Forestry is the
artand scienceof managing forests, tree plantations, and related natural resources. Silviculture, a related science, involves the growing and tending of trees and forests. Modern forestry generally concerns itself with: assisting forests to provide timberas raw materialfor woodproducts; wildlife habitat; natural water quality management; recreation; landscape and community protection; employment; aesthetically appealing landscapes; biodiversitymanagement; watershed management; erosion control; and a 'sink' for atmospheric carbon dioxide. A practitioner of forestry is known as a forester. Note that the word "forestry" can also refer to a forest itself.
ecosystemshave come to be seen as one of the most important components of the biosphere, and forestry has emerged as a vital field of science, applied art, and technology.
Foresters may be employed by industry, government agencies, conservation groups, urban parks boards, citizens' associations, or private landowners. Industrial foresters are predominantly involved in planning the timber harvests and forest regeneration. Other foresters have the specific jobs which include a broad array of responsibilities. For example, urban foresters work within city environments to enhance urban trees with their unique needs. Some foresters work in tree nurseries growing
seedlings for regenerationprojects. Others are involved with tree geneticsor developing new building systems as forest engineers. The profession has expanded to include a wide diversity of jobs, typically requiring a college bachelor's degree up to the PhD level for highly specialized areas of work.
Traditionally, professional foresters develop and implement "forest management plans". These plans rely on tree inventories showing an area's topographical features as well as its distribution of trees (by species) and other plant cover. They also include roads,
culverts, proximity to human habitation, hydrological conditions, and soil reports ecological sensitive areas. Finally, forest management plans include the projected use of the land and a timetable for that use.
Plans for harvest and subsequent site treatment are influenced by the objectives of the land's owner or leaseholder (for instance, a timber company that holds cutting rights to a given tract of land, or the government in the case of state-owned forests). There is an increasing trend to consider the needs of other stakeholders (e.g., nearby communities or neighborhoods, or rural residents living within or adjacent to the forest tract). Plans are developed with the prevailing forest harvest laws and regulations in mind. They ultimately result in a prescription for the harvest of trees, and indicate whether road building or other forest engineering operations are required.
Traditional forest management plans are chiefly aimed at providing logs as raw material for timber, veneer, plywood, paper, wood fuel or other industries. Hence, considerations of product quality and quantity, employment, and profit have been of central, though not always exclusive, importance.
Foresters also frequently develop post-harvest site plans. These may call for
reforestation(tree planting by species), weed control, fertilization, or the spacing of young trees (thinning of trees that are crowding one another).
While other duties of foresters may include preventing and combatting insect infestation, disease, forest and grassland fires, there is an increasing movement towards allowing these natural aspects of forest ecosystems to run their course, where possible, usually excepting
epidemics or risk of life or property. Foresters are specialists in measuring and modelling the growth of forests (forest mensuration). Increasingly, foresters may be involved in wildlife conservation planning and watershed protection.
The use and management of forest resources has a long history in China, dating from the
Han Dynastyand taking place under the landowning gentry. It was also later written of by the Ming DynastyChinese scholar Xu Guangqi(1562-1633). In the Western world, formal forestry practices developed during the Middle Ages, when land was largely under the control of kings and barons. Control of the land included hunting rights, and though peasants in many places were permitted to gather firewood and building timber and to graze animals, hunting rights were retained by the members of the nobility. Systematic management of forests for a sustainable yield of timber is said to have begun in the 16th century in both the German states and Japan. [ [http://www.pref.nara.jp/nara/kaido/eg/syugen/d5_trad/trad1.htm Japanese Forestry] .] Typically, a forest was divided into specific sections and mapped; the harvest of timber was planned with an eye to regeneration. The practice of establishing tree plantations was promoted by John Evelyn; it had already acquired some popularity in the British Isles. Schools of forestry were established after 1825; most of these schools were in Germany and France. During the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, forest preservation programs were established in the United States, Europe, and British India. Many foresters were either from continental Europe (like Sir Dietrich Brandis), or educated there (like Gifford Pinchot).
The enactment and evolution of forestry laws and binding regulations occurred in most Western nations in the 20th century in response to growing conservation concerns and the increasing technological capacity of logging companies.
Tropical forestry is a separate branch of forestry which deals mainly with equatorial forests that yield woods such as
teakand mahogany. Sir Dietrich Brandis is considered the father of tropical forestry.
Today a strong body of research exists regarding the management of forest ecosystems, selection of species and varieties, and
tree breeding. Forestry also includes the development of better methods for the planting, protecting, thinning, controlled burning, felling, extracting, and processing of timber. One of the applications of modern forestry is reforestation, in which trees are planted and tended in a given area.
In many regions the forest industry is of major ecological, economic, and social importance. Third-party certification systems that provide independent verification of sound forest stewardship and sustainable forestry have become commonplace in many areas since the 1990s. These certification systems were developed as a response to criticism of some forestry practices, particularly
deforestationin less developed regions along with concerns over resource management in the developed world. Some certification systems are criticised for primarily acting as marketing tools and lacking in their claimed independence.
In topographically severe forested terrain, proper forestry is important for the prevention or minimization of serious soil
erosionor even landsliding. In areas with a high potential for landsliding, good forestry can act to prevent property damage or loss, human injury, or loss of life.
