- Air-defense experiments
The Air-defense experiments were a series of
managementscience experiments performed between 1952and 1954by RAND's Systems Research Laboratory. The experiments were designed to provide information about organizational learningand how teams improved their performance through practice.
The series was constructed from 4 different experiments (code named "Casey", "Cowboy", "Cobra", and "Cogwheel"). The first of these ("Casey") used
collegestudents as crew for the air defense scenario whilst members of the United States Air Forcewere used in the latter experiments. For each of the 4 experiments different structures and timespans were used:
* "Casey": 28 college students, 54 4-
* "Cowboy": 39 Air Force officers and airmen, 22 8-hour sessions
* "Cobra": 40 Air Force officers and airmen, 22 8-hour sessions
* "Cogwheel": 33 Air Force officers and airmen, 14 4-hour sessions
The purpose of the experiments was to examine how
teams of men operated in an environment composed of complex informationflows making decisions under conditions of high stress. The experimental design was to simulate an air defensecontrol center in which the team was presented with simulated radarimages showing air traffic as well as simulated telephoneconversations with outside agencies reporting additional information (such as the availability of interceptor aircraftor confirmation of civilian aircraft). [The experiment report (see references) notes that: "Thus, the input to the center contains detailed, redundant information about a few very important events and many unimportant events in its task environment." ]
Results and conclusions
The experiment series generated a great deal of both qualitative and quantitative data and the results of earlier experiments were used to improve the experimental apparatus and organization for later versions of the experiment.
The first experiment ("Casey") was conducted with college students from which it was determined that
culturewas a large factor in team as well as individual performance. While an attempt had been made to approximate a militaryculture in the college student team, the researchers decided that use of actual military personnel would provide more success. Hence later experiments used exclusively servicemen.
The original experimental design was to provide a particular level of difficulty to determine how well the air-defense team was able learn the individual tasks as well as the intra-team coordination needed to be successful at the air-defense task. The research team also modified the experimental design after the results of "Casey", these indicated that crews were able to learn rapidly and were able to accommodate the level of difficulty, within a few sessions, to an effective level. [Once again the report concludes that: "the college students were maintaining highly effective defense of their area while playing word games and doing homework on the side."]
Beginning with "Cowboy", the air-defense crews were presented with a series of sessions each of which had a higher task load than the previous session. The task load was made up of two variables, kind and number of hostile aircraft and characteristics of friendly traffic (among which the hostile aircraft were sprinkled).
In the report on these experiments co-
authors Chapman, Kennedy, Newell, and Biel (1959) write that:
Business performance management
*Forming-Storming-Norming-Performing team formation model
Key performance indicators
Qualitative psychological research
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