University of London External System


University of London External System

Infobox_University
name = University of London External System


image_size = 250px
motto =
established = 1858
type = Public Distance Education
staff =
faculty =
chancellor = HRH The Princess Royal
vice_chancellor = Sir Graeme Davies
dean = Jonathan Kydd
students = 41,000 in 180 countries [ [http://www.londonexternal.ac.uk/150/history/index.shtml University of London External System: 150th Anniversary] ; retrieved 4th March 2008]
undergrad =
postgrad =
doctoral =
city = London
country = England
campus =
athletics =
free_label =
free =
colours =

scarf start

nickname =
mascot =
affiliations =
website = http://www.londonexternal.ac.uk
.

History

When the first "London University" was established in 1828, the institution, Scottish in curriculum and teaching, was non-denominational. As such, given the intense religious rivalries at the time, there was an outcry against the "godless" university. The issue soon boiled down to which institutions had degree-granting powers, and which institutions didn't.Sheldon Rothblatt, "Review: Supply and Demand: The Two Histories of English Education," "History of Education Quarterly", Vol. 28, No. 4., Winter, 1988, pp. 627-644. http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0018-2680%28198824%2928%3A4%3C627%3ASADT%22H%3E2.0.CO%3B2-J]

The compromise solution that emerged in 1836 was that the sole authority to conduct the examinations leading to degrees would be given to a new entity called the "University of London". As Sheldon Rothblatt states, "thus arose in nearly archetypal form the famous English distinction between teaching and examining, here embodied in separate institutions."

With the state giving examining powers to a separate entity, the groundwork was laid for the creation of a programme within the new university that would both administer exams and award qualifications to students either pursuing instruction at another institution, or pursuing a course of self-directed study.

Referred to as "People's University" by Charles Dickens because it provided access to higher education to students from less affluent backgrounds, the External Programme was chartered by Queen Victoria in 1858, making the University of London the first university to offer distance learning degrees to students."History", University of London External Programme Website http://www.londonexternal.ac.uk/about_us/history.shtml] "Key Facts", University of London External Programme Website http://www.londonexternal.ac.uk/about_us/facts.shtml]

Although enrollment increased steadily in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, during World War II, the External Programme witnessed an increase in enrollments from soldiers stationed abroad and, interestingly, soldiers imprisoned in German POW camps.Tatum Anderson, "History lessons at the people's university," "Guardian Weekly", May 16, 2007 http://www.guardianabroad.co.uk/education/article/283]

Because the Geneva Convention (1929) stipulated that every prisoner of war, in addition to being entitled to adequate food and medical care, had the right to exchange correspondence and receive parcels, many British POWs took advantage of this opportunity and enrolled in the University of London External Programme. The soldiers were sent study materials via the mails, and at specified intervals sat for proctored exams in the prisoner camps. Almost 11,000 exams were taken at 88 camps between 1940 and 1945.Tatum Anderson, "History lessons at the people's university," "Guardian Weekly", May 16, 2007 http://www.guardianabroad.co.uk/education/article/283] Although the exam failure rate was high, a significant number of soldiers passed their exams while imprisoned.

With the advent of inexpensive airmail services after World War II, the number of external students taking University of London courses increased dramatically.Tatum Anderson, "History lessons at the people's university," "Guardian Weekly", May 16, 2007 http://www.guardianabroad.co.uk/education/article/283]

External System - 150th Anniversary

The University of London External System is commemorating its 150th Anniversary in 2008. [http://www.londonexternal.ac.uk/150/index.shtml - 150th Anniversary - microsite]

A specially commissioned anniversary book has been produced to commemorate the University of London External System's 150th Anniversary. [http://www.londonexternal.ac.uk/150/book/index.shtml - 150th Anniversary - microsite]

Overview of the Current System

The System offers undergraduate and postgraduate diplomas and degrees to students worldwide. Currently, there are over 40,000 students in the process of earning credentials."About Us", University of London External Programme Website http://www.londonexternal.ac.uk/about_us/index.shtml] A designated constituent institution of the University of London called the "lead college" (e.g. Royal Holloway) creates materials to allow students to study at their own pace. Examinations take place at testing centers around the world on specified dates. Hallmarks of the program are:
* its low cost vis-à-vis attendance in London,
* choice of flexibility between full and part-time study

As stated in the University of London StatutesUniversity of London Statutes, 14 December 2005 http://www.london.ac.uk/fileadmin/documents/about/governance/statutes.pdf] , External System students are graded on the same standard as internal students to ensure a uniform credentialing process.University of London Parity Standards, Document http://www.londonexternal.ac.uk/about_us/related_docs/parity_standards.pdf] A pupil who completes a course of study under the program is awarded a University of London degree, and should there be a lead college, a notation specifying which institution provided the instruction.