Public perception of forest management has become controversial, with growing public concern over perceived mismanagement of the forest and increasing demands that forest land be managed for uses other than pure timber production, for example, indigenous rights, recreation, watershed protection and preservation of wilderness and wildlife habitat. Sharp disagreements over the role of forest fires, logging, motorized recreation and others drives debate while the public demand for wood products continues to increase.
The first dedicated forestry school was established by
Georg Hartigat Dillenburgin Germany in 1787, though forestry had been taught much earlier in central Europe. The first in North Americawas established near Asheville, North Carolina, by George Vanderbiltafter he saw the devastation logginghad caused in the area. The grounds of his Biltmore Estateare almost entirely managed forest, which has grown from bare ground to mature trees since 1895. Another early school was the New York State College of Forestry at Cornell established in 1898. Early North American foresters went to Germany from the nineteenth century to study forestry. Some early German foresters also emigrated to North America.
South Americathe first two forestry schools were established in Brazil, specifically in Viçosa, Minas Gerais, and in Curitiba, Paraná.
Today, an acceptably trained forester must be educated in general
biology, botany, genetics, soil science, climatology, hydrology, economicsand forest management. Education in the basics of sociologyand political scienceis often considered an advantage.
An interesting scope of work opens up for foresters interested in international politics. Organizations such as the [http://www.forestpolicy.net Forest Policy Education Network (FPEN)] are dedicated to facilitate the way into forest politics and to exchange information on the subject.
In India the Forestry Education is imparted in the Agricultural Universities and In Forest Research Institute (Deemed University), Dehradun.Dr.Y.S.Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Solan (HP) is dedicated for imparting the Forestry education and is the only University of its kind in Asia. Four year Degree programme is conducted in these universities at Undergraduate level. Post Graduation and Doctorate degree facility is also available in these universities
[http://www.eyeontherainforest.org/bluemahoe.php Tropic Ventures Rainforest Enrichment and Sustainable Forestry Project] is registered under the Auxiliary Forest Program of Puerto Rico, and is a demonstration project for students and foresters interested in the sustainable management and preservation of tropical rainforest land.
*Charles H. Stoddard "Essentials of Forestry". New York: Ronald Press, 1978.
*G. Tyler Miller. "Resource Conservation and Management". Belmont: Wadsworth Publishing, 1990.
*Chris Maser. "Sustainable Forestry: Philosophy, Science, and Economics". DelRay Beach: St. Lucie Press, 1994.
* [http://farpoint.forestry.ubc.ca/fp/?jkimmins Hammish Kimmins] . "Balancing Act: Environmental Issues in Forestry". Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, 1992.
*Hart, C. 1994. "Practical Forestry for the Agent and Surveyor". Stroud. Sutton Publishing. ISBN 0-86299-962-6
*Herb Hammond. "Seeing the Forest Among the Trees". Winlaw/Vancouver: Polestar Press, 1991.
*Hibberd, B.G. (Ed). 1991. "Forestry Practice". Forestry Commission Handbook 6. London. HMSO. ISBN 0-11-710281-4
*"Forestry" in the "Encyclopaedia Brtitannica" 16th edition. New York: E.B., 1990.
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Look at other dictionaries:
forestry — for‧est‧ry [ˈfɒrstri ǁ ˈfɔː , ˈfɑː ] noun [uncountable] FARMING the activity and industry of producing wood and other products from trees: • the minister of agriculture, fisheries and forestry • Finland s big forestry products industry * * *… … Financial and business terms
Forestry — For est*ry, n. [Cf. OF. foresterie.] The art of forming or of cultivating forests; the management of growing timber … The Collaborative International Dictionary of English
forestry — See regalia minora. Collins dictionary of law. W. J. Stewart. 2001 … Law dictionary
forestry — (n.) 1690s, privilege of a royal forest, from O.Fr. foresterie, from forest (see FOREST (Cf. forest)). Meaning science of managing forests is from 1859 … Etymology dictionary
forestry — ► NOUN 1) the science or practice of planting, managing, and caring for forests. 2) forests … English terms dictionary
forestry — [fôr′is trē, fär′is trē] n. 1. Rare wooded land; forest land 2. the science of planting and taking care of forests 3. systematic forest management for the production of timber, conservation, etc … English World dictionary
forestry — /fawr euh stree, for /, n. 1. the science of planting and taking care of trees and forests. 2. the process of establishing and managing forests; forestation. 3. forestland. [1685 95; < MF foresterie. See FOREST, RY] * * * Management of forested… … Universalium
forestry — /ˈfɒrəstri / (say foruhstree) noun 1. the science and practice of planting and taking care of forests. –adjective 2. of or relating to or used for forestry: a forestry commission; a forestry area … Australian English dictionary
forestry — noun ADJECTIVE ▪ commercial ▪ community (AmE) ▪ sustainable FORESTRY + NOUN ▪ plantation (BrE) ▪ … Collocations dictionary
forestry — [[t]fɒ̱rɪstri, AM fɔ͟ːr [/t]] N UNCOUNT Forestry is the science or skill of growing and taking care of trees in forests, especially in order to obtain wood … English dictionary