Sierra Entertainment

Sierra Entertainment
Sierra Entertainment, Inc.
Former type Subsidiary of Activision
Industry Interactive entertainment
Fate Absorbed into Activision Blizzard
Predecessor On-Line Systems
Successor Activision
Founded 1979
Founder(s) Ken Williams
Roberta Williams
Defunct 2008
Headquarters Fresno, California, United States
Key people Martin Tremblay (President)
Al Simone (Senior Vice President of Global Marketing)
Products Crash Bandicoot series
Spyro the Dragon series
King's Quest
Space Quest
Leisure Suit Larry
The Adventures of Willy Beamish
Shivers II: Harvest of Souls
Gabriel Knight
Phantasmagoria 2
Quest For Glory
Police Quest
SWAT 3: Close Quarters Battle
Half Life 1
Owner(s) Vivendi Games (until 2008)
Activision Blizzard
Parent Activision
Website Sierra Entertainment (defunct, redirects to Activision)

Sierra Entertainment Inc.[1] (formerly Sierra On-Line) was an American video-game developer and publisher founded in 1979 as On-Line Systems by Ken and Roberta Williams. Based in Fresno, California, the company was last owned by Activision, a subsidiary of Activision Blizzard.

Sierra is best known today for its multiple lines of seminal graphic adventure games started in the 1980s, many of which proved influential in the history of video games. The Sierra label was absorbed by its parent company. Some franchises that were published by Sierra will be published by Activision, which also announced in 2008 that it may sell the Sierra brand.



The original On-Line Systems logo.

Sierra Entertainment was founded in 1979 as On-Line Systems in Simi Valley, California, by Ken and Roberta Williams after the former, a programmer for IBM, bought an Apple II microcomputer with which he planned to use to develop a FORTRAN compiler for Apple computers. At the time, his wife Roberta Williams was playing text adventure games for the Apple II. Dissatisfied with the adventure games that existed at the time, she realized that modern computers could display graphics and had the potential to do more than presenting text descriptions on the screen. By 1982, On-Line Systems was renamed Sierra On-Line and the company was moved to Oakhurst, California.[2]


Hi-Res Adventure Series

Hi-Res Adventure 0 - Mission Asteroid

Mission Asteroid is a graphic adventure game released in 1980 by On-Line Systems, now known as Sierra Entertainment. It was released as Hi-Res Adventure #0, despite being released after Mystery House.

Hi-Res Adventure 1 - Mystery House
Mystery House - Apple II render emulation - 2.png

Roberta began to write a script for an adventure game. Three weeks later, she presented to Ken the script of a computer game called Mystery House, an idea she had developed during the previous days. Roberta managed to talk Ken into helping her develop the game in the evenings after work. She worked on the text and the graphics, and told Ken how to put it all together to make it the game she wanted. They worked on it for about three months and, on May 5, 1980, Mystery House was ready for shipment.

Mystery House was an instant hit. It was the first computer adventure game to have graphics, although they were crude, monochrome, static line drawings. It sold about 15,000 copies and earned $167,000.

Hi-Res Adventure 2 -Wizard and the Princess

Wizard and the Princess, also known as Adventure in Serenia, is a 1980 computer game by On-Line Systems for the Apple II and Apple II Plus. It is the second title released in On-Line Systems' "Hi-Res Adventure" series after Mystery House. It is a prelude to the King's Quest series in both story and concept.[3]

Hi-Res Adventure 3 - Cranston Manor

Cranston Manor is a graphic adventure game released in 1981. It was created by Ken Williams and Harold DeWitz.[2] In the game, the player must invade a mansion that was occupied by a millionaire and steal the sixteen treasures that are inside of it. The game allows players to switch between graphics-based and text-based gameplay.

Hi-Res Adventure 4 - Ulysses and the Golden Fleece

A graphic adventure game released in 1981. It was created by Bob Davis and Ken Williams. With a graphic at the top of the game screen, the player navigates the game via a two-word command parser.[4]

Hi-Res Adventure 5 - Time Zone

A multi-disk graphical adventure game written and directed by Roberta Williams for the Apple II. Developed in 1981 and released in 1982 by On-Line Systems (now Sierra Entertainment), the game was shipped with six double sided floppy disks and contained 1,500 areas (screens) to explore along with 39 scenarios to solve. Produced at a time when most games rarely took up more than one side of a floppy, Time Zone is believed to be one of if not the very first game of this magnitude ever released for home computer systems.[5]

Hi-Res Adventure 6 - The Dark Crystal

A graphic adventure computer game based on Jim Henson's fantasy film, The Dark Crystal. The game was designed by Roberta Williams and published under the SierraVenture line in 1983 as Hi-Res Adventure #6: The Dark Crystal. It was the first Hi-Res Adventure released under the SierraVenture line, the previous titles being released under earlier names and later re-released under SierraVenture.