Academics at the University of London are responsible for the academic direction of the External System. As evidence of the high-standards that they set for the programme, when the External System was audited in 2005 by the Quality Assurance Agency (QAA), the auditors decreed that "broad confidence" could be placed in the University’s management and the awards made through the External System (According to the university, "broad confidence" is "the best verdict any institution can be given by the auditors").University of London Press Release, "Vote of confidence in delivering world-wide education for the University of London", 10 April 2006 http://www.londonexternal.ac.uk/news_events/archive/docs/ext_prog_press_06.pdf]

Most external students are in former territories of the British Empire. Currently, there are over 9,000 students enrolled in the external programme in Singapore"Study in Singapore for a University of London Degree", Website http://www.londonexternal.ac.uk/sg/] , 5,000 in Hong Kong"Study in Hong Kong for a University of London Degree", Website http://www.londonexternal.ac.uk/hk/] , 3,000 students in Trinidad and Tobago"Study in Trinidad and Tobago for a University of London Degree", Website http://www.londonexternal.ac.uk/trinidad/] , 2,000 in Malaysia"Study in Malaysia for a University of London Degree", Website http://www.londonexternal.ac.uk/mly/] , 1,400 in Pakistan"Study in Pakistan for a University of London Degree", Website http://www.londonexternal.ac.uk/pak/] , 1,200 students in Bangladesh"Study in Bangladesh for a University of London Degree", Website http://www.londonexternal.ac.uk/bn/] , 800 students in Sri Lanka"Study in Sri Lanka for a University of London Degree", Website http://www.londonexternal.ac.uk/sri/] , 800 students in Canada"Study in Canada for a University of London Degree", Website http://www.londonexternal.ac.uk/canada/ ] , between 1,000 and 1,999 students in the United States,"Study in the United States for a University of London Degree", Website http://www.londonexternal.ac.uk/usa/] , 300 students in Malta"Study in Malta for a University of London Degree", Website http://www.londonexternal.ac.uk/mt/] , 200+ in Australia, 200+ in South Africa, 30+ in New Zealand and many hundreds in India"Study in India for a University of London Degree", Website http://www.londonexternal.ac.uk/ind/] , among other countries.

The University of London External Programme is now to be known as the University of London External System. [ [http://www.londonexternal.ac.uk/ University of London - distance learning - online education - degrees - courses - diplomas - UK - External System ] ]

tudy programmes

Undergraduate programmes

The External System offers a variety of undergraduate qualifications, each directed by one of the university's colleges (called "lead colleges").University of London External Programme Undergraduate Qualifications http://www.londonexternal.ac.uk/prospective_students/undergraduate/index.php] They include: [ [http://www.londonexternal.ac.uk/prospective_students/undergraduate/index.php Distance learning - University of London - UoL - online education - Undergraduate ] ]

"Subject" - "Degree" - "Lead College"

