- Tennessee in the American Civil War
To a large extent, the
American Civil Warwas fought in cities and farms of Tennessee; only Virginia saw more battles. Tennessee was one of the last of the Southern states to secede from the Union, but saw more than its share of the devastation resulting from years of warring armies criss-crossing the state. Its rivers were key arteries to the Deep South, and, from the early days of the war, Union efforts focused on securing control of those transportation routes, as well as major roads and mountain passes such as the Cumberland Gap.
A large number of important battles occurred in Tennessee, including the vicious fighting at the
Battle of Shiloh, which at the time, was the deadliest battle in American history (it was later surpassed by a number of other engagements). Other large battles in Tennessee included Stones River, Chattanooga, Nashville, and Franklin.
Although the state became a part of the Confederacy, pockets of strong pro-Union sentiments remained throughout the war, particularly in the mountains in
East Tennessee. The Vice President of the United States, Andrew Johnson, was a loyalist, as were a number of congressmen and state politicians. On the Confederate side, significant leaders included noted cavalryman Nathan B. Forrestand corps commanders Leonidas Polkand Benjamin F. Cheatham, as well as Governor Isham Harris.
Pro-Union and anti-Republican sentiment before the attack on Fort Sumter
Initially, most Tennesseans showed little enthusiasm for breaking away from a nation whose struggles it had shared for so long. In 1860, they had voted by a slim margin for the Constitutional Unionist
John Bell, a native son and moderate who continued to search for a way out of the crisis.
A vocal minority of Tennesseans spoke critically of the Northern states and the Lincoln presidency. "The people of the South are preparing for their next highest dutyndash resistance to coercion or invasion," wrote the Nashville "Daily Gazette" on
January 5, 1861. The newspaper expressed the view that Florida, Georgia, and Alabama were exercising the highest right of all by taking control of all forts and other military establishments within the areandash the right to self-defense. [cite web |title="The Effect" |url=http://tennessee.civilwarsourcebook.com/collection/1861-01/1861-01-Article-1-Page2.pdf |accessdate=September 6 |accessyear=2007] A pro-secessionist proposal was made in the Memphis "Appeal" to build a fort at Randolph, Tennessee, on the Mississippi River. [cite web |title="Pro-secessionist proposal to construct a fort at Randolph, Tennessee, on the Mississippi River" |url=http://tennessee.civilwarsourcebook.com/collection/1861-01/1861-01-Article-6-Page9.pdf |accessdate=September 6 |accessyear=2007]
Isham G. Harrisconvened an emergency session of the Tennessee General Assemblyin January 1861. During his speech before the legislative body on January 7, he described the secession of the Southern states as a crisis caused by "long continued agitation of the slavery question" and "actual and threatened aggressions of the Northern States ... upon the well-defined constitutions rights of the Southern citizen." He also expressed alarm at the growth of the "purely sectional" Republican Party, which he stated was bound together by the "uncompromising hostility to the rights and institutions of the fifteen Southern states." He identified numerous grievances with the Republican Party, blaming them for inducing slaves to run off by means of the Underground Railroad, John Brown's raids, and high taxes on slave labor. [cite web |title="Excerpts from Governor Isham G. Harris' Legislative Message" |url=http://tennessee.civilwarsourcebook.com/collection/1861-01/1861-01-Article-2-Page3.pdf |accessdate=September 6 |accessyear=2007]
Harris agreed with the idea of popular sovereignty, that only the people within a state can determine whether or not slavery could exist within the boundaries of that state. Furthermore, he regarded laws passed by Congress that made U.S. territories non-slave states as taking territories away from the American people and making them solely for the North, territories from which "Southern men unable to live under a government which may by law recognize the free negro as his equal" were excluded. Governor Harris proposed holding a State Convention. A series of resolutions were presented in the
Tennessee House of Representativesby William H. Wiseneragainst the proposal. He declared passing any law reorganizing and arming the state militia to be inexpedient.
