- Waldorf education
Waldorf education (also known as Steiner or Steiner-Waldorf education) is a
pedagogybased upon the educational philosophyof Rudolf Steiner, the founder of anthroposophy. Learning is interdisciplinary, integrates practical, artistic, and intellectual elements,Rist and Schneider, "Integrating Vocational and General Education: A Rudolf Steiner School", Unesco Institute for Education, Hamburg 1979, ISBN 92-820-1024-4, p. 150] and is coordinated with "natural rhythms of everyday life". The Waldorf approach emphasizes the role of the imaginationin learning,Carrie Y. Nordlund, "Art Experiences in Waldorf Education", Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Missouri-Columbia, May 2006] [Southworth, Cheryl Ridgeway, "Geometry, fir trees and princes: Imaginative cognition in education", Ph.D. dissertation, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1988, 294 pages; AAT 8823477 ] developing thinking that includes a creative as well as an analytic component.Freda Easton, "The Waldorf impulse in education:Schools as communities that educate the whole child by integrating artistic and academic work", Ph.D. thesis, Columbia University Teachers College, 1995] [http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/custom/portlets/recordDetails/detailmini.jsp?_nfpb=true&_&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED364440&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_accno&accno=ED364440 Ogletree, Earl J., "Creativity and Waldorf Education: A Study."] ] Studies of the education describe its overarching goal as providing young people the basis on which to develop into free, moralHether, Christine Anne, "The moral reasoning of high school seniors from diverse educational settings", Ph.D. dissertation, Saybrook Graduate School and Research Center, 2001, 209 pages; AAT 3044032] [*"The overarching goal is to help children build a moral impulse within so they can choose in freedom what it means to live morally." - Armon, Joan, [http://eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/contentdelivery/servlet/ERICServlet?accno=ED420605 "The Waldorf Curriculum as a Framework for Moral Education: One Dimension of a Fourfold System."] , ( [http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/custom/portlets/recordDetails/detailmini.jsp?_nfpb=true&_&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED420605&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_accno&accno=ED420605 Abstract] ), Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association (Chicago, IL, March 24-28, 1997), p. 1] and integrated individuals,Peter Schneider, "Einführung in die Waldorfpädogogik", Klett-Cotta 1987, ISBN 3-608-93006-X] [Ronald V. Iannone, Patricia A. Obenauf, "Toward Spirituality in Curriculum and Teaching", page 737, "Education", Vol 119 Issue 4, 1999] and to help every child fulfill his or her unique destiny(the existence of which anthroposophyposits). Schools and teachers are given considerable freedom to define curricula within collegialstructures.
The first Waldorf school was founded in 1919; there are now about 1000 [Holger Niederhausen, "Kulturfaktor Waldorfschule", "Das Goetheanum", 30 November 2007] [http://waldorfschule.info/upload/pdf/schulliste.pdf List of Waldorf schools worldwide] ] independent Waldorf schools and 1400 independent Waldorf kindergartens [ [http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0012/001223/122345E.pdf UNESCO 2001] Annex VI] located in approximately sixty countries throughout the world, making up one of the world's largest independent educational systems; there are also Waldorf-based public and charter schools,
homeschoolingenvironments,Thomas William Nielsen, "Rudolf Steiner's Pedagogy Of Imagination: A Case Study Of Holistic Education", Peter Lang Pub Inc 2004 ISBN 3039103423] and schools for special education. Waldorf methods have also been adopted by numerous educators teaching in other state and private schools. [ [http://www.landfallprods.com/TWP-Synop.html The Waldorf Promise] ] [Stephanie Luster Bravmann, Nancy Stewart Green, Pamela Bolotin Joseph, Edward R. Mikel, Mark A. Windschitl, "Cultures of Curriculum", Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2000. p81, " [Steiner, who] developed the Waldorf School system of education, is another whose ideas are reproduced, often less in whole than in part...in an expanding number of American public and private schools today."] [Peter Schneider, "Einführung in die Waldorfpädagogik", ISBN 3-608-93006-X, p. 16; "more than 2,000 participants per year, most of whom are state-school teachers, attend summer Waldorf pedagogical seminars in Stuttgart, Herne and Hamburg."]
Pedagogy and theory of child development
The structure of the education follows Steiner's pedagogical model of
According to Waldorf pedagogy:
*Early childhood learning is largely experiential, imitative and sensory-based. Todd Oppenheimer, [http://www.theatlantic.com/issues/99sep/9909waldorf.htm "Schooling the Imagination"] , Atlantic Monthly, Sept. 99] The education emphasizes learning through practical activities.
Elementary schoolyears (age 7-14), learning is regarded as artistic and imaginative. In these years, the approach emphasizes developing children's "feeling life" and artistic expression. [Thomas William Nielsen, "Rudolf Steiner's Pedagogy of Imagination: A Phenomenological Case Study", Peter Lang Publisher 2004] Carolyn P. Edwards, "Three Approaches from Europe: Waldorf, Montessori and Reggio Emilia", "Early Childhood and Practice, Spring 2002, pp. 7-8]
adolescence, to meet the developing capacity for abstract thought and conceptual judgmentP. Bruce Uhrmacher, Making Contact: An Exploration of Focused Attention Between Teacher and Students", "Curriculum Inquiry", Vol 23, No 4, Winter 1993, pp433-444.] the emphasis is on developing intellectual understanding and ethical thinking, including taking social responsibility.ibid.]
This theory of child development is founded in turn upon the
Anthroposophical view of the human being.
Pre-school and kindergarten: birth to age 6 or 7
Waldorf schools approach learning in early childhood through imitation and example. [Ginsburg and Opper, "Piaget's Theory of Intellectual Development", ISBN 0-13-675140-7, pp. 39-40] Rist and Schneider, "Integrating Vocational and Generla Education: A Rudolf Steiner School", Unesco Institute for Education, Hamburg 1979, ISBN 92-820-1024-4, pp. 144-6] Extensive time is given for guided free play in a classroom environment that is homelike, includes natural materials and provides examples of productive work in which children can take part; such an environment is considered by Waldorf pedagogues to be supportive of the physical, emotional and intellectual growth of the child through assimilative learning. In Waldorf schools oral language development is addressed through songs, poems and movement games. These include daily story time when a teacher usually tells a fairytale, often by heart.Iona H. Ginsburg, "Jean Piaget and Rudolf Steiner: Stages of Child Development and Implications for Pedagogy", "Teachers College Record Volume 84 Number 2, 1982, p. 327-337. ] Waldorf kindergartens and lower grades discourage exposure to media influences such as
television, computersand recorded music, as they believe these to be harmful to cognitive development in the early years. [Earl J. Ogletree, "Creativity and Waldorf Education: A Study" 1991, ERIC #ED364440, op. cit., p14]
The education emphasizes early experiences of daily and annual rhythms, including seasonal festivals drawn from a variety of traditions. Though Waldorf schools in the
Western Hemispherehave traditionally celebrated Michaelmasand Martinmasin the autumn, Christmasin winter, Easterand May Dayin the spring, and St. John's Day in summer,Ida Oberman, "Waldorf History: A Case Study of Institutional Memory", Paper presented to Annual Meeting of the American Education Research Association, IL Mar 24-28, 1997, published US Department of Education - Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC)] Western schools are now incorporating an increasingly wide range of cultural and religious traditions, [Fitzjohn, Sue, et al, "Festivals Together: A Guide to Multi-Cultural Celebration", ISBN 1869890469] and schools located where Jewish, Buddhist, or Islamic traditions are dominant celebrate festivals drawn from these cultures.
