizilbash] ] ;Knish: from Yiddish, from Ukrainian "knysh", probably of Turkic origin. [ [http://www.bartleby.com/61/6/K0090600.html The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language - Knish] ] ;Kok-saghyz: from Russian "kok-sagyz", from Turkic "kök-sagız", from "kök" "root" + "sagız" "rubber, gum" [ [http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com/cgi-bin/unabridged?va=kok-saghyz Merriam-Webster Unabridged - Kok-saghyz] ] ;Komitadji: from Turkish "komitacı", a rebel, member of a secret revolutionary society. [ [http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com/cgi-bin/unabridged?va=komitadji Merriam-Webster Unabridged - Komitadji] ] ;Konak: from Turkish "konak", a large house in Turkey. [ [http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com/cgi-bin/unabridged?va=konak Merriam-Webster Unabridged - Konak] ] ;Krym-saghyz: from Russian "krym-sagyz", of Turkic origin, from "Krym" "Crimea" [ [http://starling.rinet.ru/cgi-bin/response.cgi?root=/usr/local/share/starling/morpho&morpho=0&basename=usrlocalsharestarlingmorphovasmervasmer&first=6507 Vasmer's Etymological Dictionary - Krym] ] , + "sagız" "rubber, gum". [ [http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com/cgi-bin/unabridged?va=krym-saghyz Merriam-Webster Unabridged - Krym-saghyz] ] ;Kulah: from Turkish "Kula", a town in western Turkey. A Turkish rug that is often a prayer rug and that uses the Ghiordes knot. [ [http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com/cgi-bin/unabridged?va=kulah Merriam-Webster Unabridged - Kulah] ] ;Kulak: from Russian "kulak" "a fist", of Turkic origin; akin to Turkish "kol" "arm". [ [http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com/cgi-bin/unabridged?va=kulak Merriam-Webster Unabridged - Kulak] ] [ [http://starling.rinet.ru/cgi-bin/response.cgi?root=/usr/local/share/starling/morpho&morpho=0&basename=usrlocalsharestarlingmorphovasmervasmer&first=6646 Vasmer's Etymological Dictionary - Kulak] ] ;Kulan: from Kirghiz "kulan", "the wild ass of the Kirghiz steppe". [ [http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com/cgi-bin/unabridged?va=kulan Merriam-Webster Unabridged - Kulan] ] ;Kumiss: from Turkic "kumyz" or "kumis" [ [http://www.m-w.com/dictionary/kumiss Merriam-Webster Online - Kumiss] ] ();Kurbash: from Turkish "kırbaç" [ [http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com/cgi-bin/unabridged?va=kurbash Merriam-Webster Unabridged - Kurbash] ] [ [http://dictionary.reference.com/search?q=kurbash Dictionary.com - Kurbash] ] ;Kurgan: from Russian, of Turkic origin; akin to Turkish "kurgan" "fortress, castle" [ [http://www.m-w.com/dictionary/kurgan Merriam-Webster Online - Kurgan] ] ;Kurus: from Turkish "kuruş", a Turkish piaster equal to 1/100 lira. [ [http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com/cgi-bin/unabridged?va=kurus&x=25&y=4 Merriam-Webster Unabridged - Kurus] ]

L

;Lackey: from French "laquais", from Spanish "lacayo", ultimately from Turkish "ulak", which means "runner" or "courier". [ [http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?search=lackey&searchmode=none Online Etymology Dictionary - Lackey] ] ;Ladik: from Turkish "Ladik", a village in Turkey. A rug of fine texture woven in and near Ladik in central Anatolia. [ [http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com/cgi-bin/unabridged?va=ladik Merriam-Webster Unabridged - Ladik] ] ;Latten: from Middle English "latoun", "laton", from Middle French "laton", "leton", from Old Provençal, from Arabic "latun", of Turkic origin; akin to Turkish "altın" "gold" [ [http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com/cgi-bin/unabridged?va=latten Merriam-Webster Unabridged - Latten] ] ;Lavash: from Armenian, which is from Turkish "lavash". [ [http://www.bartleby.com/61/18/L0071850.html The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language - Lavash] ] ;Lokshen: from Yiddish, plural of "loksh" "noodle", from Russian dial. "loksha", of Turkic origin; akin to Uyghur & Kazan Tatar "lakca" "noodles", Chuvash "läskä". [ [http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com/cgi-bin/unabridged?va=lokshen Merriam-Webster Unabridged - Lokshen] ]