*Accounting - Diploma for Graduates, London School of Economics "(LSE)"
*Accounting and Finance - BSc LSE
*Accounting with Law - BSc LSE
*Banking - Diploma for Graduates LSE
*Banking and Finance - BSc LSE
*Business - BSc LSE
*Business Administration - BSc Royal Holloway
*Classical Studies - BA Royal Holloway
*Computing and Information Systems - BSc & Diploma Goldsmiths
*Creative Computing - BSc & Diploma Goldsmiths
*Development - Diploma for Graduates LSE
*Development and Economics - BSc LSE
*Divinity - BD Heythrop
*Diploma in Economics - Diploma LSE
*Economics - BSc LSE
*Economics - Diploma for Graduates LSE
*Economics and Finance - BSc LSE
*Economics and Management - BSc LSE
*English - BA & Diploma Goldsmiths
*Finance - Diploma for Graduates LSE
*French - BA Royal Holloway
*French and German - BA Royal Holloway
*Geography and Environment - BSc LSE
*Geography and Environment - Diploma for Graduates LSE
*German - BA Royal Holloway
*German and Italian - BA Royal Holloway
*History - BA Royal Holloway
*Information Systems - Diploma for Graduates LSE
*Information Systems and Management - BSc LSE
*International Relations - BSc LSE
*International Relations - Diploma for Graduates LSE
*Italian - BA Royal Holloway
*Italian and French - BA Royal Holloway
*Laws - LLB & Diploma Intercollegiate
*Management - Diploma for Graduates LSE
*Management - BSc LSE
*Management with Law - BSc LSE
*Mathematics (New for 2008) - Diploma for Graduates LSE
*Mathematics and Economics - BSc LSE
*Philosophy - BA & Diploma Birkbeck
*Politics - BSc LSE
*Politics - Diploma for Graduates LSE
*Politics and International Relations - BSc LSE
*Social Sciences - Diploma LSE
*Social Sciences - Diploma for Graduates LSE
*Sociology - Diploma for Graduates LSE
*Sociology - BSc LSE
*Sociology with Law - BSc LSE
*Spanish and Latin American Studies - BA Birkbeck
*Theology - Diploma Heythrop

Postgraduate programmes

The External System offers taught postgraduate qualifications in a variety of Arts and Science disciplines.University of London External Programme Postgraduate Qualifications http://www.londonexternal.ac.uk/prospective_students/postgraduate/index.php]

New programmes

Recently, the External System introduced several new Masters Degrees (including new MBAs from the School of Oriental and African Studies and Royal Holloway), and a BSc in Creative Computing from Goldsmiths.

The University of London External System

Participating Colleges and Institutes of the University of London


*Birkbeck
*Goldsmiths
*Heythrop College
*Institute of Education
*King's College London
*London School of Economics
*London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine
*Queen Mary
*Royal Holloway
*Royal Veterinary College
*School of Oriental and African Studies
*University College London

Independent Teaching Institutions

In North America, Middle East, South Asia and East Asia, many students on the External System seek out tuition at one of the over 200 private or non-profit institutions which prepare students for the University of London examinations.University of London External Programme Directory of Institutions, Website http://www.londonexternal.ac.uk/study_ep/local_support/directory.shtml] Such institutions may be audited, and if found to meet strict quality standards, may earn the designation of “permission to teach." The Laws Programme of the External System, however, only designates "permission to teach" to institutions which provide face to face teaching for the Diploma in laws.

The designation serves both as a means of signalling to students some degree of quality in the services offered (although the University of London examiners frequently note that they do not wish for pupils to interpret the sanction as such), and secondly designates places which are allowed to offer the undergraduate diplomas in the fields of law and economics (the only courses mandating formal schooling of some sort).

Current Issues

Role of lead college

Students enrolled in the University of London External System are full members of the University of London. They have equal standing with students at the University's colleges. For example, students enrolled with the University of London External System are members of the University of London Union. However, there are differences over the status external students have with respect to their lead college. Some institutions treat external students as college alumni in addition to their status as University of London alumni. However, other colleges deny external students alumni status and privileges when present in London.

Colleges' degree powers

One of the lead colleges, Imperial College London, left the University in July 2007. The School of Oriental and African Studies has become the lead college for the external degrees previously led by Imperial, although Imperial will offer its own distance learning MBA in competition to the two MBAs offered by the External System, led by SOAS and Royal Holloway.

The University of London has also encouraged King's College London, the London School of Economics and University College London to apply successfully for their own degree-awarding powers."Degree powers for King's", King's College London News, 27 July 2006 http://www.kcl.ac.uk/news/news_details_2006.php?news_id=95]

Impact on British Higher Education

The University of London External System has played an important role in the development of higher education institutions in Britain. Many leading British research universities started out as "university colleges" that prepared students for external degrees of the University of London. Examples include the University of Nottingham and the University of Exeter. This was a common way for establishing new universities in the UK during the first half of the twentieth century.

