AMX International AMX


AMX International AMX

Infobox Aircraft
name= AMX "Ghibli"


caption=Brazilian AMXs.
type=Attack aircraft
manufacturer=AMX International
designer=
first flight= 15 May 1984
introduced=1989
retired=
status=Active service
primary user=Italian Air Force
more users=Brazilian Air Force
produced=1986-present
number built=~200
unit cost=
variants with their own articles=

The AMX International AMX "Ghibli" was designed to serve as a surface attack aircraft for battlefield interdiction, close air support and reconnaissance missions. It is built by the AMX International joint venture, and is designated the A-1 in the Brazilian Air Force.

The AMX is capable of operating at high subsonic speed and low altitude, by day or night, and if necessary, from bases with poorly equipped or damaged runways. Low IR signature and reduced radar equivalent cross-section help prevent detection, while low vulnerability of structure and systems aid survivability. Integrated ECM, air-to-air missiles and nose-mounted guns provide self-defence capabilities.

Development

In 1977, the Italian Air Force issued a requirement for a strike fighter to replace its Aeritalia G.91 and some of its F-104 Starfighters. Rather than competing for the contract, Aeritalia (now Alenia Aeronautica) and Aermacchi agreed to make a joint proposal, as both firms had been considering the development of a similar class of aircraft for some years. Development work began in April 1978.

In March 1981, the Italian and Brazilian governments agreed on joint requirements for the aircraft, and Embraer was invited to join the partnership in July.

The first prototype flew on May 15 1984. Although it was lost on its fifth flight (killing its pilot), the test programme progressed reasonably smoothly otherwise. Production started by mid-1986, with the first examples delivered to the Italian and Brazilian air forces in 1989. Since then, some 200 AMXs have been built.

Italian AMX squadrons flew 252 combat sorties over Kosovo as part of Operation Allied Force, without a single loss.

Combat history

Italian AMX aircraft were used in 1999 in the Kosovo war. Instead of using unguided or more traditional laser-guided bombs, the Italian Air Force used Mk 82 bombs fitted with Israeli Opher guidance kits, effectively converting the "dumb" bombs into an infrared-guided bomb. [http://www.flightglobal.com/Articles/1999/06/17/52884/Opher+bomb+deployed+in+Kosovo.html]

Variants

AMX-T

In 1986, development of a two-seat advanced trainer variant was undertaken. This was intended to provide trainee pilots with experience on fast jets, while still retaining the single-seater's attack capabilities. The AMX-T first flew in 1990 and equips both the Italian and Brazilian air forces.

AMX-ATA

The AMX Advanced Trainer Attack (AMX-ATA) is a new AMX two-seater, multi-mission attack fighter developed for combat roles and advanced training. The AMX-ATA incorporates new sensors, a forward-looking infrared, helmet-mounted display, a new multi-mode radar for air-to-air and air-to-surface capability, and new weapons systems including anti-ship missiles and medium-range missiles. The Venezuelan Air Force ordered eight AMX-ATA in 1999 for the advanced trainer and attack aircraft role.

Operators

;BRA: Brazilian Air Force. 65 one-seaters and 14 two-seaters.
* 1 Esquadrão/16 Grupo de Aviação Esquadrão Adelphi
* 1 Esquadrão/10 Grupo de Aviação
* 3 Esquadrão/10 Grupo de aviação

;ITA: Italian Air Force. 110 one-seaters and 26 two-seaters.
* 13 Gruppo/32 Stormo
* 14 Gruppo/2 Stormo (disbanded)
* 28 Gruppo/3 Stormo (disbanded)
* 101 Gruppo/32 Stormo
* 103 Gruppo/51 Stormo
* 132 Gruppo/51 Stormo

pecifications (AMX)

aircraft specifications

ref=Aeronaves [cite web
url=http://www.fab.mil.br/aeronaves/index.htm
title=A-1 (AMX)
publisher=Força Aérea Brasileira
]

plane or copter?=plane
jet or prop?=jet

crew=1
length main=13.23 m
length alt=43 ft 5 in
span main=8.87 m
span alt=29 ft 1 in
height main=4.55 m
height alt=14 ft 11 in
area main=21 m²
area alt=226 ft²
empty weight main=6,730 kg
empty weight alt=14,840 lb
loaded weight main=10,750 kg
loaded weight alt=23,700 lb
max takeoff weight main=13,000 kg
max takeoff weight alt=28,700 lb

engine (jet)=Rolls-Royce Spey 807
type of jet=turbofan
number of jets=1
thrust main=49 kN
thrust alt=11,000 lbf

max speed main=1,160 km/h
max speed alt=626 knots, 721 mph
cruise speed main=950 km/h
cruise speed alt=510 knots, 590 mph
range main=3,330 km
range alt=1,800 nm, 2,070 mi
ceiling main=13,000 m
ceiling alt=43,000 ft
climb rate main=52 m/s
climb rate alt=10,000 ft/min
loading main=512 kg/m²
loading alt=105 lb/ft²
thrust/weight=0.47

guns=
** 1× 20 mm (0.787 in) M61 Vulcan rotary cannon (Italian aircraft) "or"
** 2× 30 mm (1.18 in) DEFA 544 cannon (Brazilian aircraft)
missiles=2× AIM-9 Sidewinders or MAA-1 Piranha carried on wingtip rails
bombs=3,800 kg (8,380 lb) on 5 external hardpoints, including general-purpose and laser-guided bombs, air-to-ground missiles, and rockets

Notes

External links

ee also

aircontent
related=
* Aermacchi MB-340

similar aircraft=
* CASA C-101
* BAE Hawk

lists=
* List of attack aircraft


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