M

;Mammoth: from Russian "mamot", "mamont", "mamant", perhaps from a Yakut word derived from Yakut "mamma" "earth"; from the belief that the mammoths burrowed in the earth like moles. [ [http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com/cgi-bin/unabridged?va=mammoth Merriam-Webster Unabridged - Mammoth] ] ;Martagon: from Middle English, from Old French, from Old Spanish, from Ottoman Turkish "martagan", "a kind of turban". [ [http://www.bartleby.com/61/53/M0125300.html The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language - Martagon] ]

N

;Nagaika: from Russian, of Turkic origin; akin to Kirghiz "nogai" [ [http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com/cgi-bin/unabridged?va=nagaika Merriam-Webster Unabridged - Nagaika] ]

O

;Oda: from Turkish "oda", literally "a room, chamber". A room in a harem. [ [http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com/cgi-bin/unabridged?va=oda Merriam-Webster Unabridged - Oda] ] ;Odalisque: from French, which is from Turkish "odalık", from "oda", "a room" [ [http://www.m-w.com/cgi-bin/dictionary?va=odalisque Merriam-Webster Online - Odalisque] ] ;Oghuz or Ghuz: from Turkic "oghuz". A descendant of certain early Turkic invaders of Persia. [ [http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com/cgi-bin/unabridged?va=ghuz Merriam-Webster Unabridged - Ghuz] ] ;Osmanli: from Turkish "osmanlı", from "Osman", founder of the Ottoman Empire + "lı" "of or pertaining to" [ [http://www.m-w.com/dictionary/osmanli Merriam-Webster Online - Osmanli] ] ;Ottoman: from French, adjective & noun, probably from Italian "ottomano", from Turkish "osmani", from "Osman", "Othman" died 1326, founder of the Ottoman Empire [ [http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com/cgi-bin/unabridged?va=ottoman Merriam-Webster Unabridged - Ottoman] ]

P

;Paklava: modification of Turkish "baklava" [ [http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com/cgi-bin/unabridged?va=paklava Merriam-Webster Unabridged - Paklava] ] ;Parandja: from Uzbek, a heavy black horsehair veil worn by women of Central Asia. [ [http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com/cgi-bin/unabridged?va=parandja Merriam-Webster Unabridged - Parandja] ] ;Pasha: from Turkish "paşa", earlier "basha", from "bash" "head, chief" which equates to "Sir" [ [http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?search=pasha&searchmode=none Online Etymology Dictionary - Pasha] ] [ [http://www.m-w.com/dictionary/pasha Merriam-Webster Online - Pasha] ] ;Pashalic: from Turkish "paşalık", "title or rank of "pasha", from "paşa": the jurisdiction of a "pasha" or the territory governed by him [ [http://www.m-w.com/dictionary/pashalic Merriam-Webster Online - Pashalic] ] [ [http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-43574/Serbia Encyclopaedia Britannica Online - use of "Pashalic" in an article] ] ;Pastrami: from Yiddish "pastrame", from Romanian "pastrama", ultimately from Turkish "pastırma" [ [http://dexonline.ro/search.php?cuv=pastrama DEX Online - Pastrama] ] ;Petcheneg: from Russian "pecheneg", which is from Turkic. Member of a Turkic people invading the South Russian, Danubian, and Moldavian steppes during the early Middle Ages. [ [http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com/cgi-bin/unabridged?va=petcheneg Merriam-Webster Unabridged - Petcheneg] ] [ [http://starling.rinet.ru/cgi-bin/response.cgi?root=/usr/local/share/starling/morpho&morpho=0&basename=usrlocalsharestarlingmorphovasmervasmer&first=10046 Vasmer's Etymological Dictionary - Pechenegi] ] ;Pirogi: from Yiddish, from Russian, plural of "pirog" (pie), perhaps borrowed from Kazan Tatar, (cf. Turk. borek) [ [http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?search=pirog&searchmode=none Online Etymology Dictionary - Pirog] ] ;Pul: from Persian "pul", which is from Turkish "pul". A unit of value of Afghanistan equal to 1/100 afghani. [ [http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com/cgi-bin/unabridged?va=pul Merriam-Webster Unabridged - Pul] ]

