Heterochromatin


Heterochromatin

Heterochromatin is a tightly packed form of DNA. Its major characteristic is that transcription is limited. As such, it is a means to control gene expression, through regulation of the transcription initiation.

tructure

Chromatin is found in two varieties: euchromatin and heterochromatin. [cite journal
author = Elgin, S.C.
title = Heterochromatin and gene regulation in "Drosophila"
year = 1996
journal = Curr. Opin. Genet. Dev.
issn = 0959-437X
volume = 6
pages = 193–202
doi = 10.1016/S0959-437X(96)80050-5
] Originally, the two forms were distinguished cytologically by how darkly they stained - the former is lighter, while the latter stains darkly, indicating tighter packing. Heterochromatin is usually localized to the periphery of the nucleus.

Heterochromatin mainly consists of genetically inactive satellite sequences, [cite journal
author = Lohe, A.R., "et al."
title = Mapping simple repeated DNA sequences in heterochromatin of "Drosophila melanogaster"
year = 1993
journal = Genetics
volume = 134
issue = 4
pages = 1149–1174
issn = 0016-6731
url = http://www.genetics.org/cgi/content/full/134/4/1149
pmid = 8375654
] and many genes are repressed to various extents, although some cannot be expressed in euchromatin at all. [cite journal
author = Lu, B.Y., "et al."
year = 2000
title = Heterochromatin protein 1 is required for the normal expression of two heterochromatin genes in Drosophila
journal = Genetics
volume = 155
issue = 2
pages = 699–708
url = http://www.genetics.org/cgi/content/full/155/2/699
issn = 0016-6731
pmid = 10835392
] Heterochromatin also replicates later in S phase of the cell cycle than euchromatin, and is found only in eukaryotes. Both centromeres and telomeres are heterochromatic, as is the Barr body of the second inactivated X chromosome in a female.

Function

Heterochromatin is believed to serve several functions, from gene regulation to the protection of the integrity of chromosomes; all of these roles can be attributed to the dense packing of DNA, which makes it less accessible to protein factors that bind DNA or its associated factors. For example, naked double-stranded DNA ends would usually be interpreted by the cell as damaged DNA, triggering cell cycle arrest and DNA repair.Fact|date=June 2007Heterochromatin is generally clonally inherited; when a cell divides the two daughter cells will typically contain heterochromatin within the same regions of DNA, resulting in epigenetic inheritance. Variations cause heterochromatin to encroach on adjacent genes or recede from genes at the extremes of domains. Transcribable material may be repressed by being positioned (in "cis") at these boundary domains. This gives rise to different levels of expression from cell to cell, [cite journal
first=Amanda G.
last=Fisher
coauthors=Matthias Merkenschlager
title=Gene silencing, cell fate and nuclear organisation
month=April
year=2002
journal=Curr. Opin. Genet. Dev.
volume=12
issue=2
pages=193–197
doi=10.1016/S0959-437X(02)00286-1
issn=0959-437X
] which may be demonstrated by position-effect variegation. [cite journal
title="Cytogenetic and molecular aspects of position effect variegation in Drosophila melanogaster"
author=Zhimulev, I.F., "et al."
year=1986
month=Dec
journal=Chromosoma
volume=94
issue=6
pages=492–504
doi=10.1007/BF00292759
issn=1432-0886
] Insulator sequences may act as a barrier in rare cases where constitutive heterochromatin and highly active genes are juxtaposed (e.g. the 5'HS4 insulator upstream of the chicken β-globin locus, [cite journal
author=Burgess-Beusse, B, "et al."
month=Dec
year=2002
title=The insulation of genes from external enhancers and silencing chromatin
journal=Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA
volume=9
issue=Suppl 4
pages=16433–16437
doi=10.1073/pnas.162342499
pmid=12154228
] and loci in two "Saccharomyces" spp. [cite journal
author=Noma, K., "et al."
month=Aug
year=2001
title=transitions in distinct histone H3 methylation patterns at the heterochromatin domain boundaries
journal=Science
volume=293
issue=5532
pages=1150–1155
doi=10.1126/science.1064150
pmid=11498594
] [cite journal
author=Donze, D. & R.T. Kamakaka
year=2000
title=RNA polymerase III and RNA polymerase II promoter complexes are heterochromatin barriers in "Saccharomyces cerevisiae"
journal=Embo J.
volume=20
pages=520–31
doi=10.1093/emboj/20.3.520
] ).

Constitutive heterochromatin

All cells of a given species will package the same regions of DNA in constitutive heterochromatin, and thus in all cells any genes contained within the constitutive heterochromatin will be poorly expressed. For example, all human chromosomes 1, 9, 16, and the Y chromosome contain large regions of constitutive heterochromatin. In most organisms, constitutive heterochromatin occurs around the chromosome centromere and near telomeres.

Facultative heterochromatin

Facultative heterochromatin The regions of DNA packaged in facultative heterochromatin will not be consistent within the cell types of a species, and thus a sequence in one cell that is packaged in facultative heterochromatin (and the genes within poorly expressed) may be packaged in euchromatin in another cell (and the genes within no longer silenced). However, the formation of facultative heterochromatin is regulated, and is often associated with morphogenesis or differentiation. An example of facultative heterochromatin is X-chromosome inactivation in female mammals: one X chromosome is packaged in facultative heterochromatin and silenced, while the other X chromosome is packaged in euchromatin and expressed.