Elementary education: age 6/7 to 14
In Waldorf schools elementary education may begin when the child is nearing or already seven years of age. [Criteria for school readiness often include the onset of primary tooth loss, which has been found to correlate strongly with somatic and psychological criteria of school readiness. Cf. Ernst-Michael Kranich, "Anthropologie", in F. Bohnsack and E-M Kranich (eds.), "Erziehungswissenschaft und Waldorfpädagogik", Reihe Pädagogik Beltz, Weinheim 1990, p. 126, citing F. Ilg and L. Ames (Gesell Institute), "School Readiness", p. 236ff and "...the loss of the first deciduous tooth can serve as a definite indicator of a male child's readiness for reading and schoolwork", Diss. Cornell U. Silvestro, John R. 1977. “Second Dentition and School Readiness.” New York State Dental Journal 43 (March): 155—8] The elementary school centers around a multi-disciplinary arts-based curriculum that includes
visual arts, drama, artistic movement( eurythmy), vocal and instrumental music, and crafts. Throughout the elementary years, students learn two foreign languages (in English-speaking countries often German and either Spanish or French).
Throughout the elementary years, concepts are first introduced through stories and images, and academic instruction is integrated with the visual and
plastic arts, musicand movement.Freda Easton, "Educating the Whole Child, 'Head, Heart and Hands': Learning from the Waldorf Experience", "Theory into Practice" by Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., pp 87-94.] There is little reliance on standardized textbooks;Ullrich, Heiner, [http://www.ibe.unesco.org/publications/ThinkersPdf/steinere.pdf "Rudolf Steiner"] "Prospects: the quarterly review of comparative education", UNESCO: International Bureau of education, vol XXIV, no. 3/4, 1994, pp. 555-572] instead, each child creates his or her own illustrated summary of coursework in book form. [ [http://www.tresd.k12.ca.us/waldorf.html TRESD Waldorf-methods charter schools] ] The school day generally starts with a one-and-a-half to two-hour academic lesson that focuses on a single theme over the course of about a month's timeibid.] and generally begins with an introduction that may include singing, instrumental music, recitations of poetry, including a verse written by Steiner for the start of a school day, and practice in mathematics and language arts.
An objective of most Waldorf schools is to have a single teacher loop with a class throughout the elementary school years, teaching at least the principal academic lessons;Earl J. Ogletree, "Rudolf Steiner: Unknown Educator", "The Elementary School Journal", Vol. 74, No. 6. (Mar 1974) pp. 344-351.] Waldorf teachers have been cited for their level of personal commitment to their pupils.
Waldorf teachers use the concept of the
four temperamentsto help interpret, understand and relate to the behaviour and personalities of children under their tutelage. The temperaments, choleric, phlegmatic, melancholic, and sanguine, are thought to express four basic personality types, each possessing its own fundamental way of regarding and interacting with the world.
Waldorf elementary education allows for individual variations in the pace of learning, based upon the expectation that a child will grasp a concept or achieve a skill when he or she is ready.P. Bruce Uhrmacher, "Uncommon Schooling: A Historical Look at Rudolf Steiner, Anthroposophy, and Waldorf Education", "Curriculum Inquiry", Vol. 25, No. 4 (Winter, 1995), pp. 381-406] Cooperation takes priority over competition.Gay Ward, "Education for the Human Journey", paper presented at Australian Association for Research in Education International Conference 2-6 Dec. 2001, cited in DFES report] Ray McDermott, Mary E. Henry, Cynthia Dillard, Paul Byers, Freda Easton, Ida Oberman, Bruce Uhrmacher, "Waldorf education in an inner-city public school", "Urban Review", June 1996] This approach also extends to physical education; competitive team sports are introduced in upper grades.
In most Waldorf schools, pupils enter secondary education when they are about fourteen years old. The education is now wholly carried out by specialist teachers. The education now focuses much more strongly on academic subjects,Rist and Schneider, "Integrating Vocational and General Education: A Rudolf Steiner School", Unesco Institute for Education, Hamburg 1979, ISBN 92-820-1024-4, pp. 146-8] though students normally continue to take courses in art, music, and crafts. Pupils are encouraged to develop their own independent and creative thinking processes. The curriculum is structured to help students develop a sense of competence, responsibility and purpose,p. 144] to foster an understanding of ethical principles, and to build a sense of social responsibility.ibid.]
There are widely-agreed guidelines for the Waldorf curriculum,Martyn Rawson and Tobias Richter, "The Educational Tasks and Content of the Steiner Waldorf Curriculum", ] E. A. Karl Stockmeyer, "Rudolf Steiner's Curriculum for Waldorf Schools", Steiner Schools Fellowship, 1985] [Rena Upitis, [http://educ.queensu.ca/~cacs/1.1/JCACS.1.1.h.upitis.pdf "In praise of romance"] ] supported by the schools' common principles;Woods, Ashley and Woods, [http://www.dfes.gov.uk/research/data/uploadfiles/RR645.pdf "Steiner Schools in England", University of West of England, Bristol: Research Report RR645] , section 5.2, "Curriculum"] nevertheless, independent Waldorf schools are autonomous institutions not required to follow a prescribed curriculum. Government-funded Waldorf-method schools may be required to incorporate aspects of state curricula.
There are a few subjects largely unique to the Waldorf schools. Foremost among these is
Eurythmy, a movement art usually accompanying spoken texts or music which includes elements of role play and dance and is designed to provide individuals and classes with a "sense of integration and harmony".