Q

;Qajar or Kajar: from Persian "Qajar", of Turkish origin. A people of northern Iran holding political supremacy through the dynasty ruling Persia from 1794 to 1925. [ [http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com/cgi-bin/unabridged?va=kajar Merriam-Webster Unabridged - Kajar] ] ;Quiver: from Anglo-French "quiveir", from Old French "quivre", probably ultimately from the Hunnic language. [ [http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=quiver Online Etymology Dictionary - Quiver] ]

R

;Rumelian: from Turkish "rumeli", of, relating to, or characteristic of Rumelia [ [http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com/cgi-bin/unabridged?va=rumelian Merriam-Webster Unabridged - Rumelian] ]

;Sabot: from Old French "çabot", alteration of "savate" "old shoe", probably of Turkish or Arabic origin. [ [http://www.bartleby.com/61/51/S0005100.html The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language - Sabot] ] ;Saic: from French "saïque", from Turkish "shaika". [ [http://dictionary.reference.com/search?q=saic Dictionary.com - Saic] ] ;Saiga: from Russian "saĭgá(k)", from Turkic; cf. Chagatai "sayğak" [ [http://dictionary.reference.com/search?q=saiga&x=38&y=4 Dictionary.com - Saiga] ] [ [http://www.bartleby.com/61/17/S0021700.html The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language - Saiga] ] ;Saker: through Old French from Arabic "saqr", probably from Turkic "sonqur", which means "a falcon". [ [http://www.bartleby.com/61/47/S0034700.html The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language - Saker] ] ;Samiel: from Turkish "samyeli", "sam", "poisonous" + "yel", "wind". [ [http://www.bartleby.com/61/45/S0054575.html The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language - Samiel] ] ;Sanjak: from Turkish "sancak", which means "a banner" [ [http://www.m-w.com/dictionary/sanjak Merriam-Webster Online - Sanjak] ] [ [http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-42681/Bosnia-and-Herzegovina Encyclopaedia Britannica Online - "Sanjak" in Ottoman Bosnia] ] ;Sarma: from Turkish "sarma", which means "wrapping" [ [http://www.answers.com/sarma Answers.com - Sarma] ] [ [http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-228350/Serbia Encyclopaedia Britannica Online - Sarma in Balkan cuisine] ] ;Saxaul: from Russian "saksaul", which is from Kazakh "seksevil". A leafless xerophytic shrub or tree of the family Chenopodiaceae of Asia that has green or greenish branches and is used for stabilization of desert soils. [ [http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com/cgi-bin/unabridged?va=saxaul Merriam-Webster Unabridged - Saxaul] ] [ [http://starling.rinet.ru/cgi-bin/response.cgi?root=/usr/local/share/starling/morpho&morpho=0&basename=usrlocalsharestarlingmorphovasmervasmer&first=12139 Vasmer's Etymological Dictionary - Saksaul] ] ;Selamlik: from Turkish "Selamlık". [ [http://dictionary.reference.com/search?q=selamlik Dictionary.com - Selamlik] ] ;Seljuk: from Turkish "Selçuk", "eponymous ancestor of the dynasties". Of or relating to any of several Turkic dynasties that ruled over a great part of western Asia in the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries. [ [http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com/cgi-bin/unabridged?va=seljuk Merriam-Webster Unabridged - Seljuk] ] ;Seraskier: from Turkish "serasker", from Persian "ser" "head, chief" + Arabic "asker" "an army". [ [http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/seraskier Dictionary.com - Seraskier] ] ;Sevruga: through Russian "sevryuga" ultimately from Tatar "söirök". [ [http://www.bartleby.com/61/81/S0298150.html The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language - Sevruga] ] ;Shabrack: from French "schabraque", from German "schabracke", from Hungarian "csáprág", from Turkish "çaprak" [ [http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com/cgi-bin/unabridged?va=shabrack Merriam-Webster Unabridged - Shabrack] ] ;Shagreen: from Turkish "sağrı", which means "the back of a horse" [ [http://www.m-w.com/dictionary/shagreen Merriam-Webster Online - Shagreen] ] ;Shashlik: from Crimean Tatar "şışlık", which means "shish kebab" [ [http://www.m-w.com/dictionary/shaslik Merriam-Webster Online - Shashlik] ] ;Shawarma: ultimately from Turkish "çevirme", which literally means "turning" [ [http://www.arikah.net/encyclopedia/Shwarma Arikah.net - Shawarma] ] ;Shish: from Turkish "şiş", which literally means "a skewer" [ [http://www.m-w.com/dictionary/shish Merriam-Webster Online - Shish] ] [ [http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?search=shish&searchmode=none Online Etymology Dictionary - Shish] ] ;Shish kebab: from Turkish "şiş kebabı" [ [http://www.m-w.com/dictionary/shish%20kebab Merriam-Webster Online - Shish Kebab] ] ;Shor: from Russian, of Altaic origin; akin to Kalmyk & Mongolian "sor" "salt", Turkish "sure" "brackish soil". A salt lake in Turkestan, a salina. [ [http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com/cgi-bin/unabridged?va=shor Merriam-Webster Unabridged - Shor] ] ;Som: from Kirghiz, "crude iron casting, ruble" [ [http://www.m-w.com/dictionary/som Merriam-Webster Online - Som] ]

