Lord Protector


Lord Protector

Lord Protector is a particular British title for Heads of State, with two meanings (and full styles) at different periods of history.

Feudal royal regent

The title of "Lord Protector" was originally used by royal princes or other nobles exercising an "individual" regency (i.e. not merely member of a collegial regency council) while the English monarch was still a minor or otherwise unable to rule.

Notable cases in England are:
* John Duke of Bedford (1389–1435) and Humphrey Duke of Gloucester (1390–1447) were (5 December 14226 November 1429) jointly Protectors for Henry VI (1421–1471).
* Richard Plantagenet, Duke of York (1411–1460) was twice (3 April 1454–February 1455 and 19 November 145525 February 1456) Protector for the same Henry VI.
* Richard, Duke of Gloucester was 'Lord Protector of the Realm' (30 April 148326 June 1483), during the nominal reign of Edward V (one of the 'Princes in the Tower') before usurping the throne for himself.
* Edward Seymour, Duke of Somerset was Lord Protector during the early years of the reign of the young Edward VI.

Cases in Scotland:
* John Stuart, Duke of Albany (c.1481–1586) was "Governor and Protector of the Realm" (12 July 151516 November 1524) for James V Stuart (1512–1542)
* James Hamilton, Earl of Arran (c.1517–1575) (from 8 February 1548, Duke of Châtelherault) was "Governor and Protector of the Kingdom" (3 January 154312 April 1554) for Mary I "Mary Queen of Scots"

Cromwellian republican Commonwealth

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royal name=Lord Protector of the Commonwealth
dipstyle=His Highness
offstyle=Your Highness
altstyle=Sir|
The Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland was the title of the head of state during the Interregnum, following the first period of the Commonwealth under Council of State government. It was held by Oliver Cromwell (December 1653–September 1658) and his son and designated successor Richard Cromwell (September 1658–May 1659) during what is now known as The Protectorate.

The 1653 Instrument of Government (republican constitution) stated that;

Oliver Cromwell, Captain-General of the forces of England, Scotland and Ireland, shall be, and is hereby declared to be, Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland, and the dominions thereto belonging, for his life.
The replacement constitution of 1657, the pseudo-monarchical Humble Petition and Advice, gave ‘"his Highness" the Lord Protector’ the power to nominate his successor. Cromwell chose his eldest surviving son, the politically inexperienced Richard. This non-representative and "de facto" dynastic mode of succession, the royal connotations of both styles awarded, even a double invocation 16 December 1653 - 3 September 1658 "By the Grace of God and Republic" Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland" and many other monarchic prerogatives, such as awarding knighthood, and the authoritarian traits of the whole militarized regime meant that the regicidal civil war, allegedly to uphold parliament against 'royal tyranny' and Protestantism against 'Stuart papacy', had in fact produced a repressive crowned republic, fatally unable to bring peace and prosperity back.

The younger Cromwell, who succeeded on his father's death in September 1658, held the position for only eight months before resigning in May 1659, being followed by the second period of Commonwealth rule until the Restoration of the exiled heir to the Stuart throne Charles II in May 1660.

Since that Restoration the title has not been used in either above manner. George, Prince of Wales, appointed to the regency in 1811, was referred to as "His Royal Highness the Prince Regent". George exercised the powers of the monarchy just as medieval Lords Protectors had done, but the title's republican associations had rendered it distasteful. It is not considered likely to be revived in the foreseeable future. As the Lord Protector Cromwell was paid £100,000 a year. [cite book |last= |first= |title= A History of Britain - The Stuarts |publisher= Ladybird |year= 1991|month= |isbn= 0-7214-3370-7]

References in culture

Literature

In 1659, the royalist Anglican theologian (later bishop of Rochester) Thomas Sprat made his witty and literary reputation with his satirical poem "To the Happie Memory of the most Renowned Prince Oliver, Lord Protector", clearly mocking Cromwell's regal status.

In "Prince Caspian", the second book in C. S. Lewis's fantasy series "The Chronicles of Narnia", the usurper Miraz begins his reign calling himself "Lord Protector".