Development took a little over a month.[6] A simplified version written by Al Lowe, titled Gelfling Adventure, was released in 1984 and was intended for a younger audience.

Other Games

King's Quest

Sierra On-Line was contacted by IBM in 1983 to create a game for its new PCjr. IBM would fund the entire development of the game, pay royalties for it, and advertise for the game. Ken and Roberta accepted and started on the project.

Roberta created a story featuring classic fairy-tale elements. Her game concept included animated color graphics, a pseudo 3D-perspective where the main character was visible on the screen, a more competent text parser that would understand advanced commands from the player, and music playing in the background through the PCjr sound hardware. For the game, a complete development system called Adventure Game Interpreter was developed.

In the summer of 1984, King's Quest was released to much acclaim.

Space Quest

While working to finish The Black Cauldron, programmers Mark Crowe and Scott Murphy began to plan for an adventure game of their own. After a simple demonstration to Ken, he allowed them to start working on the full game, which was named Space Quest: The Sarien Encounter. The game, released in October 1986, was an instant success and would spawn many sequels in the following years.

Leisure Suit Larry

Al Lowe, who had been working at Sierra On-Line for many years, was asked by Ken Williams to write a modern version of Chuck Benton's Softporn Adventure from 1981, the only pure text adventure that the company had ever released.

Leisure Suit Larry in the Land of the Lounge Lizards was a great hit (although it first became famous as an early example of software piracy, as Sierra sold many more hintbooks than actual copies of the game) and won the Software Publishers Association's Best Adventure Game award of 1987. A long series of Leisure Suit Larry games would follow in the coming years and become the second best selling game series of Sierra On-Line after King's Quest.


In 1990, Sierra released King's Quest V. It would be the first Sierra On-Line game ever to sell more than 500,000 copies and was the highest selling game of all time for the next five years. It won several awards as well, such as the Best Adventure Game of the Year from both the Software Publishers Association and Computer Gaming World Magazine.

Gabriel Knight series

In 1993 Gabriel Knight: Sins of the Fathers was released. Generally considered to be a staple of the point-and-click adventure genre,[citation needed] the game and its sequels were critically acclaimed in the mainstream press at the time.

  • 1994 Adventure Game of the Year—Computer Game Review
  • 1994 Adventure Game of the Year—Computer Gaming World
  • 1993 Best of Show—Consumer Electronics Show

Move to Bellevue, Washington

Sierra had grown enormously since its first years. New buildings were needed to hold new resources needed to continue making games. A decision was made to move the headquarters north, to Bellevue, Washington. Sierra's original location in Oakhurst continued as an internal development studio for the company and was renamed Yosemite Entertainment in 1998.

The company was now made up of five separate and largely autonomous development divisions: Sierra Publishing, Sierra Northwest, Dynamix, Bright Star Technology, and Coktel Vision, with each group working separately on product development but sharing manufacturing, distribution, and sales resources.

The year 1995 would prove to be an extremely successful year for the company. With $83.4 million in sales from its software-publishing business, earnings were improved by 19 percent, bringing a net income of $11.9 million to the company.

In June 1995, Sierra and Pioneer Electric Corp. signed an agreement to create a joint venture that would develop, publish, manufacture, and market entertainment software for the Japanese software market. This joint venture created a new company called Sierra Venture. With Sierra and Pioneer investing over $12 million, the new company immediately manufactured and shipped over twenty of Sierra’s most popular products to Japan and created new titles for the Japanese market.

December 1996 saw the release of The Realm Online, a massively multiplayer online game. At its peak, it had over 25,000 players. Ken Williams acted as Executive Producer of the Realm from its release until late 1998.


Phantasmagoria was by far the largest project ever undertaken by Sierra. At the time of its release in late 1995, the anticipation for the game was incredibly high. Although nearly one million copies were sold when the game was first released in August 1995, making it the best-selling Sierra adventure game created, the game received only mixed reviews from industry critics.[7]

Sold to CUC

In 1996, CUC International, a membership-based consumer services conglomerate, aggressively sought to expand into interactive entertainment and, in February 1996, offered to buy Sierra at a price of approximately $1.5 billion. The deal with CUC closed on July 24, 1996. Immediately after the sale, Ken Williams stepped down as CEO of Sierra. He stayed with the software division as a Vice President of CUC so that he could provide strategic guidance to Sierra and began to work on CUC's online product distributor, NetMarket. One year later, Ken and Roberta left CUC.