T

;Taiga: from Russian "taiga", of Turkic origin; akin to Teleut "taiga" "rocky, mountainous terrain", Turkish "dağ" "mountain"; Mongolian origin is also possible. [ [http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com/cgi-bin/unabridged?va=taiga Merriam-Webster Unabridged - Taiga] ] [ [http://www.bartleby.com/61/56/T0015600.html The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language - Taiga] ] ;Taramasalata: from modern Greek "taramas" "preserved roe", from Turkish "tarama" "preparation of soft roe or red caviar" + "salata" "salad". [ [http://encarta.msn.com/dictionary_1861718409/taramasalata.html Encarta Online - Taramasalata] ] ;Taranchi: from Chagatai "Taranci", literally "a farmer". [ [http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com/cgi-bin/unabridged?va=taranchi Merriam-Webster Unabridged - Taranchi] ] ;Tarantass: from Russian "tarantas", which is from Kazan Tatar "tarıntas". [ [http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com/cgi-bin/unabridged?va=tarantass Merriam-Webster Unabridged - Tarantass] ] ;Tarbagan: from Russian, which is from Teleut. A pale or reddish gregarious bobac inhabiting the grassy steppes of Central Asia. [ [http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com/cgi-bin/unabridged?va=tarbagan Merriam-Webster Unabridged - Tarbagan] ] ;Tarbush: from Arabic "tarbūsh", from Ottoman Turkish "terposh", probably from Persian "sarposh" "headdress" (equivalent to "sar" "head" + "pūsh" "covering"), by association with Turkish "ter" "sweat". A tasseled cap of cloth or felt, usually red, that is worn by Muslim men either by itself or as the inner part of the turban. [ [http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/tarbush Dictionary.com - Tarbush] ] ;Tarkhan: from Old Turkic "tarkan", a privileged class. [ [http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com/cgi-bin/unabridged?va=tarkhan Merriam-Webster Unabridged - Tarkhan] ] ;Tarpan: from Russian, which is from Kirghiz or Kazakh "tarpan". [ [http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com/cgi-bin/unabridged?va=tarpan Merriam-Webster Unabridged - Tarpan] ] [ [http://starling.rinet.ru/cgi-bin/response.cgi?root=/usr/local/share/starling/morpho&morpho=0&basename=usrlocalsharestarlingmorphovasmervasmer&first=13998 Vasmer's Etymological Dictionary - Tarpan] ] ;Tartar: from Persian "Tatar", of Turkic origin. A ferocious or violent person. [ [http://www.bartleby.com/61/71/T0057100.html The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language - Tatar/Tartar] ] ;Tau-saghyz: from Russian "tau-sagyz", from Turkic "tau-sagız", from "tau" "mountain" + "sagız" "gum, rubber". [ [http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com/cgi-bin/unabridged?va=tau-saghyz Merriam-Webster Unabridged - Tau-saghyz] ] ;Tavla: from Turkish "tavla", a version of the board game backgammon. [] ;Tekke: from Turkish "tekke", a dervish monastery. [ [http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com/cgi-bin/unabridged?va=tekke Merriam-Webster Unabridged - Tekke] ] ;Tenge: from Kazakh "teŋge" "coin, ruble". [ [http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com/cgi-bin/collegiate?book=Dictionary&va=tenge Merriam-Webster Unabridged - Tenge] ] ;Tepe: from Turkish "tepe", literally "a hill, summit". An artificial mound. [ [http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com/cgi-bin/unabridged?va=tepe Merriam-Webster Unabridged - Tepe] ] [ [http://dictionary.reference.com/search?q=tepe Dictionary.com - Tepe] ] [ [http://starling.rinet.ru/cgi-bin/response.cgi?root=config&morpho=0&basename=dataalt urcet&first=1836 Starling.ru Turkic Etymology - Tepö] ] ;Terek: from Terek, river of southeast Russia, which is from Balkar "Terk". A sandpiper of the Old World breeding in the far north of eastern Europe and Asia and migrating to southern Africa and Australia and frequenting rivers. [ [http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com/cgi-bin/unabridged?va=terek Merriam-Webster Unabridged - Terek] ] [ [http://starling.rinet.ru/cgi-bin/response.cgi?root=/usr/local/share/starling/morpho&morpho=0&basename=usrlocalsharestarlingmorphovasmervasmer&first=14159 Vasmer's Etymological Dictionary - Terek] ] ;Theorbo: from Italian "tiorba", which is from Turkish "torba" "a bag". [ [http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com/cgi-bin/unabridged?va=theorbo Merriam-Webster Unabridged - Theorbo] ] [ [http://encarta.msn.com/dictionary_1861719557/theorbo.html Encarta Online - Theorbo] ] ;Toman: from Persian تومان, which is from Turkic "tümen", "a unit of ten thousand". [ [http://www.bartleby.com/61/61/T0256150.html The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language - Toman] ] ;Tovarich: from Russian "tovarishch", from Old Russian "tovarishch", sing. of "tovarishchi", "business associates", which is from Old Turkic "tavar ishchi", "businessman, merchant" : "tavar", "wealth, trade" + "ishchi", "one who works" (from "ish", "work, business"). [ [http://www.bartleby.com/61/15/T0291500.html The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language - Tovarich] ] ;Tughra: from Turkish "tuğra", an elaborate monogram formed of the Sultan's name and titles. [ [http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-16074/coin Encyclopaedia Britannica Online - Ottoman Coins] ] [ [http://books.google.com/books?vid=ISBN9004094083&id=nnOHEYxc6PwC&pg=PA111&lpg=PA111&dq=tughra%2Bturkish&sig=RTq_o3UAP9fGGu9TZXE_ggFBuBY&hl=en Al-Damurdashi's Chronicle of Egypt - Tughra] ] ;Tungus: from Russian, from East Turkic "tunguz", "wild pig, boar", from Old Turkic "tonguz". [ [http://www.bartleby.com/61/27/T0412700.html The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language - Tungus] ] ;Turk: from Turkish "türk", which has several meanings in English. [ [http://www.m-w.com/dictionary/turk Merriam-Webster Online - Turk] ] ;Turki: from Persian "turki", from "Turk", "Turk", from Turkish "Türk". [ [http://www.bartleby.com/61/3/T0420300.html The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language - Turki] ] ;Turquoise: from Middle English "Turkeys", from Anglo-French "turkeise", from feminine of "turkeis" Turkish, from "Turc" Turkish. [ [http://www.m-w.com/dictionary/turquoise Merriam-Webster Online - Turquoise] ] ;Tuzla: from Turkish "tuzla", from the name of Lake Tuz in Turkey. A central Anatolian rug. [ [http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com/cgi-bin/unabridged?va=tuzla Merriam-Webster Unabridged - Tuzla] ] ;Tzatziki: from modern Greek "tsatsiki", which is from Turkish "cacık". [ [http://encarta.msn.com/dictionary_561509087/tzatziki.html Encarta Online - Tzatziki] ]