Waldorf schools generally introduce computers into the curriculum in the teenage years. [ [http://www.sundayherald.com/oped/opinion/display.var.1874554.0.reading_is_a_habit_that_we_cant_afford_to_lose.php "Reading is a habit that we can't afford to lose"] , Sunday Herald, Dec. 2, 2007]
Origins and history
Rudolf Steinerwrote his first book on education, "The Education of the Child", in 1907. The first school based upon these principles was opened in 1919in response to a request by Emil Molt, the owner and managing director of the Waldorf-Astoria Cigarette Company in Stuttgart, Germany. This is the source of the name "Waldorf," which is now trademarked for use in association with the educational method. The Stuttgart school grew rapidly, opening parallel classes, and by 1938 schools inspired by the original school or its pedagogical principles had been founded in the USA, UK, Switzerland, the Netherlands, Norway, Austria, Hungary, and in other towns in Germany. Political interference from the Naziregime limited and ultimately closed most Waldorf schools in Europe; the affected schools, including the original school, were reopened after the Second World War.P. Bruce Uhrmacher, "Uncommon Schooling: A Historical Look at Rudolf Steiner, Anthroposophy and Waldorf Education", "Curriculum Inquiry, Vol. 25, No. 4. Winter 1995] As of May 2008, there are 965 independent Waldorf Schools worldwide.
Waldorf schools have traditionally been numerically and culturally centered in Europe; the number of non-European schools has been slowly increasing, however, leading to a trend toward reinterpreting the formerly Euro-centric curriculum. [Alduino Mazzone, [http://thesis.library.adelaide.edu.au/uploads/approved/adt-SUA20030411.095119/public/03chapter4-chapter10.pdf "Waldorf Teacher Education"] (Ph.D. dissertation, University of Adelaide), p. 164]
One of Waldorf education's central premises is that all schools (not only Waldorf schools) should be both self-governing and grant teachers a high degree of creative autonomy within the school.Rist and Schneider, "Integrating Vocational and General Education: A Rudolf Steiner School", Unesco Institute for Education, Hamburg 1979, ISBN 92-820-1024-4, pp.8-10] Most Waldorf schools are not directed by a principal or
head teacher, but rather by a number of groups, including:
* The "college of teachers", who decide on pedagogical issues, normally on the basis of consensus. This group is usually open to full-time teachers who have been with the school for a prescribed period of time. Each school is accordingly unique in its approach, as it may act solely on the basis of the decisions of the college of teachers to set policy or other actions pertaining to the school and its students.Ida Oberman, "Waldorf History: A Case Study of Institutional Memory", Paper presented to Annual Meeting of the American Education Research Association, IL Mar 24-28, 1997, published US Department of Education - Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC)] Waldorf schools have been cited for having a high level of teacher collegiality.
* The "board of trustees", who decide on governance issues, especially those relating to school finances and legal issues.
Parents are encouraged to take an active part in non-curricular aspects of school life. Waldorf schools have been found to create effective adult learning communities. [Tom Stehlik ("Parenting as a Vocation", "International Journal of Lifelong Education" 22 (4) pp. 367-79, 2003, cited in DFES report]
There are coordinating bodies for Waldorf education at both the national (e.g. the " [http://www.awsna.org/ Association of Waldorf Schools of North America] " and the " [http://www.steinerwaldorf.org.uk/ Steiner Waldorf Schools Fellowship] " in the
UKand Ireland) and international level (e.g. [http://www.iao-waldorf.de/englisch/iao_1.htm International Association for Waldorf Education] and [http://www.ecswe.org/ The European Council for Steiner Waldorf Education (ECSWE)] ). These organizations certify the use of the registered names "Waldorf" and "Steiner school" and offer accreditations, often in conjunction with regional independent school associations. [ [http://www.acswasc.org/vc_member.htm#wasc_awsna WASC Accrediting commission for schools] ] Some Waldorf schools are independently accredited by governmental authorities. [ [http://www.meadowbrookschool.com/ Rhode Island accreditation] ]
The schools seek to cultivate pupils' sense of social responsibility,Robert McDermott, "The Essential Steiner", Harper San Francisco 1984 ISBN 0-06-065345-0] respect, and compassion, as well as developing cooperative capacities. They also seek to enable their pupils to contribute to cultural renewal. [Christensen, Leah M., [http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=899218#PaperDownload "Going Back to Kindergarten: Applying the Principles of Waldorf Education to Create Ethical Attorneys"] . Suffolk University Law Review, 2006] The educational philosophy has been commended for being based upon peace and tolerance.
Intercultural links in socially polarized communities
Waldorf schools have linked polarized communities in a variety of settings.
apartheidregime in South Africa, the Waldorf school was one of the few schools in which children of both races attended the same classes, despite the ensuing loss of state aid. A Waldorf training college in Cape Town, the " Novalis Institute", was described by UNESCO as an organization which had a great consequence in the conquest of apartheid: "It has prepared the way and laid the foundations for a new and integrated [community] .”"Tolerance: The Threshold of Peace.", UNESCO, 1994.] [Peter Normann Waage, "Humanism and Polemical Populism", Humanist 3/2000]
*In Israel, the Harduf
KibbutzWaldorf school includes both Jewishand Arabfaculty and students and has extensive contact with the surrounding Arab communities; [ [http://www.sashedf.org/context.html?reloaded=true Salaam Shalom Educational Foundation] ] it also runs an Arab-language Waldorf teacher training. [ [http://www.sashedf.org/training.html?reloaded=true Salaam Shalom] ] In addition, a joint Arab-Jewish Waldorf kindergarten, the first Arab-Jewish, bilingual and bicultural kindergarten in Israel, ["Garten des Friedens", "Anthroposophie Weltweit", 8/07] was founded in Hilf (near Haifa) in 2005. ["When Ahmed met Avshalom", Israel21c, May 28, 2006. See the [http://www.israel21c.org/bin/en.jsp?enDispWho=Articles%5El1318&enPage=BlankPage&enDisplay=view&enDispWhat=object&enVersion=0&enZone=Culture online version of article] .]
Brazil, a Waldorf teacher, Ute Craemer, founded a community service organization providing childcare, vocational training and work, social services including health care, and Waldorf education to more than 1,000 residents of poverty-stricken areas ( Favelas) of Sao Paolo. [ [http://premioclaudia.abril.com.br/1997_utec.shtml Women of the Year nominee for 1997] ( [http://translate.google.com/translate?hl=en&sl=pt&u=http://premioclaudia.abril.com.br/1997_utec.shtml&sa=X&oi=translate&resnum=1&ct=result English translation] ). Accessed 2008-04-29.]
Links to UNESCO
United NationsEducational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, known as UNESCO, states that the Waldorf movement's "ideals and ethical principles...correspond to those of UNESCO," [ [http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0012/001223/122345E.pdf UNESCO 2001] Annex VI] and has chosen a number of UNESCO Waldorf schools in Germany, Africaand Asia[ [http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0012/001281/128188m.pdf UNESCO List of project schools] ] to be [http://portal.unesco.org/education/en/ev.php-URL_ID=7366&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html associated project schools] .