In Orson Scott Card's series of fantasy novels "The Tales of Alvin Maker", set in an alternate early 19th century America, England continues to be ruled by the Cromwells as Lords Protector, while the Stuarts rule the "Crown Colonies" (roughly equivalent to the states from Virginia to Georgia) from "Camelot" (Charleston). The references especially come into play in "Heartfire", the fifth book in the series, where much of the story occurs in Camelot.

In the 1992 novel "Anno Dracula", Dracula takes the title of Lord Protector upon marrying Queen Victoria and becoming Prince Consort.

In the 2007 "Transformers" film universe, the Prequel comic book states that before the Cybertronian Civil War over control of the All Spark, Optimus Prime and Megatron shared power, with Optimus Prime seemingly the political leader of the Cybertronians, and Megatron filling the role of the Lord Protector, the executor of Cybertronian law and order. They are described as "one fair, the other firm".

In the Dies the Fire book series, the character Norman Arminger takes the role of Lord Protector in his neo-feudalistic kingdom of Portland.

Television

Alan B'Stard on the final episode of UK sitcom The New Statesman, suggested, seeking alternatives in case he was not made Prime Minister, that he might proclaim himself Lord Protector of England.

In the Star Trek Voyager episode "Blink of an Eye" during which Voyager is trapped in orbit above a planet experiencing a rapid passage of time, the first attempt shown by the people to contact Voyager was made during the planet's medieval period by a Lord Protector. By the end of the episode, the planet's technologically-advanced society was governed by the Central Protectorate, hinting that the planet's head of state was still called Lord Protector.

In the Stargate Atlantis episode "The Tower" (Season 2, Episode 15) the team come across a planet ruled by a Lord Protector from a city with the same dimensions as Atlantis.

Video games

In the Microprose videogame "Sid Meier's Civilization II", the term "Lord Protector" (or its corresponding female form "Lady Protector") is applied to the leader of the English civilization under the Fundamentalist type of government.

Also, in the Sony MMORPG "Everquest" Paladins who attain the 65th level are given the title of "Lord Protector"

In Europa Universalis III by Paradox Interactive, Lord/Lady Protector is applied to a country's head of state under the Republican Dictatorship form of government.

Other use

Lord Protector has also been used as a rendering of the Latin "Advocatus" in the sense of a temporal Lord (such as a Monarch) who acted as the protector of the (mainly secular) interests of (a part of) the church; compare vidame.

Sources and references

(incomplete)
*1911
* [http://www.worldstatesmen.org/United_Kingdom.html WorldStatesmen- UK]

References


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Lord Protector — es un título propio de Inglaterra para jefes de estado, con dos significados (y estilos) distintos en diferentes momentos de la historia. Regente real feudal El título de Lord Protector se usó originalmente por parte de príncipes reales u otros… …   Wikipedia Español

  • Lord Protector — protector (def. 2b). * * * Lord Protector [Lord Protector] (also Protector, Lord Protector of the Commonwealth) the title given to Oliver …   Useful english dictionary

  • Lord Protector — Lord Protecteur En Angleterre, Lord Protecteur est un titre qui désignait le « chef du gouvernement ». De fait, le titre a connu deux significations différentes à deux moments différents. Le Protecteur du Roi Il désigna d abord la… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Lord Protector — Protector Pro*tect or, n. [L.: cf. F. protecteur.] 1. One who, or that which, defends or shields from injury, evil, oppression, etc.; a defender; a guardian; a patron. [1913 Webster] For the world s protector shall be known. Waller. [1913… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Lord Protector — Der englische Titel Lordprotektor (engl.: Lord Protector), ursprünglich auf Regenten angewandt, bezeichnete während der kurzen republikanischen Phase der britischen Geschichte das Staatsoberhaupt des Commonwealth von England, Schottland und… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Lord Protector — Oliver Cromwell Lord Protector of England …   Eponyms, nicknames, and geographical games

  • Lord Protector — Lord′ Protec′tor n. why protector 2) …   From formal English to slang

  • Lord Protector — protector (def. 2b). * * * …   Universalium

  • Lord Protector — Lord Pro|tect|or the title used by Oliver Cromwell and later by his son Richard Cromwell when they were in charge of the government of Britain at the time when it was a ↑republic (1649 59) …   Dictionary of contemporary English

  • Lord Protector — /lɔd prəˈtɛktə/ (say lawd pruh tektuh) noun → Protector …   Australian English dictionary


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