In Memphis, Unionists held two torchlight processions to honor their cause. The secessionists replied with their own demonstrations and a celebratory ball. [cite web |title="Secession Demonstration and Ball in Memphis" |url=http://tennessee.civilwarsourcebook.com/collection/1861-02/1861-02-Article-7-Page10.pdf |accessdate=September 7 |accessyear=2007] [cite web |title="Another Political Demonstration—Minute Men Torchlight Procession" |url=http://tennessee.civilwarsourcebook.com/collection/1861-02/1861-02-Article-9-Page18.pdf |accessdate=September 7 |accessyear=2007] That week, on February 9, the state of Tennessee was to vote on whether or not to send delegates to a State Convention that would decide on secession. [cite web |title="Tennesseans, Decide for Tennessee" |url=http://tennessee.civilwarsourcebook.com/collection/1861-02/1861-02-Article-8-Page17.pdf |accessdate=September 7 |accessyear=2007] The General Assembly convened by Governor Isham Harris did not believe it had the authority to call a State Convention without a vote of the people. [cite web |title="The Convention" |url=http://tennessee.civilwarsourcebook.com/collection/1861-02/1861-02-Article-14-Page24.pdf |accessdate=September 7 |accessyear=2007]
In February 1861, 54 percent of the state’s voters voted against sending delegates to a secession convention, defeating the proposal for a State Convention by a vote of 69,675 to 57,798. If a State Convention had been held, it would have been very heavily pro-Union. 88,803 votes were cast for Unionist candidates and 22,749 votes were cast for Secession candidates. [cite web |title="The vote against secession, and against 'Convention' or 'No Convention'" |url=http://tennessee.civilwarsourcebook.com/collection/1861-02/1861-02-Article-10-Page19.pdf |accessdate=September 7 |accessyear=2007] That day the American flag was displayed in "every section of the city," with zeal equal to that which existed during the late 1860 presidential campaign, wrote the Nashville "Daily Gazette". [cite web |title="Display of Flags" |url=http://tennessee.civilwarsourcebook.com/collection/1861-02/1861-02-Article-11-Page20.pdf |accessdate=September 7 |accessyear=2007] On the corner across from the newspaper office, a crowd had gathered around a bagpipe player playing "
Yankee Doodle", after which ex-mayor John Hugh Smith gave a speech that was received with loud cheers. [cite web |title="Jovial" |url=http://tennessee.civilwarsourcebook.com/collection/1861-02/1861-02-Article-16-Page26.pdf |accessdate=September 7 |accessyear=2007]
In a letter to Democratic senator
Andrew Johnson, his servant C.O. Faxon surmised that the margin by which the No Convention vote won would have been even greater, had Union men not been afraid that if a State Convention were not called then, then Isham Harris would have again called for a State Convention when more state legislators were "infected with the secession epidemic." [cite web |title="The great news from Tennessee..." |url=http://tennessee.civilwarsourcebook.com/collection/1861-02/1861-02-Article-20-Page31.pdf |accessdate=September 7 |accessyear=2007]
March 7, the Memphis "Daily Appeal" wrote that the abolitionists were attempting to deprive the South of territories won during the U.S.-Mexican War. It used the argument that the slave states had furnished twice as many volunteers as the free states and territories, but it did not note that slave states were the ones who had supported the war. [cite web |title="Abolitionist attempts to divest the South of the territory acquired by the Mexican War" |url=http://tennessee.civilwarsourcebook.com/collection/1861-03/1861-03-Article-4-Page5.pdf |accessdate=September 8 |accessyear=2007]
On March 19, the editors of the Clarksville "Chronicle" endorsed a pro-Union candidate for state senator in Robertson,Montgomery, and Stewart counties. [cite web |title="Pro-Union candidate for State Senate endorsed for Robertson, Stewart, & Montgomery counties" |url=http://tennessee.civilwarsourcebook.com/collection/1861-03/1861-03-Article-14-Page16.pdf |accessdate=September 8 |accessyear=2007]
On April 12, the Memphis "Daily Appeal" ran a satirical obituary for
Uncle Sam, proclaiming him to have died of "irrepressible conflict disease," after having met Abraham Lincoln. [cite web |title="Obituary for Uncle Sam; a pro-secession argument in Memphis" |url=http://tennessee.civilwarsourcebook.com/collection/1861-04/1861-04-Article-2-Page3.pdf |accessdate=September 8 |accessyear=2007 ] One Robertson County slave owner complained that she could not rent her slaves out for "half [of what] they were worth" because "the negros think when Lincoln takes his last, they will all be free." [cite web |title="'The negros think when Old Lincoln takes his last they will all be free.' The letter of Martha Gilbert of Robertson County to Cave Johnson Couts" |url=http://tennessee.civilwarsourcebook.com/collection/1861-01/1861-01-Article-3-Page6.pdf |accessdate=September 8 |accessyear=2007]
Reaction to the attack on Fort Sumter
With the attack on
Fort Sumteron April 12, 1861, followed by President Abraham Lincoln’s call for 75,000 volunteers to put the seceded states back into line, public sentiment turned dramatically against the Union.