UNESCO also sponsored an exhibit about the Waldorf schools at the 44th Session of their International Conference on Education in Geneva. An exhibition catalogue was published by UNESCO under the title "Waldorf Education Exhibition Catalog On Occasion of the 4th Session of the International Conference on Education of UNESCO in Geneva". [ [http://www.unesco.org/kathmandu/publication/list_dir_info2.php?pid=16&rid=30 UNESCO Catalog] ]
Both historically and philosophically, Waldorf education grows out of
anthroposophy's view of child development, which stands as the basis for the educational theory, methodology of teaching and curriculum. This includes the belief that humans possess an innate spirit that, having passed through previous lives, will in this life develop in its karmically appropriate environment, before returning to the spirit world and later reincarnate in another body.Giesenberg, Anna (2000) Spiritual development and young children, "European Early Childhood Education Research Journal", 8(2), 23 — 37. doi|10.1080/13502930085208551.] Waldorf pedagogics see that the teacher has "a sacred task in helping each child's soul and spirit grow". Steiner's " extra-sensory anthropology" has been the source of criticisms of Waldorf education in Germany.
While anthroposophy is not generally taught as a subject, the degree to which anthroposophy is described by the schools as the philosophical underpinning of Waldorf education typically varies from school to school. At times this has led to parents objecting that the role of anthroposophy in the educational method had not been disclosed to them, prior to enrollment.
One study noted that many Waldorf teachers display an uncritical attitude toward anthroposophy and questioned the pedagogy's reliance on a single theory of child development.Mary Barr Sturbaum, "Transformational Possibilities of Schooling: A Study of Waldorf Education", Ph.D. dissertation, Indiana University, 1997]
pirituality and religion
Throughout the curriculum, Waldorf education is implicitly infused with spirituality. The curriculum includes a wide range of religious traditions without being oriented in favor of any single tradition.
Germany, where religious classes are a mandatory school offering in some federal states [ [http://www.culturaldiplomacy.org/pages/rountable/rd_may2006.pdf "Education and Social Cohesion--Religion in the Classroom"] , Institute for Cultural Diplomacy] each religious denomination provides its own teachers for the Waldorf schools' religion classes; the schools also offer an open religion class for those who have no professed religion. Religion classes are universally absent from American Waldorf schools. [Mark Riccio, "Rudolf Steiner's Impulse in Education", dissertation, Columbia University Teachers College, 2000, p. 87]
Celebrations and festivals
Festivals play an important role in Waldorf schools, which generally celebrate seasonal observances by showing work of students in the class. The faculty of each individual school decides which festivals and celebrations would best meet the needs and traditions of the students in their particular school. Waldorf theories and practices have been adapted by schools to the historical and cultural traditions of the surrounding communities, whereby there is wide variation to what extent educators detach from Waldorf education's traditionally European Christian orientation. Examples of such adaptation include the Waldorf schools in
Israeland Japan, which celebrate festivals of their particular spiritual heritage, and classes in the Milwaukee Urban Waldorf school, which have adopted traditions with African American and Native American heritages.
*UK comparison with mainstream educationA
UK Department for Education and Skillsreport noted significant differences in curriculum and pedagogical approach between Waldorf/Steiner and mainstream schools and recommended that schools in the state sector could benefit from the following elements of Waldorf education:2005 report "Steiner Schools in England" by Philip Woods, Martin Ashley and Glenys Woods of the University of the West of England, [http://www.dfes.gov.uk/research/data/uploadfiles/RR645.pdf "Steiner Schools in England", University of West of England, Bristol: Research Report RR645] ] early introduction and approach to modern foreign languages; the combination of block (class) and subject teaching for younger children; development of speaking and listening through an emphasis on oral work; the good pacing of lessons through an emphasis on rhythm; the emphasis on child development guiding the curriculum and examinations; the approach to art and creativity; the attention given to teachers’ reflective activity and heightened awareness (in collective child study for example); and collegial structure of leadership and management, including collegial study. There were also aspects of mainstream practice which, the researchers recommended, could inform good practice in Waldorf schools: management skills and ways of improving organizational and administrative efficiency; classroom management; work with secondary-school age children; and assessment and record keeping.
A 2008 report by the Cambridge-based "Primary Review" found that Steiner/Waldorf schools achieved superior academic results to English state schools. [ [http://afp.google.com/article/ALeqM5hQ6QhUpdZd4SiSrplf_qjQ693KMg "Primary schools exert unnecessary pressure on students"] ]
*Australian study of academic success at universityAn Australian study comparing the academic performance of students at university level found that students who had been at Waldorf schools significantly outperformed their peers from non-Waldorf schools in both the humanities and the sciences. [ [http://www.abc.net.au/sundaynights/ram/Sunday15July2007.ram "Sunday Night" broadcast of July 15, 2007] ]
*Comparison with Montessori and traditional schoolsA study compared the drawing ability of children in Steiner/Waldorf, Montessori and traditional schools, concluding that "the approach to art education in Steiner schools is conducive not only to more highly rated imaginative drawings in terms of general drawing ability and use of color but also to more accurate and detailed observational drawings." [Maureen Cox and Anna Rolands, [http://www.ingentaconnect.com/search/expand?pub=infobike://bpsoc/bjep/2000/00000070/00000004/art00002&unc= "The Effect of Three Different Educational Approaches on Children's Drawing Ability"] , "British Journal of Educational Psychology" 70, pp. 485-503 (abstract)]
*Comparative study of moral developmentA Canadian study found that Waldorf-educated students scored significantly higher on a test of moral reasoning than students in public high schools and students in a religiously-affiliated high school. Waldorf students were also far more likely to volunteer opinions about the survey and research in general, suggesting possible improvements in the survey technique and offering new possibilities to resolve the moral dilemmas raised in the survey.pp. 113-118]
*U.S. Waldorf schools surveyA 1995 survey of U.S. Waldorf schools found that parents overall experienced the Waldorf schools as achieving their major aims for students, and described the education as one that "integrates the aesthetic, spiritual and interpersonal development of the child with rigorous intellectual development", preserving students' enthusiasm for learning so that they develop a better sense of self-confidence and self-direction. Some parents described upper grades teachers as overextended, without sufficient time to relate to parental needs and input, and wished for more open and reciprocal parent-school support. Both parents and students sometimes described colleges of teachers as being insular and unresponsive. The students overall were positive about the school and its differences; experienced the school as a "community of friends"; and spoke of the opportunity to grow and develop through the broad range of activities offered, to learn when they were ready to learn, to develop imagination, and to come to understand the world as well as oneself. Many students spoke of the kindness of their peers and of learning to think things through clearly for themselves, not to jump to conclusions, and to remain positive in the face of problems and independent of pressure from others to think as they do. Improvements the students suggested included more after-school sports programs, more physical education classes, more preparation for standardized testing, a class in world politics and computer classes. Faculty, parents and students were united in expressing a desire to improve the diversity of the student body, especially by increasing representation of minority groups such as
African-Americansand Hispanic Americans.