U

;Ugrian: from Old Russian "Ugre", which means "Hungarians", of Turkic origin. [ [http://www.bartleby.com/61/44/U0004400.html The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language - Ugrian] ] ;Uhlan: from Turkish "oğlan" "a boy, servant". [ [http://www.m-w.com/dictionary/uhlan Merriam-Webster Online - Uhlan] ] ;Urdu: from Hindustani "Urdu" "camp", which is from Turkic "ordu" (source of horde). [ [http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?search=urdu&searchmode=none Online Etymology Dictionary - Urdu] ] ;Urman: from Russian, which is from Kazan Tatar "urman", "a forest", synonymous with "taiga". [ [http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com/cgi-bin/unabridged?va=urman Merriam-Webster Unabridged - Urman] ] ;Ushak: from Ushak, Turkish "Uşak", manufacturing town of western Turkey. A heavy woolen oriental rug tied in Ghiordes knots and characterized by bright primary colors and an elaborate medallion pattern. [ [http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com/cgi-bin/unabridged?va=ushak Merriam-Webster Unabridged - Ushak] ]

V

;Vampire: from French "vampire" or German "Vampir", from Hungarian "vámpír", from O.C.S. "opiri" (cf. Serb. "vampir", Bulg. "văpir", Ukr. "uper", Pol. "upior"), said by Slavic linguist Franc Miklošič to be ultimately from Kazan Tatar "ubyr" "witch". [ [http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?search=vampire&searchmode=none Online Etymology Dictionary - Vampire] ]

W

X

Y

;Yaourt: from Turkish "yoğurt", a fermented drink, or milk beer, made by the Turks. [ [http://dictionary.reference.com/search?r=2&q=Yaourt Dictionary.com - Yaourt] ] ;Yardang: from Turkic "yardang", ablative of "yar" "steep bank, precipice". [ [http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com/cgi-bin/unabridged?va=yardang Merriam-Webster Unabridged - Yardang] ] [ [http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/yardang Dictionary.com - Yardang] ] ;Yarmulka: of Turkic origin; akin to Turkish "yağmurluk" which means "rainwear". [ [http://www.m-w.com/dictionary/yarmulke Merriam-Webster Online - Yarmulke] ] ;Yashmak or yashmac: from Turkish "yaşmak". [ [http://www.m-w.com/dictionary/yashmak Merriam-Webster Online - Yashmak] ] ;Yataghan: from Turkish "yatağan". [ [http://www.m-w.com/cgi-bin/dictionary?va=yataghan Merriam-Webster Online - Yataghan] ] ;Yoghurt: from Turkish "yoğurt". [ [http://www.m-w.com/dictionary/yoghurt Merriam-Webster Online - Yoghurt] ] ();Yurt: from Turkic "yurt", which means "a dwelling place". [ [http://www.m-w.com/dictionary/yurt Merriam-Webster Online - Yurt] ] ;Yuruk: from Turkish "yürük", "a nomad". 1. One of a nomadic shepherd people of the mountains of southeastern Anatolia. 2. A Turkish rug from the Konya and Karaman regions, southeastern Anatolia. [ [http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com/cgi-bin/unabridged?va=yuruk Merriam-Webster Unabridged - Yuruk] ]

Z

;Zill: from Turkish "zil" "bell, cymbals", of imitative origin. [ [http://unabridged.merriam-webster.com/cgi-bin/unabridged?va=zill Merriam-Webster Unabridged - Zill] ] [ [http://dictionary.reference.com/search?q=zill&x=24&y=13 Dictionary.com - Zill] ]

ee also

*Lists of English words of international origin

External links

* [http://concise.britannica.com/ebc/article-9381359/Turkic-languages Encyclopædia Britannica Concise - Turkic languages]
* [http://www.askoxford.com/globalenglish/borrowings/map_04/?view=uk Ask Oxford - Borrowings into English]
* [http://www.absp.org.uk/words/turkish.html Association of British Scrabble Players - Turkish words]

References


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