In September 1996, CUC announced plans to consolidate some of the functions of its game companies into a single company called CUC Software Inc., headquartered in Torrance, California. Davidson & Associates became the publisher for the studio. CUC Software would consolidate the manufacturing, distribution, and sales resources of all of its divisions that would come to include Sierra, Davidson, Blizzard, Knowledge Adventure, and Gryphon Software.

On November 5, 1996, Sierra was restructured into three units.

Cendant Corporation

In December of 1997, CUC merged with HFS Incorporated. The two companies jointly formed the Cendant Corporation with more than 40,000 employees and operations in over 100 countries.

In 1998, Sierra split up its organization into six sub-brands and corporate divisions:

  • Sierra Attractions (For lifestyle related products)
  • Sierra Home (For home products)
  • Sierra Sports (For sports products)
  • Sierra Studios (For movie games. Folded into Sierra Movies in 2005)
  • Sierra Movies (For movie games. Their first and only game was Robots)

On November 19, 1998, Half-Life was released for the PC. Sierra On-Line published the game while it was developed by Valve Corporation.

The Cendant scandal

In March 1998, Cendant had reported a 1997 net income of $55.4 million. However, the true 1997 result was a net loss of $217.2 million. As irregularities in the books of Cendant were discovered in early 1998, an audit committee set up by Cendant's Board of Directors launched an investigation and discovered that the former management team of CUC, including its top executives Walter Forbes and Kirk Shelton, had been fraudulently preparing false business statements for several years.

In March 2001, Forbes and Shelton were indicted by a federal grand jury and sued by the Securities and Exchange Commission, which accused the company of directing the massive accounting fraud that ultimately cost the company and its investors billions of dollars. With the news of the accounting fraud, Cendant announced its intention to sell off its entire computer entertainment division.

On November 20, 1998, Cendant announced the sale of its entire consumer software division to Paris-based Havas S.A. With this sale, Sierra became a part of Havas Interactive, the interactive entertainment division of the company.

Major layoffs

On February 22, 1999, Sierra announced a major reorganization of the company, resulting in the shutdown of several of their development studios, cutbacks on others and the relocation of key projects, and employees from those studios to Bellevue. About 250 people in total lost their jobs. Development groups within Sierra such as PyroTechnix were shut down. Others such as Books That Work were relocated to Bellevue. Also shut down was Yosemite Entertainment, the division occupying the original headquarters of Sierra On-Line. The company sold the rights of Headgate Studios back to the original owner.[8] With the exception of the warehouse and distribution department, the entire studio was shut down. Game designers Al Lowe and Scott Murphy were laid off. Lowe had just started work on Leisure Suit Larry 8. Murphy was involved in a Space Quest 7 project at the time. Layoffs continued on March 1, when Sierra terminated 30 employees at the previously unaffected Dynamix, 15 percent of its workforce.

Despite the layoffs, Sierra continued to publish games for smaller development houses. In September 1999, they released Homeworld, a real-time space-combat strategy game developed by Relic Entertainment. The game design was revolutionary for the genre, and the game received great critical acclaim and many awards.

Gabriel Knight 3 was released on November 3, 1999. It was announced this would be the last game of the series.

Yosemite Entertainment legacy

UK-based games developer and publisher Codemasters, in an effort to establish themselves in the United States, announced that it would launch a new development studio in Oakhurst, using the abandoned Sierra facilities and hiring much of the Yosemite Entertainment's laid-off staff in mid-September 1999. In early October the company announced that it would take over management and maintenance of the online RPG The Realm and that it would pick up and complete the previously canceled Navy SEALs. The company also reported that it had obtained the rights to continue using the name Yosemite Entertainment for the development house.


Meanwhile, Sierra announced another reorganization, this time into three business units: Core Games, Casual Entertainment, and Home Productivity. This reorganization resulted in even more layoffs, eliminating 105 additional jobs and a number of games in production. After 1999, Sierra almost entirely ceased to be a developer of games and, as time went on, instead became a publisher of games by independent developers.

1990s acquisitions


At the end of June 2000, a strategic business alliance between Vivendi, Seagram, and Canal+ was announced, and Vivendi Universal, a leading global media and communications company, was formed after the merger with Seagram (the parent company of Universal Studios). Havas S.A. was renamed Vivendi Universal Publishing and became the publishing division of the new group, divided into five groups: games, education, literature, health, and information. The merger was followed by many more layoffs of Sierra employees

On February 19, 2002, Sierra On-Line officially announced the change of its name to Sierra Entertainment Inc.

In 2002, Sierra, working with High Voltage Software, announced the development of a new chapter in the Leisure Suit Larry franchise, titled Leisure Suit Larry: Magna Cum Laude. It was released to mostly negative reviews; Larry's creator, Al Lowe was not involved with the project.