*Standardized testing: USA and GermanyDespite their lessened exposure to standardized testing (especially in the elementary school years), U.S. Waldorf pupils'
SAT scoreshave usually come above the national average, especially on verbal measures. Studies comparing students' performance on college-entrance examinations in Germany found that as a group, Waldorf graduates passed the exam at double to triple the rate of students graduating from the state education system, and that students who had attended Waldorf schools for their entire education passed at a much higher rate (40% vs. 26%) than those who only had part of their education at a Waldorf school. ["Der Spiegel", December 14, 1981] Educational successes of private Waldorf schools may partially reflect the social status of their students.
**An international study found that Waldorf pupils were more creative than state-school students, as judged by the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking Ability. [ [http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/custom/portlets/recordDetails/detailmini.jsp?_nfpb=true&_&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED400948&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_accno&accno=ED400948 Earl J. Ogletree, "The Comparative Status of the Creative Thinking Ability of Waldorf Education Students"] ]
**An Australian study found that Waldorf-educated adolescents were more oriented towards improving social conditions and had more positive visions of the future than those who attended state schools. [Gidley, J. (1998). "Prospective Youth Visions through Imaginative Education." "Futures" 30(5), pp395-408, cited in Gidley, Batemen, and Smith, [http://www.swin.edu.au/agse/courses/foresight/monographs/Monograph5.pdf "Futures in Education"] , Australian Foresight Institute Monograph Series, 2004 Nr. 5]
**A study comparing the prevalence of xenophobic and right-extremist attitudes in pupils in various types of German schools found far fewer students in Waldorf schools who were intolerant of foreigners (2.8%) than in college-preparatory (8.4%) or other schools (16.4% - 24.7%); similarly strong differences were found in the numbers of right-extremist students (1.2% in Waldorf, 2.1%-9.5% in other schools. [ [http://www.juergen-froemmrich.de/cms/files/dokbin/183/183467.aktuell_anhoerung_rechtsextremismus_teil.pdf "Eingegangene Stellungnahmen zu der schriftlichen Anhörung zu dem Dringlichen Antrag der Fraktion BÜNDNIS 90/DIE GRÜNEN betreffend Bekämpfung des Rechtsextremismus in Hessen"] , p. 130] Similar results were found in a Swedish study which reported that the proportion of the Waldorf pupils who supported counteracting or stopping Nazism and racism was considerably greater (93%) than that of the pupils at municipal secondary schools (72%). [Bo Dahlin et al: [http://www.kau.se/forskning/forskdb/index.lasso?to_do=show_result&id=2586 "Waldorfskolor och medborgerligt-moralisk kompetens. En jämförelse mellan waldorfelever och elever i den kommunala skolan"] ("Waldorf schools and civic moral competency. A comparison of Waldorf pupils with pupils in public schools". Report 2004:2 Karlstad: Institution for educational science, University of Karlstad, Sweden.)]
**A study of 6,600 children from five European countries, ages 5 to 13, showed a lower incidence of
allergiesamongst children attending Waldorf schools, an effect which correlated with the extent to which they lived an "anthroposophic lifestyle" in terms of restrictive use of antibiotics, antipyretics, and measles, mumps and rubella vaccination. ["Allergic disease and sensitization in Steiner school children", "Journal of Allergy & Clinical Immunology", January 11, 2006 [http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2006/01/060111073504.htm] ] A second, Swedish study found the incidence of atopyor allergy-like symptoms in pupils in Waldorf schools to be half (13%) of that in neighboring non-Waldorf schools (25%). [Klotter, Jule, "Anthroposophic lifestyle and allergies in children", "Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients" 274 (May 2006): 24(2)]
*Milwaukee Urban Waldorf School
Since switching to Waldorf methods, the Milwaukee Urban Waldorf Elementary School has shown an increase in parental involvement, a reduction in suspensions, improvements in standardized test scores for both reading and writing (counter to the district trend), while expenditures per pupil are below many regular district programs. [Dr. Richard R. Doornek, Educational Curriculum specialist with the
Milwaukee Public Schoolsquoted in Phaizon Rhys Wood, "Beyond Survival: A Case Study of the Milwaukee Urban Waldorf School", dissertation, School of Education, University of San Francisco, 1996] The school converted to Waldorf methods in 1991, when it had 350 students, about 90% of them African American. On the Milwaukee public schools standard third-grade evaluation, the number of children reading above grade level went from 26% in 1992 to 63% in 1995. Waldorf's adaptable and individualized curriculum has been mentioned as a factor in the school's success in addressing children of poverty and children of color. The same author criticized the present split between private and public Waldorf schools and the lack of greater efforts to implement Waldorf methods in public education.Phaizon Rhys Wood, "Beyond Survival: A Case Study of the Milwaukee Urban Waldorf School", D.Ed. dissertation, Univ. of San Francisco, 1996, p. 135, 149, 154ff]
In 1996 a team of seven mainstream educational researchers conducted a study of the school. In a report published at the conclusion of the study, the school was cited as a positive learning environment, in which the students as well as their background seemed to be treated with respect, and where pupils are both encouraged and trusted to be responsible. The report quoted the school principal's evaluation of the Waldorf approach: "Practical and effective, not first and foremost in academics, but in allowing children to be children again...Waldorf gives you connection to your environment, to nature, to school, to others." The study cited the school's pleasing aesthetic, positive teaching environment, safe atmosphere and warm relations despite the "difficult life that surrounds UWS and many of its children".p.145] The report also discussed the challenge of meeting societal racism, unsuspected biases of teachers and students in modern-day America, and
anthroposophyand Waldorf education's underlying theory of the evolution of consciousnesswhich "sometimes places one race below another in one or another dimension of development". The researchers noted that teachers "have found a way to put respect for the children before other considerations", and that the school was attempting to combat racism.
*T. E. Mathews Community SchoolThe
T. E. Mathews Community Schoolin Yuba County, Californiaserves high-risk juvenile offenders, many of whom have learning disabilities. The school switched to Waldorf methods in the 1990s. A 1999 study of the school found that students had "improved attitudes toward learning, better social interaction and excellent academic progress." [Arline Monks, [http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&ct=res&cd=1&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.steinercollege.edu%2FAt%2520Risk%2520Youth%2FAMonks%2520article.pdf&ei=d03VRvWSCZqSgQKe7v2ZDQ&usg=AFQjCNHqnfoWY-Pj84kIX3MkfKjfNr9MhA&sig2=gV050fiGDDI9WbGecwVz7w "Breaking Down the Barriers to Learning: The Power of the Arts"] , "Journal of Court, Community and Alternative Schools"] Babineaux, R., "Evaluation report: Thomas E. Mathews Community School", Stanford University 1999, cited in Monks, op. cit.] This study identified the integration of the arts "into every curriculum unit and almost every classroom activity" of the school as the most effective tool to help students overcome patterns of failure. The study also found significant improvements in reading and math scores, student participation, focus, openness and enthusiasm, as well as emotional stability, civility of interaction and tenacity.
