- DOS/360 and successors
Disk Operating System/360, also DOS/360, or simply DOS, was an
operating systemfor IBM mainframes. It was announced by IBMon the last day of 1964, and it was first delivered in June 1966. [E.W. Pugh, L.R. Johnson, and John H. Palmer, "IBM's 360 and early 370 systems," MIT Press, Cambridge MA and London, ISBN 0-262-16123-0 – extensive (819 "pp.") treatment of IBM's offerings during this period]
DOS/VS was further development, released in
1972, as the virtual memorymechanism became available on new System/370series hardware.
IBM later released DOS/VSE, then VSE/ESA, and then
z/VSE, which is the most current version since 2005. In its time DOS was the most widely used operating system in the world; [Pugh, "op. cit., p." 331 – most widely used OS] its successor z/VSE is still widely used as of 2006.Jerry Johnston, [http://www.zjournal.com/index.cfm?section=article&aid=293 "VSE: A Look at the Past 40 Years"] (2005)]
Although their names are similar, there are no technical similarities between DOS/360 of the 1960s and the
x86- DOSof the 1980s.
When developing a new hardware generation of unified
System/360(or S/360) computers, IBM had originally committed to delivering a single operating system, OS/360, also compatible with low-end machines; but hardware was already available and the OS/360 project fell further and further behind schedule, as described at length by Fred Brooks. IBM was forced to quickly develop three additional systems:
BOS/360for machines with at least 8 KB of core memoryand a punched cards' reader,
* DOS/360 for machines with at least 16 KB memory and a
TOS/360for machines with at least 16 KB memory and a tape drive.When OS/360 was finally released, a year late, it required at least 64 KB of memory. DOS was designed to use little memory, and could run on 16 kB machines, a configuration available on the low-end S/360 model 30. Unlike OS/360, DOS/360 was a single-job system, i.e. it did not support multitasking(although a version with limited multitasking, requiring 32 kB of memory, was later released). It used three memory partitions, but had little protection against programs overwriting other partitions. The three partitions were not specialised, but frequently one was used for spooling punched cards to disk, one for batch job execution, and one for spooling from disk to printers. Despite its limitations, DOS/360 became the most widely used operating system for processors with less than 256 KB of memory,Ray Saunders, [http://www.os390-mvs.freesurf.fr/mvs360.htm "MVS... And Before OS/360 ?"] ] because: System/360 hardware sold very well; DOS/360 ran well on System/360 processors which medium-sized organizations could afford; and it was better than the "operating systems" these customers had before.
DOS/360 was the operating system which filled the time gap between the announcement of the System/360 and the availability of the intended operating system, OS/360. As a result of the delay, a number of customers implemented DOS systems and committed significant investments to run them. IBM expected that DOS/360 users would soon upgrade to OS/360, but as a result of those investments, they were reluctant to commit to such conversion. IBM then needed to continue to offer such market additional operating system. The
Hacker's Jargon Fileincorrectly states that GECOS(also known as GCOS) was copied from DOS/360, which was not the case.
DOS/360 had a good set of
utility programs, an Assembler, and compilers for FORTRAN, COBOLand eventually PL/I. And it supported a useful range of file organizations with access methods to help in using them:
* Sequential data sets were normally read one record at a time from beginning to end.
* In indexed (
ISAM) files a specified section of each record was defined as a key which could be used to look up specific records.
* In direct access (BDAM) files, the application program had to specify the physical location on the disk of the data it wanted to access. BDAM programming was not easy and most customers never used it themselves; but it was the fastest way to access data on disks and many software companies used it in their products, especially
database management systems such as ADABAS, IDMSand IBM's DL/I.Sequential and ISAM files could store either fixed-length or variable-length records, and all types could occupy more than one disk volume.
DOS/360 also offered
BTAM, a data communications facility which was primitive and hard to use by today's standards. But BTAM could communicate with almost any type of terminal, which was a big advantage at a time when there was hardly any standardization of communications protocols.
But DOS/360 had significant limitations compared with OS/360, which was used to control most larger System/360 machines:
*The first version could run only one program at a time. A later enhancement allowed 3 at the same time, in one of 3 "partitions" whose size was set by each customer when DOS/360 was installed.
*The JCL it used for submitting jobs was designed to be easy for the low-end machines to process, and as a result programmers did not find it easy to read or write.
*There was no
spoolingsub-system to improve the efficiency of punched cardand printer use. In the late 1960s an independent software company started selling a spooler called GRASP.
*DOS/360 had no relocating
loader, so users had to link edit a separate executable version of each program for each partition in which the program was likely to be run.
*Executable programs were stored in the Core Image Library, which did not reclaim space when programs were deleted or replaced by newer versions. When the Core Image Library became full, it had to be compressed by one of the utility programs, and this could halt development work for as much as half a day.
application programming interfacewas different from that of OS/360. Programs written in high level languages such as COBOLneeded small modifications before they could be used with OS/360 and Assembler programs needed larger changes.
DOS/VS is the successor to the DOS/360. It added the virtual storage capability through a fixed
page tablewhich strictly mapped the real storage with fixed page table entries. Since the DOS/VS system maintained the small system memory scheme limited to 16 megabytes for all partitions combined, user programs and online systems were small and less complex than those found on systems using MVTand its successors.
DOS/VS increased the number of partitions (separate simultaneous programs) from 3 (named Background, Foreground 1 and Foreground 2) to 7 (BG and F1 through F6).
DOS/VS was succeeded by DOS/VSE.
* [http://foldoc.org/foldoc/foldoc.cgi?Disk+Operating+System Disk Operating System] — Entry in the
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
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