Golgi's method

Golgi's method

Golgi's method is a nervous tissue staining technique discovered by Italian physician and scientist Camillo Golgi (1843-1926) in 1873. It was initially named the black reaction ("la reazione nera") by Golgi, but it became better known as the Golgi stain or method later.

Golgi' staining was famously used by Spanish neuroanatomist Santiago Ramón y Cajal (1852-1934) to discover a number of novel facts about the organization of the nervous system, inspiring the birth of the neuron doctrine.

Mechanism

The cells in nervous tissue are densely packed and little information on their structures and interconnections can be obtained if all the cells are stained. Furthermore, its thin filamentary extensions—the axon and the dendrites—are too slender and transparent to be seen with normal staining techniques. Golgi's method stains a limited number of cells at random in their entirety. The mechanism by which this happens is still largely unknown [cite book
last=Nicholls
first=J. G.
title=From neuron to brain
year=2001
publisher=Sinauer Associates
isbn=0878934391/ISSN
pages=5
] . Dendrites, as well as the cell soma, are clearly stained in brown and black and can be followed in their entire length, which allowed neuroanatomists to track connections between neurons and to make visible the complex networking structure of many parts of the brain and spinal cord.

Golgi's staining is achieved by impregnating fixed nervous tissue with potassium dichromate and silver nitrate. Cells thus stained are filled by microcrystallization of silver chromate.

Technique

According to SynapseWeb [http://synapses.mcg.edu/learn/visualize/visualize.stm] , this is the recipe for Golgi's staining technique:

#Immerse a block (approx. 10x5 mm) of formol-fixed (or paraformaldehyde- glutaraldehyde-perfused) brain tissue into a 2% aqueous solution of potassium dichromate for 2 days
#Dry the block shortly with filter paper.
#Immerse the block into a 2% aqueous solution of silver nitrate for another 2 days.
#Cut sections approx. 20-100 µm thick.
#Dehydrate quickly in ethanol, clear and mount (e.g., into Depex or Enthalan).

This technique has since been refined to substitute the silver precipitate with gold by immersing the sample in gold chloride then oxalic acid, followed by removal of the silver by sodium thiosulphate. This preserves a greater degree of fine structure with the ultrastructural details marked by small particles of gold. [http://www.springerlink.com/(f0cb2ybwsglgtnuip5efub55)/app/home/contribution.asp?referrer=parent&backto=issue,5,11;journal,215,243;linkingpublicationresults,1:100182,1]

Quote

Cajal said of the Golgi method:

:" I expressed the surprise which I experienced upon seeing with my own eyes the wonderful revelatory powers of the chrome-silver reaction and the absence of any excitement in the scientific world aroused by its discovery." : "Recuerdos de mi vida, Vol. 2, Historia de mi labor científica". Madrid: Moya, 1917, p. 76.

Notes

ee also

* Silver staining

External links

* [http://www.ihcworld.com/imagegallery/displayimage.php?album=4&pos=16 Photomicrograph of a cortex cell stained with Golgi's] . IHC Image Gallery.
* [http://flybrain.neurobio.arizona.edu/Flybrain/html/atlas/golgi/ Golgi impregnations] . Images of the brain of flies.
* [http://synapses.mcg.edu/learn/visualize/visualize.stm Visualization of dendritic spines using Golgi Method] . SynapseWeb. Includes a time-lapse study of Golgi impregnation.
* Berrebi, Albert: [http://www.ihcworld.com/imagegallery/displayimage.php?album=4&pos=13 Cell Biology of Neurons: Structure and Methods of Study] . (in PDF)
* Valverde, Facundo. [http://www.cajal.csic.es/Valverde%20Web%2002/Golgi%20atlas.htm Golgi Atlas of the Post Natal Mouse Brain] .
*


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См. также в других словарях:

  • golgi method — noun Usage: usually capitalized G Etymology: after C. Golgi : a method of preparing tissues for the study of nerves by using potassium bichromate and silver nitrate …   Useful english dictionary

  • Golgi method — n a method of preparing nerve tissue for study using potassium dichromate and silver nitrate that is effective because a few of the neurons are stained completely and stand out from the rest which are not stained at all …   Medical dictionary

  • Golgi — Camillo, Italian histologist and Nobel laureate, 1843–1926. See G. apparatus, G. complex, G. corpuscle, G. tendon organ, G. internal reticulum, G. zone, G. cells, under cell, G. osmiobichromate fixative, G. stain, G. Mazzoni corpuscle, Holmgrén G …   Medical dictionary

  • Golgi, Camillo — born July 7, 1843/44, Corteno, Italy died Jan. 21, 1926, Pavia Italian physician and cytologist. He devised a way to stain nerve tissue and with it discovered a neuron, now called the Golgi cell, that has many short, branching extensions… …   Universalium

  • Golgi , Camillo — (1843–1926) Italian cytologist and histologist Born at Corteno near Brescia (now in Italy), Golgi studied medicine at Pavia University and thereafter mainly concerned himself with research on cells and tissues. In 1873, while serving as physician …   Scientists

  • Golgi — I. adjective Date: 1891 of or relating to the Golgi apparatus, Golgi bodies, or a method of staining nerve tissue < Golgi vesicles > II. biographical name Camillo 1843(or 1844) 1926 Italian physician …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • Camillo Golgi — Infobox Scientist name = Camillo Golgi image width = 150px caption = Camillo Golgi, 1906 birth date = birth date|1843|7|7|mf=y birth place = Corteno, Italy death date = death date and age|1926|01|21|1843|7|7 death place = Pavia, Italy residence …   Wikipedia

  • Scientific method — …   Wikipedia

  • Neuron — This article is about cells in the nervous system. For other uses, see Neuron (disambiguation). Brain cell redirects here. For other uses, see Glial cell. Neuron: Nerve Cell …   Wikipedia

  • Neuromorphology — (from Greek νεῦρον, neuron, nerve ; μορφή, morphé, “form”; λογία, logia, “study of”[1][2]) is the study of nervous system form, shape, and structure. The study of its structure includes looking at the organ system from a physiological and… …   Wikipedia


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