Reception and controversy
Reception by mainstream educationalists
Ernest Boyerhas recommended Waldorf education's unique integration of the arts into traditional content as a model for other schools. [ Ernest Boyer, cited in Eric Oddleifson, [http://www.newhorizons.org/strategies/arts/cabc/oddleifson3.htm Boston Public Schools As Arts-Integrated Learning Organizations: Developing a High Standard of Culture for All] , Address of May 18, 1995: "One of the strengths of the Waldorf curriculum is its emphasis on the arts and the rich use of the spoken word through poetry and storytelling. The way the lessons integrate traditional subject matter is, to my knowledge, unparalleled. Those in the public school reform movement have some important things to learn from what Waldorf educators have been doing for many years. It is an enormously impressive effort toward quality education."]
*Thomas Armstrong sees Waldorf education curriculum as organically embodying
Howard Gardner's seven intelligences. [Thomas Armstrong, cited in [http://www.newhorizons.org/strategies/arts/cabc/oddleifson3.htm Boston Public Schools As Arts-Integrated Learning Organizations: Developing a High Standard of Culture for All] , :"Waldorf education embodies in a truly organic sense all of Howard Gardner's seven intelligences. Rudolph Steiner's vision is a whole one, not simply an amalgam of the seven intelligences. Many schools are currently attempting to construct curricula based on Gardner's model simply through an additive process (what can we add to what we have already got?). Steiner's approach, however, was to begin with a deep inner vision of the child and the child's needs and build a curriculum around that vision."]
*Professor Robert Peterkin considers Waldorf education a healing education whose underlying principles are appropriate for educating all children. [Robert S. Peterkin, Director of Urban Superintendents Program, Harvard Graduate School of Education and former Superintendent of Milwaukee Public Schools, in ibid.:"Waldorf is healing education . . . It is with a sense of adventure that the staff of Milwaukee Public Schools embraces the Waldorf concept in an urban multicultural setting. It is clear that Waldorf principles are in concert with our goals for educating all children."]
*Thomas Nielsen of the University of Canberra considers the imaginative teaching approaches used in Waldorf education (drama, exploration, storytelling, routine, arts, discussion and empathy) to be effective stimulators of spiritual-aesthetic, intellectual and physical development and recommends these to mainstream educators. [ [http://www.ierg.net/confs/2003/proceeds/Nielsen.pdf "Rudolf Steiner's Pedagogy of Imagination: A Phenomenological Case Study"] ]
UKeducational evaluators see the Waldorf approach conforming to the principal direction of educational theory based upon Comeniusand Pestalozzi.
Some Waldorf methods have also been adopted by teachers in both public/state and other private schools. [Stephanie Luster Bravmann, Nancy Stewart Green, Pamela Bolotin Joseph, Edward R. Mikel, Mark A. Windschitl, "Cultures of Curriculum", Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2000. p81, " [Steiner, who] developed the Waldorf School system of education, is another whose ideas are reproduced, often less in whole than in part...in an expanding number of American public and private schools today."]
Reading and literacy
Steiner-Waldorf education emphasizes the oral tradition, deferring the introduction of reading and writing until age 7. [Janet Howard (1992). "Literacy learning in a Waldorf school: A belief in the sense of structure and story." Ed.D. dissertation, State University of New York at Albany.] Todd Oppenheimer contrasted the Waldorf schools' approach to reading with early learning approaches: quote|Emphasis on the creative also guides the aspect of a Waldorf education that probably frightens parents more than any other: the relaxed way that children learn to read. Whereas students at more competitive schools are mastering texts in first grade, sometimes even in kindergarten, most Waldorf students aren't reading fully until the third grade. And if they're still struggling at that point, many Waldorf teachers don't worry. In combination with another Waldorf oddity -- sending children to first grade a year later than usual -- this means that students may not be reading until age nine or ten, several years after many of their peers. ...
It's no surprise, then, that Waldorf parents occasionally panic. Others may distrust Waldorf education because they have heard tales of parents who pulled their children out of a Waldorf school in the third grade when the kids still couldn't read. "That's like a standing joke," [one parent] , the mother of two graduates of the Rudolf Steiner School, told [Oppenheimer] . "People say, 'Oh, can your kids read?' There was no concerted effort to drum certain words into the kids. And that was the point." Before teaching sound and word recognition, Waldorf teachers concentrate on exercises to build up a child's love of language. The technique seems to work, even in public schools. Barbara Warren, a teacher at John Morse, a public school near Sacramento, says that two years after Waldorf methods were introduced in her fourth-grade class of mostly minority children, the number of students who read at grade level doubled, rising from 45 to 85 percent. "I didn't start by making them read more," Warren says. "I started telling stories, and getting them to recite poetry that they learned by listening, not by reading. They became incredible listeners." Many Waldorf parents recall that their children were behind their friends in non-Waldorf schools but somehow caught up in the third or fourth grade, and then suddenly read with unusual fervor.
Child psychologist David Elkind, who examined the Waldorf schools focus on hands-on exploration and conceptualization in early childhood education,David Elkind, "Much Too Early", "Education Next, a Journal of Opinion and Research", Hoover Institute, Standford University, Summer 2001 [http://www.hoover.org/publications/ednext/3385081.html] ] cites evidence that late readers ultimately fare better at reading and other subjects than early readers.
According to Lucy Calkins, a reading specialist at the Teachers College of
Columbia University, in most public schools the students who start reading later tend to do worse. Calkins also says that Waldorf students might also benefit slightly if they started earlier, but stated that she "would not necessarily be worried in a Waldorf school....The foundation of literacy is talk and play."
Oppenheimer also cautions "the system isn't fail-safe," noting that faith in the Waldorf system for reading instruction can lead teachers to overlook genuine learning disabilities in some students, including
The British Government's
Department for Children, Schools and Families(DCSF) is planning from September 2008 to compel all early years 'settings' in England- including Steiner kindergartens - to follow "Learning and Development requirements" that will require the teaching of reading, writing and numeracy to children of age 5 and below. This Early Years Foundation Stage(EYFS) is currently (early 2008) being contested by the broadly-based [http://www.savechildhood.org OpenEYE campaign] and the Steiner-based [http://www.savesteinerschools.org/ Save Steiner Schools] campaign.
