A heckler is a person who shouts a disparaging comment at a performance or event, or interrupting set-piece speeches, for example at a political meeting.
The term originates from the
textiletrade, where to heckle was to tease or comb out flaxor hempfibres. The additional meaning, to interrupt speakers with awkward or embarrassing questions, was added in Scotland, and specifically perhaps in early nineteenth century Dundee, a famously radical town where the hecklers who combed the flax had established a reputation as the most radical and belligerent element in the workforce. In the heckling factory, one heckler would read out the day's news while the others worked, to the accompaniment of interruptions and furious debate.McKie, David. [http://www.guardian.co.uk/comment/story/0,3604,1471886,00.html "Unplotted ripostes"] , "The Guardian", 28 April 2005.]
Heckling was a major part of the
vaudevilletheater. Sometimes it was incorporated into the play. Milton Berle's weekly TV variety series in the 1960s featured a heckler named Sidney Spritzer (German/ Yiddishfor "Squirter") played by Borscht Beltcomic Irving Benson. In the 1970s and 1980s, "The Muppet Show", which was also built around a vaudeville theme, featured "two" hecklers, Statler & Waldorf(two old men named after famous hotels). "Heckles" are now particularly likely to be heard at stand-up comedyperformances, to unsettle or compete with the performer.
Many stand-up comedians devise a strategy for quashing such outbursts, usually by having a store of retorts on hand, such as "this is what happens when cousins marry" or "Dear God, don't let anyone in the crowd yell out tonight " [yell from crowdmember] ", and punish those who do!" The idea is to get the audience laughing at the interruption.
Jim Gaffigantook on a drunk heckler on his album "The Last Supper", where he had a conversation with him. Jim proceeded to insult the heckler and doing an impression of him in the morning by saying a drawn out "fuck..."
Dane Cookwas heckled on his album "Retaliation", in the middle of a story about Burger King, where the heckler yelled, "Make it happen, man! Make it happen!" Dane replied, "Shut up! You're ruining the show for everyone around you. Don't do that." The heckler kept going, and Dane replied, "Shut the fuck up, or I'll have you kicked out of here!"
*A common but rarely-enacted threat from comedians is to attend the heckler's workplace and heckle them in return. In "The Fire", an episode of the
sitcom" Seinfeld", Jerry Seinfeld actually carries out the threat, showing up at a heckler's officeand shouting insults at her.
Mitch Hedbergplayfully acknowledged heckling late on his " Mitch All Together" album (without actually being heckled) saying, "I can stand up here and talk for forty-five minutes. You say one word, you're fucking out of here."
Malcolm Hardee's legendarily dangerous Tunnel Club in Greenwichwas famed for the sharp heckling of its regulars.
Jim Tavarewent on stage with the opening line, "I'm a schizophrenic..." to which someone immediately replied, "Fuck off then — both of you." [ Schizophreniahas historically been confused with multiple personality disorder]
*Another infamous heckle came when
Jo Brand, a comedienne not renowned for her looks, went onstage to be greeted by a man shouting "Don't" show us your tits."
Julian Claryhas said that he was so scared of hecklers he used to pick on his audience using putdowns like "Men like you don't grow on trees, they swing from them." Bill Hickswas also famous for his "take-no-prisoners" approach to hecklers. On one occasion he demanded that a drunken heckler be taken out of the audience shouting "You drunk cunt!" at her. Mancunian comedian/poet John Cooper Clarkeriposted to one heckler, "I can't hear you, mate, yer mouth's full o' shit."
George Carlinhad been known to be very rough on hecklers. In one of his most famous responses to a heckler, Carlin stopped his joke and went on with a long series of vulgar insults.
Michael Richardswas heckled during a stage performance, he responded by shouting a 3-minute speech containing many racial slurs (including "nigger"), for which he later apologized, saying "I'm not a racist, that's what's so insane about this [the speech] , and yet it's said, it comes through, it fires out of me".
Andy Kaufman's personae were often heckled both by genuinely angry audience members and staged audience members further confusing what was and was not part of his act.
*One time a heckler called out to
Rodney Dangerfield, "Hey Rodney, what do you do for a living?" to which Rodney replied, "I find men for your sister!".
The Late Show With David Letterman", there is a recurring character in the audience who insults and makes extremely profane comments at Letterman for saying what he considers uninteresting things.
*In the comic strip
Calvin and Hobbes, Calvin is presenting an “invisible cretinizer” to the class as a show-and-tell, when he is heckled by a classmate who yells “Oh sure, Calvin, give us a break!” Calvin cleverly counters by saying “As Ronald proves, it’s quite effective, even at long range.”
