Philip I, Duke of Burgundy


Philip I, Duke of Burgundy

Philip I of Burgundy, also Philip II of Palatine Burgundy, Philip II of Boulogne, Philip III of Artois, Philip III of Boulogne, nicknamed Philip of Rouvres (1346 – November 21 1361) was Duke of Burgundy from 1350 until his death. Philip was the only son of Philip of Burgundy, heir to the Duchy of Burgundy, and Joanna, countess of Auvergne and Boulogne. He succeeded his grandfather when he was only three years old. His deceased father was the only child of Duke Eudes IV and of Jeanne III, Countess of Burgundy and Artois.

Philip was the master of an important part of Europe. In his own right, he held the counties of Artois and Burgundy from 1349 (inherited from his grandmother), the Duchy of Burgundy from 1350 (inherited from his grandfather) and the counties of Auvergne and Boulogne from 1360 (inherited from his mother). By his marriage with Margaret of Dampierre, Heiress of Flanders in 1357, he was promised the counties of Flanders, Nevers, Rethel, and Antwerp, and the duchies of Brabant, and Limburg. Most of these are in the Low Countries.

In 1361 at the age of 15 Philip fell sick with the plague and died before he could consummate his marriage to his second cousin Margaret. With his death, the direct descendants of all four of his grandparents also became extinct. Since there was no one heir to all his possessions, they were divided up once more amongst the families from which they had descended to Philip: King John II of France, grandson of Duke Robert II of Burgundy (Philip's great-grandfather), and also Philip's stepfather, inherited the Duchy of Burgundy as one of its most direct heirs; Marguerite of France, daughter of Countess Jeanne of Burgundy (Philip's great-grandmother), and grandmother of Philip's wife, inherited the Counties of Burgundy and Artois as its direct heiress; and John of Boulogne, son of Count Robert VII of Boulogne (Philip's great-grandfather), inherited Auvergne and Boulogne as the direct heir.

Of the lands held by Philip at his death, Auvergne and Boulogne would not again be incorporated into the Burgundian realm, passing instead, through many vicissitudes, into the hands of the La Tour family and thus to Catherine de' Medici. However, the rest of the lands were to be united once more, in 1384, by the death of Louis II of Flanders.

Margaret, Dowager Countess of Flanders, Philip's grand-aunt, had inherited Artois and Franche-Comté (County Palatine of Burgundy) as the next heir: she was younger sister of Philip's paternal grandmother Joan Countess of Artois and Burgundy, both daughters of Joan of Chalon, Artois, and Burgundy, from her marriage with King Philip V of France. She was grandmother of Philip's wife Margaret of Flanders, and later, in the 1380s, these counties were inherited by the younger Margaret who thus became possessor of some of the estates held by her first husband thirty years earlier.

The Duchy of Burgundy would have gone to Charles II of Navarre according to primogeniture, but went to John II of France according to proximity of blood. Despite the attempts of King Charles II of Navarre to overtake the Duchy of Burgundy, the settlement of the inheritance was peaceful. Later in 1364, John of France gave Burgundy to his son Philip of Valois.

Charles II of Navarre was grandson and heir to Margaret of Burgundy, eldest daughter of Duke Robert II of Burgundy. John II of France was son and heir to Joan of Burgundy, second daughter of Duke Robert II of Burgundy. John was first cousin of Philip's father, i.e. a cousin once removed, whereas Charles was son of a first cousin of Philip's father, i.e a second cousin himself. Charles' mother Joan had died already 1349.

John's practical position was helped by his being the stepfather of the young duke, having been married to the widowed Joan of Auvergne, and having in that position already participated in administration of the Duchy. The King of Navarre was somewhat despised by many French, after his English alliances during the first decade of the Hundred Years' War (1337–1453).

ee also

* Dukes of Burgundy family tree


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