Nobel Laureates

At least three Nobel Prizes have been awarded to alumni of the University of London External System:
*Ronald H. Coase (Economics)Ronald Coase. "Nobel Prize Autobiography," 1991 http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/economics/laureates/1991/coase-autobio.html]
*Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins (Physiology or Medicine)Joseph Needham, "Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins, O.M., F.R.S. (1861-1947)," "Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London", Vol. 17, No. 2. (Dec., 1962), pp. 117-162 http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0035-9149%28196212%2917%3A2%3C117%3ASFGHOF%3E2.0.CO%3B2-G]
*Nelson Mandela (Peace)Tatum Anderson, "History lessons at the people's university," Guardian Weekly, May 16, 2007 http://www.guardianabroad.co.uk/education/article/283] Anders Hallengren, "Nelson Mandela and the Rainbow of Culture," 11 September 2001 http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/peace/articles/mandela/index.html]

Notable Alumni

*Ulli Beier, WriterWole Ogundele, "Rereading Beier," "African Quarterly on the Arts", vol. 2, no. 3, (date?) http://archive.lib.msu.edu/DMC/African%20Journals/pdfs/glendora%20review/vol2no4/graa002004012.pdf]
*Asa Briggs, Baron Briggs , HistorianThe Papers of Asa Briggs, Website http://janus.lib.cam.ac.uk/db/node.xsp?id=EAD%2FGBR%2F0014%2FBRIG]
*Ronald Coase, Nobel Prize-winning Economist
*Glyn Davies, Economist"Obituary: Professor Glyn Davies," The Daily Telegraph, 01-24-2003 http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=%2Fnews%2F2003%2F01%2F24%2Fdb2401.xml]
*Luisa Diogo, Prime Minister of Mozambique
*Patrick du Val, MathematicianBiography of Patrick du Val, Website http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Biographies/Du_Val.html]
*Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins, Nobel Prize-winning Biochemist
*Sir Alec Issigonis, Engineer and Designer of the British Motor Corporation (BMC) Mini
*Sir Harold Jeffreys, Mathematician, Statistician, Geophysicist, and AstronomerThe Papers of Harold Jeffreys, Website http://janus.lib.cam.ac.uk/db/node.xsp?id=EAD%2FGBR%2F0275%2FJeffreys%2FA118-A127]
*Charles Muguta Kajege, Member of Parliament, TanzaniaLondon Connection Alumni Newsletter, Spring 2007 http://www.londonexternal.ac.uk/alumni/newsletter/spring_07.pdf]
*Israel Kirzner, EconomistIsrael Kirzner's Curriculum Vitae http://www.econ.nyu.edu/dept/vitae/kirzner.htm]
*Kelvin Lancaster, EconomistKelvin Lancaster Obituary, Columbia University, 1999 http://www.columbia.edu/cu/economics/faculty/memoriam/memoriam_klancaster.html]
*Nelson Mandela, former President of South AfricaTatum Anderson, "History lessons at the people's university," Guardian Weekly, May 16, 2007 http://www.guardianabroad.co.uk/education/article/283]
*David Forbes Martyn, PhysicistBiography of David Forbes Martyn, Website http://www.adb.online.anu.edu.au/biogs/A150379b.htm]
*Thabo Mbeki, President of South AfricaBiography of Thabo Mvuyelwa Mbeki, Website http://www.info.gov.za/gol/gcis_profile.jsp?id=509]
*Robert Mugabe, President of Zimbabwe [Christine Kenyon Jones, "The People's University: 150 years of the University of London and its External students" (University of London External System , 2008) pages 148-149 ISBN 0955768918]
*Paul Pearce, Member of Parliament, AustraliaLondon Connection Alumni Newsletter, Autumn 2005 http://www.londonexternal.ac.uk/alumni/newsletter/autumn_05.pdf]
*A. N. R. Robinson, former President of Trinidad and Tobago and advocate for the creation of the International Criminal CourtBiography of A. N. R. Robinson, Website http://www.caricom.org/jsp/pressreleases/pres59_98.htm]
*Josiah Stamp, 1st Baron Stamp, Economist and former Director of the Bank of EnglandBiography of Josiah Stamp, Website http://economia.unipv.it/harrod/edition/editionstuff/rfh.528.htm]