Sam Kinisontook on a heckler who shouted "Speak up" with a long and brutal attack about the heckler's mother. "That's what your mom said when I was leaving her house..."
Redd Foxxresponded to the same demand: "Hey, nigger, pay more and get a good seat!"
*When asked "Where's Lamont?",
Redd Foxxresponded: "At your mammy's."
Zach Galifianakishas been known to burst out in fits of anger, screaming at his hecklers, and sometimes even bringing them up on the stage to interview them and insult them.
Lewis Blackresponded to a heckler by saying, "Look -- all I'm trying to do is get these little shit pieces of information the government gives us and put in a little pile and piss on it!"
comedian Roy Chubby Brownonce dealt with a heckler by interrupting his act and asking the audience member in question "Is your mother a" weightlifter? "No? Then how" "did she raise a" dumbbell"like you?"
* In the live stage shows based on the British
situation comedyBottom, at least one member of the audience would shout "Have a wank!", usually when Rik Mayall(Richie) forgot his lines. Eventually, the duo wrote lines that would encourage this phrase such as: "Richie: What would David Beckham do? Audience Member: "Have a wank!" Richie: Of course! Shag Posh!"
* Irish comedian
Dara Ó Briainhas stated that his method of discouraging hecklers is to tell as many jokes as quickly as possible, preventing them from having the opportunity to interrupt.
* British comedian
Eddie Izzardresponded to an outburst, with an encouraging, "Check your joke with your friend first and if he thinks it's funny, then give it a try." Another time he responded to a heckler by telling him to shut up, and then jokingly replying: "I know people have already heckled tonight, but I WILL kill you."
Patton Oswalt's album Werewolves and Lollipops, a heckler yelled out during a particularly quiet moment in his routine and Oswalt spent the next two minutes making fun of him, calling him things like a "dumb douchebag" and a "poor motherfucker", and saying that future civilizations will know his "level of douchebaggery". Even after Patton went back to the joke and finished it, he continued to berate the heckler, finally telling him "You're going to miss everything cool and die angry."
University of New Hampshire, the UNH Pep Band continually shouts disparaging phrases during gameplay, such as "the plan won't work", towards the other team to the amusement of fans in attendance.
*In one of
Steve Martin's records, he can be heard responding to a heckler by saying "I remember when I had my first beer."
Harry Hillonce responded to a heckler by saying "You may heckle me now, but when I get home I've got a chicken in the oven", which is a good example of silencing a heckler without insulting them.
Paul Mertononce responded to a heckler with the line: "Excuse me, I'm trying to work here. How would you like it if I stood yelling down the alley while you're giving blowjobs to transsexuals?".
Eddie Murphy Delirious" the exchange of insults between two hecklers in the audience became a part of the show with Eddie Murphyasking everyone to give the louder heckler a standing ovation
Lee Evansonce did a gig in Brightonand had a fire extinguisher thrown at his head by a heckler. He sometimes refers to this by saying: "It hurt but it was alternative".
Craig Fergusononce dealt with a heckler by apparently ignoring him and speaking at length about the film " The Godfather" - in particular the famous scene where a Hollywood producer awakens to find the severed head of his multi-million dollar racehorse in his bed. Ferguson said that ever since he first saw the film, he had wondered what had happened to the rest of the animal, but was delighted that he had finally (pointing to the heckler) "found the horse's arse!"
Hecklers can also appear at
sporting events, most notably baseball games, and usually (but not always) direct their taunts at a visiting team. Fans of the Philadelphia Eagles American footballteam are notorious for heckling; among the most infamous incidents were booinga performer dressed as Santa Clausin a halftime show in 1968, and cheering at the career-ending injury of opposing player Michael Irvinin 1999, as well as routinely booing the Eagles themselves if they do not perform up to expectations. Often, sports heckling will also involve throwing objects onto the field; this has led most sports stadia to ban glass containers and bottlecaps. Another famous heckler is Robert Szasz, who regularly attends Tampa Bay Raysbaseball games and is known for loudly heckling one opposing player per game or series. Former Yugoslav football star Dejan Savićevićis involved in an infamous incident with a heckler in which during an interview, a man on the street is heard shouting off-camera: "You're a piece of shit!" Dejan berated the man, and went on to finish the interview, without missing a beat.
Australian sporting audiences are known for creative heckling. Perhaps the most famous is
Yabbawho has a grandstand at the Sydney Cricket Groundnamed after him.
The sport of
cricketis particularly notorious for heckling between the teams themselves, which is known as sledging.
NHLone of the most famous heckling incidents was with Tie Domiand a Philadelphia Flyersfan. After exchanging some words and squirting of water at each other, the fan fell into the penalty box, where Tie started to punch the fan.