The newly rechristened Sierra Entertainment continued to develop mostly unsuccessful interactive entertainment products. However, its hit Homeworld 2 once again cemented Sierra’s reputation as a respectable publisher.

Cost-cutting measures were taken because of parent company Vivendi Universal Games' (VU Games') financial troubles and because of Sierra’s lack of profitability as a working developer. Impressions Games and the Papyrus Design Group were shut down in the spring of 2004, and about 50 people lost their jobs in those cuts; 180 Sierra-related positions were eliminated at Vivendi’s Los Angeles offices; and finally in June 2004, VU Games shut down Sierra's Bellevue location, which cost over 100 people their jobs, and dispersed Sierra’s work to other VU Games divisions. Other titles, such as Print Artist, were permanently discontinued. The Hoyle franchise was sold to an independent developer. In total, 350 people lost their jobs.

Several studios including Massive Entertainment, High Moon Studios, Radical Entertainment, and Swordfish Studios were acquired and integrated into Sierra throughout 2005 and 2006. Creative licenses from other Vivendi divisions and from companies partnered with Vivendi Universal Games were granted to Sierra, and copyright of several notable intellectual properties such as Crash Bandicoot, Spyro the Dragon, 50 Cent: Bulletproof and Scarface went to Sierra.

In September 2007, Sierra released the real-time tactical video game World in Conflict.

In October 2007, Sierra released Timeshift.

In 2008, Sierra parent company Vivendi Universal Games, which had since been renamed Vivendi Games in 2006, merged with video game publisher Activision to form the Activision Blizzard holding company. Vivendi Games ceased to exist and ownership of Sierra was transferred over to Activision. Later that year, Sierra was closed down for possible future sale.

Management Teams

Ken Williams (company co-founder):

  • CEO (1979-November 1997)
  • President (1979–1981;1983–1995)
  • Chairman (September 1988- July 1996)

Dick Sunderland

  • President (1981-Summer 1983)

Michael Brochu:

  • CFO and Senior Vice President (June 1994-October 1995)
  • President and COO (October 1995-October 1997)

David Grenewetzki

  • President (June 1998-June 2001)

Thomas K. Hernquist

  • President (June 2001)

Michael Ryder

  • COO and Vice President of Product Development (June 2001)
  • President (June 2001-June 2004)




Merged with Activision


Sierra Home Titles

  • Generations 1-8- A family tree program for Windows 97-98 worked on Windows after that but with many bugs.

See also


  • Interview with Ken Williams, Gamasutra, October 2005
  • An Interview With Russisk Laawson, Module And Graphics Designer: 2006-10-12
  • HACKERS, Heroes of the Computer revolution, Steven Levy, reprinted - Penguin Books 1994, ISBN 014-02-3269-9

External links

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

См. также в других словарях:

  • Sierra Entertainment — Rechtsform Privat Gründung 1978 (aufgelöst 2008) …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Sierra Entertainment — Sierra Entertainment, Inc. Год основания …   Википедия

  • Sierra Entertainment — est le nom utilisé par Vivendi Universal Games à des fins d image, après avoir mis un terme aux activités de la société plus connue sous le nom de Sierra On Line, en 2004. Sierra On Line avait été renommée en Sierra Entertainment après son rachat …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Sierra Entertainment — Este artículo o sección necesita referencias que aparezcan en una publicación acreditada, como revistas especializadas, monografías, prensa diaria o páginas de Internet fidedignas. Puedes añadirlas así o avisar …   Wikipedia Español

  • List of Sierra Entertainment video games — Sierra Entertainment (a subsidiary of Vivendi SA, and formerly known as Sierra On line) is a software publisher and developer. Formed in 1980 by Ken and Roberta Williams, it has developed and/or published video games for a variety of platforms.… …   Wikipedia

  • Список игр Sierra Entertainment — Список игр, разработанных и изданных компанией Sierra Entertainment. Содержание 1 Изданные игры 2 Серии игр 3 Не выпущенные игры …   Википедия

  • Список видеоигр Sierra Entertainment — Sierra Entertainment (филиал Vivendi SA, и прежде известный как Sierra On line) является издателем программного обеспечения и разработчиком. Сформированный в 1980 семейной парой Кеном и Робертой Уильямс. Они издали видеоигры для множества… …   Википедия

  • Sierra-Online — Sierra Entertainment Unternehmensform Privat Gründung 1979 Unternehmenssitz …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Sierra On-Line — Sierra Entertainment Unternehmensform Privat Gründung 1979 Unternehmenssitz …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Sierra On-line — Sierra Entertainment Unternehmensform Privat Gründung 1979 Unternehmenssitz …   Deutsch Wikipedia

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