Concerns over immunizations
see also|PARSIFAL study "and
vaccine controversy"Rudolf Steiner (the founder of Waldorf education) suggested that children's spirits benefited from being tempered in the fires of a good inflammation.Arthur Allen, "Bucking the Herd", The Atlantic Monthly, September 2002] A report about a growing trend against childhood immunizations describes parents of a Waldorf school in Colorado who believed vaccinations had harmful effects. Concerns have been raised that unvaccinated students, some of whom attended Waldorf schools, may have been compromising public healthby spreading disease, even among vaccinated populations. [Katherine Seligman, "Vaccination backlash", The San Francisco Chronicle May 25, 2003 [http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/c/a/2003/05/25/CM171959.DTL] ] [Pamela White, "A shot in the dark", Boulder Weekly, Aug 8 2002 [http://www.boulderweekly.com/archive/080802/coverstory.html] ] "Thomas R. DeGregori, "The Deadly Perils of Rejected Knowledge", American Council on Science and Health, Sept 13, 2002 [http://www.acsh.org/healthissues/newsID.412/healthissue_detail.asp] ]
In response, The European Council of Waldorf Schools, representing 630 of the 900 Waldorf schools world wide, [ [http://www.steinerwaldorfeurope.org European Council of Waldorf Schools] ] has stated unequivocally that opposition to
immunisationper se – or resistance to national strategies for childhood immunisation in general – forms no part of the goals of Waldorf education. It also stated that a matter such as whether or not to inoculate a child against communicable disease should be a matter for parental choice, and that insofar as schools have any role to play in these matters, it is in making available a range of balanced information both from the appropriate national agencies and from qualified health professionals with expertise in the field. [Consensus statement, agreed by members of the ECSWE, meeting in Copenhagen, 21 January 2001. [http://www.steinerwaldorfeurope.org/html/news_vaccination.htm] ]
As of 2007, there were 30 public Waldorf-methods schools in the state of California. [ [http://www.timesargus.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20071201/NEWS02/712010385/1003/NEWS02 "Waldorf educator visits Orchard Valley"] , Barre Montpelier Times Argus, Dec. 1 2007]
In 1998 a lawsuit was filed in
Californiaby a small group, PLANS, against two government school districts which employed Waldorf methods in two of their schools. PLANS argued that publicly-financed Waldorf-methods schools violated the principle of the separation of church and statein the establishment clause of the First Amendment to the United States Constitution. The group also protested at other government schools in California, claiming the Waldorf training and methods were rooted in a New Age, cult-like religious sect. [Beth Reinhard, "Public Waldorf School in Calif. Under Attack", "Education Week" June 25, 1997. PLANS was cited as "calling Waldorf an offshoot of a 'cult-like religious sect'."] [Linda Jacobson, "Court Allows Lawsuit Over Waldorf Teaching Practices To Progress", "Education Week" October 13, 1999. [http://www.rickross.com/reference/waldorf/waldorf1.html Archived copy] . Accessed 2007-12-17.]
At the trial, held in 2005, the court ruled against PLANS, dismissing the case on its merits. The judgment followed 30 minutes of attorney questioning during which PLANS told the trial judge that it could present no witnesses qualified to testify in the case who met the requirements of prior evidence rulings. PLANS appealed the outcome in 2006, [Chrisanne Beckner, "Change of PLANS", [http://www.newsreview.com/sacramento/Content?oid=44040 Newsreview.com] Sep 22 2005] [Chrisanne Beckner, "Separation anxiety", [http://www.newsreview.com/sacramento/Content?oid=46562 Newsreview.com] Jan 26 2006] the appeal was granted in November, 2007, and the case was remanded to trial. [Damrell, Frank C., Minute Order, Nov 27 2007. [http://waldorfanswers.org/279ScheduleStatusConference-2007-11-27.pdf Text of order] . Accessed 2007-12-17.]
In 2006, State-run Steiner schools in Victoria,
Australiawere challenged by parents and religious experts over concerns that the schools derive from a spiritual system ( anthroposophy); parents and administrators, as well as Victorian Department of Education authorities, presented divergent views as to whether spiritual or religious dimensions influence pedagogical practice. If present, these would contravene the secularbasis of the public education system.Steiner education in state schools. ABC National Radio. 25 July 2007 [http://www.abc.net.au/rn/religionreport/stories/2007/1987489.htm Religion Report, I] , 1 August 2007 [http://www.abc.net.au/rn/religionreport/stories/2007/1993868.htm Religion Report II] ] A number of parents also say their schools discouraged immunizations.Milanda Rout, "Questions about Steiner's classrooms", [http://www.theaustralian.news.com.au/story/0,25197,22147228-2702,00.html The Australian] July 28 2007]
A number of State-run schools in Victoria run "Steiner-influenced" programs in parallel with standard curricula. Possibly the first was at East Bentleigh Primary school, which commenced the program in 1991. Controversy arose at Footscray City Primary, a school in Footscray that introduced a Steiner program in 2001, despite concerns raised in 2000 by two curriculum officers from the Victorian Department of Education. These officials judged several aspects of the Steiner approach, such as reading instruction and the avoidance of computers and multimedia in primary school, to be inconsistent with or contradictory to the government curriculum and educational policies. [Letter from Victorian Dept of Education Acting Regional Director to Footscray City Primary School Principal, 14 November 2000 [http://peopleforstateeducation.org/website/LettertoLaurieK.pdf] .] A spokesman for the Department of Education stated in 2007 that these views were not the official assessment of the Department. Subsequent divisions among parents in the school have prompted the state to dissolve the school council in 2006 and initiate an inquiry. Also in 2006, the State Government formally changed departmental policy to allow programs such as Steiner/Waldorf,
Montessoriand Reggio Emilia streams to be run in state schools.Milanda Rout, "Early concern about Steiner method", [http://www.theaustralian.news.com.au/story/0,25197,22147232-2702,00.html The Australian] July 28 2007]
In July 2008, the Hereford Waldorf School in
Much Dewchurch, Herefordshire, U.K. secured funding to become a state-funded "academy" specializing in the natural environment, to be known as Hereford Steiner Academy. [Mark Bowen, [http://www.herefordtimes.com/news/3544197.New_academy_to_open_in_Hereford/ New academy to open in Hereford] , "Hereford Times", 24 July 2008. Accessed 2008-07-25.] According the Department for Children, Schools and Families(DCSF), academies are created in "disadvantaged areas where generations of pupils have been denied access to a first-class education". [http://www.guardian.co.uk/education/2008/mar/10/schools.uk2 Protests over plans for new Steiner academy] , "The Guardian", 10 March 2008. Accessed 2008-07-25.] The new academy will replace the fee-charging Steiner/Waldorf school and will offer 30 additional places beyond those students already attending; existing parents will no longer have to pay fees. Significant opposition was voiced against the proposed academy, that the money proposed for the academy buildings would be better spent improving school buildings in socially disadvantaged parts of the county, that existing schools are being closed in the county due to falling enrollments, and that the new buildings and parking area would negatively impact the picturesque character of the village.
Works by Rudolf Steiner
*"Education: An Introductory Reader" (Christopher Clouder, ed.), Sophia Books (March 2004), ISBN 1-85584-118-5. Collection of relevant works by Steiner on education.