At the NBA Drafts of recent years, many fans have gone with heckling
ESPN NBAanalyst and host of, Quite Frankly with Stephen A. Smith, Stephen A. Smith. Most notably, The Stephen A. Smith Heckling Society of Gentlemen heckles him with a sock puppet dubbed as Stephen A. himself.
In a game between
Futebol Clube do Portoand Sport Lisboa e Benfica, one minute of silence was held for the passing of Goalkeeper Manuel Bento, former Benfica player. Porto fans proceeded to whistle and sung insulting chants.
=Politics= Politicians speaking before live audiences have less latitude to deal with hecklers. Legally, such conduct may constitute protected
free speech. Strategically, coarse or belittling retorts to hecklers entails personal risk disproportionate to any gain. Some politicians, however, have been known to improvise a relevant and witty response despite these pitfalls. One acknowledged expert at this was Harold Wilson, British Prime Minister in the 1960s:
:Heckler: ("interrupting a passage in a Wilson speech about Labour's spending plans") What about Vietnam? :Wilson: The government has no plans to increase public expenditure in Vietnam. :Heckler: Rubbish!:Wilson: I'll come to your special interest in a minute, sir.quoted in Brewer's Politics, edited by Nicholas Comfort]
In an era when it was not uncommon for rotten fruit and vegetables to be thrown at speakers, Australian
Prime Minister Ben Chifleyonce exhorted his audience to lend him their ears, paraphrasing Mark Antony. Immediately, a large cabbagelanded on the stage. Chifley replied "I said your ears, Sir, not your head".
In 1992, former American President
Bill Clintonwas interrupted by Bob Rafsky, a member of the AIDS activism group Act up, who accused him of "dying of ambition to be president" [ [http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?sec=health&res=9E0CE6DA123FF934A15750C0A964958260 NY Times] ] during a rally. After becoming visibly agitated, Clinton took the microphone off the stand, pointed to the heckler and directly responded to him by saying, " [...] I have treated you and a whole lot of other people who have interrupted my rallies with a hell of a lot more respect than you treated me. And it's time to start thinking about that!" Clinton was then met with raucous applause.
One modern political approach to discourage heckling is to ensure that major events are given before a "tame" audience of sympathizers, or conducted to allow restrictions on who may remain on the premises (see also, "
astroturfing"). The downside is this may make heckling incidents even more newsworthy. This happened to Tony Blairduring a photo opvisit to a hospital during the 2001 general election campaign, and again in 2003 during a speech. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk_politics/2690549.stm "Blair's heckler states his case"] , "BBC", 24 January 2003.]
In 2004, American Vice President
Dick Cheneywas interrupted mid-speech by Perry Patterson, a middle-aged mother in a pre-screened rally audience. After various supportive outbursts that were permitted, ("Four more years," "Go Bush!") Patterson uttered the single word "No" and was removed from the premises and arrested for criminal trespass. [ [http://www.eugeneweekly.com/2006/02/09/coverstory.html Woman utters No.] ]
Later, in 2005, Cheney received some heckling that was broadcast during his trip to New Orleans, after
Hurricane Katrinaravaged the area. The heckling occurred during a press conference in Gulfport, Mississippi, in an area that was cordoned off for public safety reasons, and then further secured for the press conference. Nevertheless, emergency room physician Ben Marble got close enough to the proceedings and could be heard yelling, "Go fuck yourself, Mr. Cheney." Cheney laughed it off and continued speaking. [ [http://www.crooksandliars.com/2005/09/08.html#a4856 Dick Cheney: "Go F--k Yourself"] ] The context precedent had been a similar incident regarding Senator Patrick Joseph Leahy, Vermont, and Mister Cheney, the previous year.
During a speech by Jack Straw at the 2005 Labour Party conference, 87-year old,
anti-warprotestor Walter Wolfgang (a fomer member of Labour Action for Peace) was forcefully ejected from the audience after yelling during Straw's speech. He repeatedly shouted "nonsense" and "that's a lie" to Straw's talking about the establishment of democracy in Iraq. His security pass confiscated by stewards, Wolfgang was arrested under the Terrorism Act when trying to re-enter the conference. After significant criticism from the media and other politicians, Tony Blair and Labour party officials apologized for the event and Wolfgang received a hero's welcome on returning to the conference.