Among the molecular components that appear to regulate the spreading of heterochromatin include the Polycomb-group proteins and non-coding genes such as Xist. The mechanism for such spreading is still a matter of controversy. [Talbert PB, Henikoff S. Spreading of silent chromatin: inaction at a distance. Nat Rev Genet. 2006 Oct;7(10):793-803.]

Yeast heterochromatin

"Saccharomyces cerevisiae", or budding yeast, is a model eukaryote and its heterochromatin has been defined thoroughly. Although most of its genome can be characterized as euchromatin, "S. cerevisiae" has regions of DNA that are transcribed very poorly. These loci are the so-called silent mating type loci (HML and HMR), the rDNA (encoding ribosomal RNA), and the sub-telomeric regions. Fission yeast ("Schizosaccharomyces pombe") uses another mechanism for heterochromatin formation at its centromeres. Gene silencing at this location depends on components of the RNAi pathway. Double-stranded RNA is believed to result in silencing of the region through a series of steps.

In the fission yeast "Schizosaccharomyces pombe" two RNAi complexes, the RNAi-induced transcriptional gene silencing (RITS) complex and the RNA-directed RNA polymerase complex (RDRC), are part of a RNAi machinery involved in the initiation, propagation and maintenance of heterochromatin assembly. These two complexes localize in a siRNA-dependent manner on chromosomes, at the site of heterochromatin assembly. RNA polymerase II synthesizes a transcript that serves as a platform to recruit RITS, RDRC and possibly other complexes required for heterochromatin assembly. Both RNAi and an exosome-dependent RNA degradation process contribute to heterochromatic gene silencing. These mechanisms of "Schizosaccharomyces pombe" may occur in other eukaryotes.cite book |chapterurl=http://www.horizonpress.com/rnareg|author= Vavasseur et al. |year=2008|chapter=Heterochromatin Assembly and Transcriptional Gene Silencing under the Control of Nuclear RNAi: Lessons from Fission Yeast|title=RNA and the Regulation of Gene Expression: A Hidden Layer of Complexity|publisher=Caister Academic Press|id= [http://www.horizonpress.com/rnareg ISBN 978-1-904455-25-7] ]

External links

*

References

* Z. Avramova "Heterochromatin in Animals and Plants. Similarities and Differences". [http://www.plantphysiol.org/cgi/content/full/129/1/40 Plant Physiology] May 2002, Vol. 129, pp. 40-49.
* cite journal
author = Caron, H., "et al."
title = The Human Transcriptome

journal = Science
year = 2001
volume = 291
issue = 5507
pages = 1289–1292
doi = 10.1126/science.1056794
pmid = 11181992


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  • heterochromatin — heterochromatin. См. гетерохроматин. (Источник: «Англо русский толковый словарь генетических терминов». Арефьев В.А., Лисовенко Л.А., Москва: Изд во ВНИРО, 1995 г.) …   Молекулярная биология и генетика. Толковый словарь.

  • Heterochromatin — Heterochromatin,   auch zwischen den Zellteilungen stärker anfärbbare Zonen der Chromosomen …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Heterochromatin — Heterochromatin, auch im Interphasekern kondensiertes Chromatin; stärker anfärbbar als das aufgelockerte ⇒ Euchromatin; wird in der Interphase erst nach dem Euchromatin repliziert; wird nicht transkribiert …   Deutsch wörterbuch der biologie

  • heterochromatin — [het΄ər ō΄krō′mə tin] n. [ HETERO + CHROMATIN] Biol. the portion of the chromatin that stains densely and contains few or no genes: cf. EUCHROMATIN …   English World dictionary

  • Heterochromatin — Kern einer humanen Zelle. Das Heterochromatin sind die Bereiche des verdichteten Chromatingerüsts im Karyoplasma einer Zelle. Hier liegt die Desoxyribonukleinsäure (DNA) in spiralisierter, an Histon und Nichthistonproteine gebundener… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Heterochromatin — A genetically inactive part of the genome, heterochromatin was so named because it was chromosomal material (chromatin) that stained differently, more darkly, all through the cell cycle, than most chromosomal material (which was named… …   Medical dictionary

  • heterochromatin — The chromosomal regions that are condensed during interphase and at the time of nuclear division. They show what is considered an abnormal pattern of staining as opposed to euchromatin. Can be subdivided into constitutive regions (present in all… …   Dictionary of molecular biology

  • heterochromatin — /hɛtəroʊˈkroʊmətən/ (say hetuhroh krohmuhtuhn) noun chromatin which remains compact during mitosis. Sex chromosomes may consist entirely of heterochromatin. {hetero + chromatin} …   Australian English dictionary

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  • heterochromatin — noun Etymology: German Date: 1932 densely staining chromatin that appears as nodules in or along chromosomes and contains relatively few genes • heterochromatic adjective …   New Collegiate Dictionary


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