Historian Daniel Crofts thus reports::"Unionists of all descriptions, both those who became Confederates and those who did not, considered the proclamation calling for seventy-five thousand troops "disastrous." Having consulted personally with Lincoln in March, Congressman
Horace Maynard, the unconditional Unionist and future Republican from East Tennessee, felt assured that the administration would pursue a peaceful policy. Soon after April 15, a dismayed Maynard reported that "the President's extraordinary proclamation" had unleashed "a tornado of excitement that seems likely to sweep us all away." Men who had "heretofore been cool, firm and Union loving" had become "perfectly wild" and were "aroused to a phrenzy of passion." For what purpose, they asked, could such an army be wanted "but to invade, overrun and subjugate the Southern states." The growing war spirit in the North further convinced southerners that they would have to "fight for our hearthstones and the security of home." [Daniel W. Crofts, "Reluctant Confederates: Upper South Unionists in the Secession Crisis" (1989), p.334.]
June 8, 1861referendum, East Tennessee held firm against separation, while West Tennesseereturned an equally heavy majority in favor. The deciding vote came in Middle Tennessee, which went from 51 percent against secession in February to 88 percent in favor in June.
Having ratified by popular vote its connection with the fledgling Confederacy, Tennessee became the last state to withdraw from the Union.
People in East Tennessee, the only area of the state that did not practice slavery on a wide scale, continued to be firmly against Tennessee's move to leave the Union, as were many in other parts of the state, particularly in historically Whig portions of West Tennessee. [Thomas B. Alexander, "Whiggery and Reconstruction in Tennessee," "The Journal of Southern History", Vol. 16, No. 3 (Aug., 1950), pp. 291-305] Tennesseans representing twenty-six East Tennessee counties met twice in Greeneville and Knoxville and agreed to secede from Tennessee. They petitioned the state legislature in Nashville, which denied their request to secede and sent Confederate troops under
Felix Zollicofferto occupy East Tennessee and prevent secession. East Tennessee supplied significant quantities of troops for the Federal army, while the rest of Tennessee was a prime recruiting area for the Confederate army. "(See also Nickajack)." Many East Tennesseans engaged in guerrilla warfare against state authorities by burning bridges, cutting telegraph wires, and spying. [Carroll Van West, ed., "Tennessee History: the Land, the People, and the Culture". James McDonough "Tennessee in the Civil War" 1998. p 155] East Tennessee became an early base for the Republican Party.
Many battles were fought in the state, most of them Union victories.
Twin Rivers Campaign of 1862
Control of the Cumberland and
Tennessee Rivers was important in gaining control of Tennessee during the age of steamboats. Tennessee relied on northbound riverboats to receive staple commodities from the Cumberland and Tennessee valleys. [cite book |last=Cooling |first=Benjamin |authorlink=Benjamin Cooling |title=Forts Henry and Donelson: The Key to the Confederate Heartland |year=1987 |publisher=The University of Tennessee Press |location=Knoxville |isbn=0-87049-538-0 |pages=p.1] The idea of using the rivers to breach the Confederate defense line in the West was well-known by the end of 1861; Union gunboats had been scanning Confederate fort-building on the twin rivers for months before the campaign. [cite book |last=Cooling |first=Benjamin |authorlink=Benjamin Cooling |title=Forts Henry and Donelson: The Key to the Confederate Heartland |year=1987 |publisher=The University of Tennessee Press |location=Knoxville |isbn=0-87049-538-0 |pages=p.65, 66] Ulysses S. Grantand the United States Navycaptured control of the Cumberland and Tennessee Rivers in February 1862 and held off the Confederate counterattack at Shiloh in April of the same year.