*"The Education of the Child, and early Lectures on Education" (Foundations of Waldorf Education, 25), ISBN 0-88010-414-7. Includes Steiner's first descriptions of child development, originally published as a small booklet.
*"The Foundations of Human Experience", ISBN 0-88010-392-2; also known as "The Study of Man", these fundamental lectures on education were given to the teachers just before the opening of the first Waldorf school in
Note: all of Steiner's lectures on Waldorf education are available in PDF form at [http://steinerbooks.org/research/archive.php#waldorf this research site]
elected works by other authors
*Aeppli, W., "The Developing Child" Anthroposophic Press ISBN 0-88010-491-0
*Clouder, C. and Rawson, M., "Waldorf Education" Floris Books ISBN 0-86315-396-8
*Cusick, L, "Waldorf Parenting Handbook" Mercury Press ISBN 0-916786-75-7
*Edmunds, Francis, "An Introduction to Steiner Education" Rudolf Steiner Press ISBN 1-85584-172-X
*Gardner, John F., "Education in Search of the Spirit: Essays on American Education" Anthroposophic Press ISBN 0-88010-439-2
*Masters, Brien, "Adventures in Steiner Education" Rudolf Steiner Press ISBN 1-85584-153-3
*Nobel, Agnes, "Educating through Art: The Steiner School Approach" Floris Books ISBN 0863151873
*Petrash, Jack, (2002): "Understanding Waldorf Education: Teaching from the Inside Out" Floris Books ISBN 0863154300
*Querido, René, "The Esoteric Background of Waldorf Education" Rudolf Steiner College Press ISBN 0-94580-325-7
*Wilkinson, R. (1996): "The Spiritual Basis of Steiner Education". London: Sophia Books ISBN 1-85584-065-0
tudies of the education
* [http://www.dfes.gov.uk/research/data/uploadfiles/RR645.pdf Centre for Research in Education and Democracy study of Waldorf education in Britain]
* [http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICDocs/data/ericdocs2sql/content_storage_01/0000019b/80/33/6a/31.pdf "Learning From Rudolf Steiner: The Relevance of Waldorf Education for Urban Public School Reform"] by Ida Oberman (PDF)
* [http://www.waldorfresearchinstitute.org/pdf/WEGradResearchDM.pdf Association of Waldorf Schools of North America Study of Waldorf graduates in the USA, Part I]
** [http://www.waldorfresearchinstitute.org/pdf/WEPhaseII0307.pdf AWSNA Study of Waldorf graduates in the USA, Part II]
Journal and newspaper articles
* [http://www.context.org/ICLIB/IC06/Osthemer.htm "Waldorf Education. Looking into the educational system developed by Rudolf Steiner"] by Diane and Robert Gilman. "In Context: A Quarterly of Humane Sustainable Culture", Summer 1984.
* [http://www.anthroposophy.org/newslinks.php?category=Waldorf News articles since 2004]
* [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/education/4633601.stm "Steiner schools' could help all"] by Branwen Jeffreys. BBC News Report on British government-funded study on Waldorf education in the UK, July 5, 2005.
* [http://www.consciouschoice.com/2000/cc1308/waldorfpublicschools1308.html "Waldorf Succeeds in Public Schools"] by Claudia M. Lenart. "Conscious Choice", August 2000.
* [http://www.mothering.com/articles/growing_child/education/waldorf.html "The Wisdom of Waldorf: Education for the Future"] by Rahima Baldwin Dancy, Mothering Magazine, March/April, 2004.
* [http://www.independent.co.uk/news/education/education-news/the-big-question-who-was-rudolf-steiner-and-what-were-his-revolutionary-teaching-ideas-433407.html "Who was Rudolf Steiner and what were his revolutionary teaching ideas?"] Richard Garner, Education Editor, "The Independent"
* [http://www.newsreview.com/sacramento/Content?oid=oid%3A33641 "Schooled in spirituality"] by Chrisanne Beckner. Sacramento News and Review, February 3, 2005.
* [http://skepdic.com/steiner.html "Rudolf Steiner (1861-1925)"] by Robert Todd Carroll, editor of The Skeptics Dictionary.
* [http://gsgi.co.uk/articles/curricula-and-exams/curricula/rudolf-steiner Good Schools Guide International: Steiner schools]
* [http://www.waldorflibrary.org/ Online Waldorf Library]
**"Paideia", the journal of the Steiner-Waldorf Schools Fellowship in Britain.
** [http://www.waldorflibrary.org/ResearchBulletin.htm "Research Bulletin" of the "Association of Waldorf Schools of North America"]
** [http://www.waldorfresearchinstitute.org/ Waldorf Research Institute]
** [http://www.siriusonline.de/verlag/zeitschriften.nsf/WebselectionFreiesGeistesleben?OpenForm "Erziehungskunst"] , the organ of the German Association of Waldorf Schools
* [http://www.dieWaldorfs.waldorf.net/list.html The International List of Famous Waldorf Alumni (...and Waldorf Parents)]
chools and colleges
;Associations of Waldorf Schools
* [http://awsna.org/ Association of Waldorf Schools of North America]
* [http://www.steinerwaldorf.org.uk/ Steiner Waldorf Schools Fellowship of the UK and Ireland]
* [http://www.waldorf.org.za/ Southern African Federation of Waldorf Schools]
;Finding a Waldorf School
* [http://waldorfschule.info/upload/pdf/schulliste.pdf A list of Waldorf Schools worldwide (in pdf form)]
* [http://www.members.awsna.org/Public/SchoolListPage.aspx AWSNA Affiliated Schools]
;Teacher training programs
* [http://www.antiochne.edu/ed/waldorf/ Antioch University Waldorf Teacher Training / Masters of Education]
* [http://www.plymouth.ac.uk/courses/undergraduate/0544/BA+(Hons)+Steiner+Waldorf+Education Plymouth University BA in Steiner/Waldorf Education]
* [http://www.steinercollege.org/medpage.html Rudolf Steiner College/Touro University joint Masters in Education]
* [http://www.sunbridge.edu/home/home.asp Sunbridge College]
* [http://www.bacwtt.org The Bay Area Center for Waldorf Teacher Training]
* [http://www.soundcircle.org Sound Circle Center in Seattle, WA]
pecial education and homeschooling
* [http://www.camphill.org.uk/ Camphill Communities] are intentional communities of people with disabilities that recognize the potential, dignity, spiritual integrity and contributions of each individual.
* [http://www.mothersnature.com/toddlers/info/waldorfhome.html The Future of Waldorf Homeschooling] article by Barbara Dewey at Mother's Nature web site
* [http://www.waldorffamilynetwork.com/homeschooling.html Waldorf homeschooling resource directory] by Waldorf Family Network
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