On the 15th of October 2005 the Scotsman reported [cite web |url=http://news.scotsman.com/latest.cfm?id=2094782005 |title= |archiveurl=http://web.archive.org/web/20070513220441/http://news.scotsman.com/latest.cfm?id=2094782005 |archivedate=2007-05-13] "Iranian ambassador Dr Seyed Mohammed Hossein Adeli... speaking at the annual Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament conference... During his speech to the CND several people were told to leave the room following protests at Iran's human rights record. Several protesters shouted: "Fascists," at the ambassador and the organisers of the conference. Walter Wolfgang, the 82-year-old peace campaigner who was forced out of the Labour Party conference last month, was in the audience."
On Thursday, April 20, 2006, a heckler from the
Falun Gongspiritual movement entered the US White Housegrounds as a reporter and interrupted a formal arrival ceremony for Chinese President Hu Jintao. Moments into Mr Hu's speech at the event, Wang Wenyi, perched on the top tier of the stands reserved for the press, began screaming in English and Chinese: "President Bush stop him. Stop this visit. Stop the killing and torture." The heckler was allowed to continue for several minutes despite the heavy presence of security personnel typical of such high level meeting of officials, prompting speculation that the incident was planned with the tacit cooperation of the White House in order to embarrass the Chinese president, hence possibly making this heckling incident one which was found justified by its audience. [ [http://cbs13.com/topstories/topstories_story_110093156.html "No breakthrough in US, China talks"] ] Dead link|date=July 2008 President Bush later apologised to his guest. [ [http://www.guardian.co.uk/frontpage/story/0,,1758305,00.html "Protester gatecrashes Hu visit as China and US fail to make progress"] ]
Heckling in Switzerland
While heckling within a political context is not unknown in Switzerland [ [http://www.swissinfo.org/eng/search/Result.html?siteSect=882&ty=st&sid=6674889 May Day marked by violent clashes] ] it is frowned upon in an artistic context, unlike in the Anglo-Saxon countries where heckling is generally perceived to be an acceptable form of protest or audience interaction.
Since 2005, however, heckling of performing artists has become more commonplace. Musicians of
Zurich, Gustav Berthain particular, seem to have become an increasing focus of hecklers. This shift is primarily perpetrated by foreigners and is often met with a positive response by the non-Swiss performers who welcome the audience interaction.
Mystery Science Theater 3000, a TV show built on humorous heckling.
Notes and sources
* [http://www.crooksandliars.com/2005/09/08.html#a4856 "Go fuck yourself Mr. Cheney"] - video
* [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk_politics/2690549.stm "Blair's Heckler States His Case"] -
* [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/magazine/4296784.stm "Why do people heckle?"] - BBC News
* Conway, Andrew. [http://www.juggling.org/~conway/juggler/MAL.TXT "You're Ugly, Your Dick Is Small, and Everybody Fucks Your Mother—The Stand-Up Comedian's Response to the Heckler"] . "
Maledicta" Vol. 11, December 1995.
* White, Michael. [http://www.guardian.co.uk/g2/story/0,,1763333,00.html "A brief history of heckling"] , "
The Guardian", April 28, 2006.
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См. также в других словарях:
Heckler — Koch Pour les articles homonymes, voir Koch et HK. Heckler Koch est une firme d armement allemande qui produit en particulier les pistolets mitrailleurs MP5 et MP7, les fusils d assaut HK G36 et HK G3 et le fusil de précision PSG 1. Les armes à… … Wikipédia en Français
Heckler — steht für Heckler Koch, ein Waffenhersteller Joseph Heckler (1786–1857), deutscher Jurist, Politiker und Heimatforscher in Bensheim Edmund Heckler (1906–1960), deutscher Ingenieur Margaret Heckler, eine US amerikanische Politikerin The Heckler… … Deutsch Wikipedia
heckler — agent noun from HECKLE (Cf. heckle) (v.); mid 15c., from late 13c., as a surname (Will. le Hekelere). Modern sense of one from the audience who taunts a public speaker is from 1885. Fem. form hekelstere is attested from c.1500 … Etymology dictionary
heckler — noun Agent noun of heckle; one who heckles; somebody who insults, makes fun of, or teases. The juggler always seemed to have a heckler or two in the crowd on Saturdays. See Also: hecklers veto … Wiktionary
heckler — heckle ► VERB ▪ interrupt (a public speaker) with derisive comments or abuse. ► NOUN ▪ an instance of heckling. DERIVATIVES heckler noun. ORIGIN originally in the sense «dress (flax or hemp) with a comb to split and straighten the fibres»: from a … English terms dictionary
heckler — noun see heckle … New Collegiate Dictionary
heckler — See heckle. * * * … Universalium
heckler — heckÂ·ler || heklÉ™(r) n. one who badgers, harasser … English contemporary dictionary
heckler — heck·ler … English syllables
heckler — See: heckle … English dictionary