Capture of Memphis
After Nashville was captured (the first Confederate state capital to fall) Andrew Johnson, an East Tennessean from Greeneville, was appointed military governor of the state by Lincoln. During this time, the military government abolished
The Confederates continued to hold East Tennessee despite the strength of Unionist sentiment there, with the exception of pro-Confederate Sullivan County.
The Confederates besieged Chattanooga in early fall 1863 but were driven off by Grant in November. Many of the Confederate defeats can be attributed to the poor strategic vision of General
Braxton Bragg, who led the Army of Tennessee from Shiloh to Confederate defeat at Chattanooga.
Island Number Ten·w
Parker's Cross Roads·w
Notable Civil War leaders from Tennessee
After the war, Tennessee adopted a constitutional amendment forbidding property in men
February 22, 1865; [ [http://www.history.umd.edu/Freedmen/chronol.htm Freedmen and Southern Society Project: Chronology of Emancipation ] ] [ [http://www.state.tn.us/tsla/exhibits/blackhistory/timelines/timeline_1861-1865.htm TSLA::This Honorable Body: African American Legislators in 19th Century Tennessee ] ] ratified the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitutionon July 18, 1866; and was the first state readmitted to the Union on July 24, 1866.
Because it ratified the Fourteenth Amendment, Tennessee was the only state that seceded from the Union that did not have a military governor during Reconstruction. That did not placate people who could not accept the results of the war. Many whites resisted efforts to expand suffrage and other civil rights to freedmen. During slavery whites had convinced themselves that the institution was justified. Some whites could not concede to a world in which former slaves should have equal rights under the law. Like many other peoples defeated in war, they were unwilling to give up any of the power they formerly held.
When, in 1867, the state Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of African American suffrage, some groups grew more agitated. The "
Nashville Republican Banner" on January 4, 1868, published an editorial calling for a revolutionary movement of white Southerners to unseat the one-party state rule of the Republican Party and restore the racial subjugation of the region's blacks.
"In this State," the paper argued, "reconstruction has perfected itself and done its worst. It has organized a government which is as complete a closed corporation as may be found; it has placed the black man over the white as the agent and prime-move of domination; it has constructed a system of machinery by which all free guarantees, privileges and opportunities are removed from the people.... The impossibility of casting a free vote in Tennessee short of a revolutionary movement ... is an undoubted fact."
The "Banner" urged readers to ignore the presidential election and instead put energies into building "a local movement here at home" that would end Republican rule. [cited in Harcourt 2005.]
The frenzied nature of this account can be seen with the perspective of some facts: according to the 1860 census, African Americans comprised only 25% of the state's population in 1860, so they could not dominate politics. Two or three blacks served in the Tennessee legislature during Reconstruction, while more served as state and city officers. The editors of the Nashville "Banner" may have been reacting to increased participation by African Americans on the city council, but the maximum number of seats they held was about one-third. [W.E.B. Du Bois, "Black Reconstruction in America, 1860-1880", New York: Oxford University Press, 1935; reprint New York: Free Press,1998, p.575.]
Nashville in the Civil War
* [http://www.battleoffranklin.net The Battle of Franklin, November 30, 1864 (extensive site)]
* [http://fcwrt.wordpress.com/ The Franklin Tennessee Civil War Roundtable]
* [http://www.cr.nps.gov/hps/abpp/battles/TNmap.htm National Park Service map showing Civil War Sites in Tennessee]
* [http://www.mcgavockcemetery.net The McGavock Confederate Cemetery at Franklin]
* [http://www.1862BattleofShiloh.com Battle of Shiloh virtual tour]
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