*Sir L. Dudley Stamp, Geologist and GeographerM. J. Wise, "Obituary: Professor Sir Dudley Stamp," "The Geographical Journal", Vol. 132, No. 4. (Dec., 1966), pp. 591-594 http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0016-7398(196612)132%3A4%3C591%3AOPSDS%3E2.0.CO%3B2-1]
*Gisela Stuart, Member of Parliament for Birmingham EdgbastonBritish Council, Website http://www.educationuk.org/pls/hot_bc/bc_content.page_pls_user_news_detail?x=517623053001&y=0&a=34&b=&n=1066] Sarah Richardson, "A Masters plan for ambitious women," Evening Standard (London), Oct 24, 2006 http://64.233.169.104/search?q=cache:YlKpTXZVuEUJ:www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4153/is_20061024/ai_n16801844+Gisela+Stuart,+university+of+london+external&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=4]
*Sir Barnes Wallis, Scientist, Engineer and InventorTatum Anderson, "History lessons at the people's university," "Guardian Weekly", May 16, 2007 http://www.guardianabroad.co.uk/education/article/283]
*Sir Alan Walters, EconomistIsadore Barmash. "Johns Hopkins Lecturer Named Thatcher Adviser", "New York Times", October 6, 1980, Business & Finance, Page D2 http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=FA0C12F9345F12728DDDAF0894D8415B8084F1D3]
*H. G. Wells, WriterBiography of H. G. Wells, Website http://www.slais.ubc.ca/courses/libr500/03-04-wt1/assignments/www/D_Berry/Wellsbio.htm] [cite book | last=Ruddick | first=Nicholas | coauthors= | year=2001 | title=The Time Machine (Broadview Literary Texts)| edition= | location= Peterborough, Ontario| publisher=Broadview Press | id=ISBN 978-1551113050 ]
*Sir Edward Williams, Supreme Court of Queensland Judge, AustraliaWebsite Commemorating the Life of Edward Williams http://www.courts.qld.gov.au/library/exhibition/williams/uni_london.htm]
*Ronald Piper, Vice-Principal (Governance and Planning) of the University of St Andrews [University of St Andrews Administration webpage http://www.st-andrews.ac.uk/~www_sd/piper1.html]
*Gordon Taylor, former professional footballer and current chief executive of the Professional Footballer's AssociationA unique network – former students and alumni, University of London External System http://www.londonexternal.ac.uk/150/history/students_alumni.shtml]
*David Knox, former Member of Parliament for Leek, StaffordshireNotable alumni, University of London External System http://www.londonexternal.ac.uk/alumni/notable_alumni.shtml]
*Eleni Mavrou, mayor of Nicosia, Cyprus
*Wole Soyinka, Nobel Prize-winning playwright
*Derek Walcott, Nobel Prize-winning poet and playwright
*Sir Joseph Hotung, philanthropist and former director of HSBC Bank
*Kwasi Wiredu, philosopher
*Sir Geoffrey Elton, historian
*Chinua Achebe, novelist, poet and critic
*Sir Malcolm Bradbury, British author and academic

Further reading

*cite book | last=Thompson | first=F.M.L.| coauthors= (ed.) | year=1990| title=The University of London and the world of learning, 1836-1986| edition= | location= London| publisher=Hambledon Press| id=ISBN 978-1852850326

ee also

* University of London
* List of notable staff and students of the University of London
* University of London Union
* Academic dress of the University of London

References

External links

* [http://www.london.ac.uk/ University of London]
* [http://www.london.ac.uk/history.html History of the University of London]
* [http://www.londonexternal.ac.uk/ University of London External System]
* [http://www.londonexternal.ac.uk/about_us/history.shtml History of the University of London External System]
* [http://www.lse.ac.uk/collections/LSEExternalStudy/ London School of Economics External Study]
* [http://www.ulu.co.uk/ The University of London Union]
* [http://www.qedlaw.co.uk/category/london-external-llb/ London External LLB awards by class]


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