- Socially necessary labour time
Socially necessary labour time in
Marx's critique of political economyis what regulates the exchange valueof commoditiesin tradeand consequently guides producers in their attempt to economise on labour.
Unlike individual labour hours in the classical
labour theory of valueformulated by Adam Smithand David Ricardo, the Marxian value is conceived as a fraction (or 'aliquot part') of society's labour-time.
Marx did not define this concept in mathematically exact terms, and he suggests it may be interpreted in various ways, because it connects average levels of labour productivity to social needs expressed as monetarily effective market demand.
implified explanation of the concept
market economy, labour expenditures producing outputs and the market demand for those outputs are constantly adjusting to each other. This is a complex process, in which enterprises operating at varying levels of productivityand unit-costscompete with each other in responding to the expansion and contraction of total market demand for their output. In the third volume of Das Kapital, Marx discusses how the market value (or "regulating price") of a commodity may be determined under different conditions of demand and productivity.
A given mass of new value is produced in a given time, but how this new value will be realised and distributed as income is finally established only after products are sold at specific market prices. If the market for a commodity is oversupplied, then labour-time was expended in excess of what was socially necessary. If the market for a commodity is under-supplied, nearly all the labour-time expended on its production is socially necessary.
The simplest definition of "socially necessary labour time" is the amount of labour time performed by a worker of average skill and productivity, working with tools of the average productive potential, to produce a given commodity. This is an "average unit labour-cost", measured in working hours.
If the average productivity is that of a skilled worker, and a skilled worker produces a commodity in one hour, and an unskilled worker produces a commodity in four hours; then, the unskilled worker will have only contributed one hour's worth of value in terms of "socially necessary labour time". The excess hours worked by the unskilled worker do not produce
But the production of any commodity generally requires both labour and some produced means of production (or capital goods), like tools and materials. The amount of labour so required is called the "direct" labour input into the commodity. Yet the required capital goods have in their turn been produced (in the past) by labour and other capital goods; and so on for these other capital goods, and so on. The sum of all the amounts of labour, that were direct inputs into this backwards-stretching series of capital goods produced in the past, is called the "indirect" labour input into the commodity. Putting together the direct and indirect labour inputs, one finally gets the total labour input into the commodity, which may also be called the total "embodied labour" in it, or its direct and indirect labour contents.
However, it ought to be said that by "socially necessary labour" Marx refers specifically to the total labour-time which on average is "currently" required to produce an output. It is this current labour cost which determines the value of output.
Operation of the
law of value
If producers produce products below the socially average labour-cost for those products, they obtain extra profit when those products are sold at the ruling market prices. A constant incentive therefore exists to reduce labour-costs by increasing the
productivityof the labour force.
This can be done through higher exploitation, economising on costs and better equipment. The long-run effect is that it takes less and less labour-time to produce a product. Enterprises cannot do very much about reducing their fixed input costs usually, because these are rarely under their control. But they can always try to reduce their labour costs.
"Socially necessary labour" therefore refers to at least three economic relationships:
*between the specific productivity of a producer and the average productivity in his branch;
*between the outputs of the branch of production and social needs expressed through monetarily effective demand; and
*between the output of a producer, and the output of the whole branch (that can be sold).
In other words, we have to distinguish between
*labourtime necessary for the production of a given amount of a commodity - this quantity defines the aggregate value of the output, arising from the nature of a commodity as a bearer of exchange-value;
*the quantity of labour time socially necessary to produce the appropriate amount of the product, i.e. the amount of a product which at the production price meets the effective demand for it - this quantity defines the correspondence between the total quantity of the commodity product as use-values and the effective
demandfor those use-values.
The former determines the unit value of commodities, hence their production price, and the latter determines the discrepancy between actual supply and effective demand, hence the discrepancy between market price and production price.
Marx and Ricardo
Marxist value theory treats economic value as an attribute of labour-products which exists by virtue of social
relations of production. Thus, value is a purely social characteristic of labour-products. The substance of the value of a commodity is a determinate quantity of social labour.
That is, the existence of value presupposes
social relationsbetween people organised into a society. 'Socially necessary labour time' encapsulates this essential 'relatedness' of value - it is labour time assessed in relation to social needs, not merely labour time performed.
This distinction demarcates Marx from other political economists, but is often overlooked in accounts of Marx's value theory. Marx understood that the casual reader might mistakenly treat his category as interchangeable with its Ricardian predecessor, and in later editions and the "Afterword to the Second German Edition" implores readers to pay particular attention to the mediations between that old category and the one his own theory sought to establish. Marx's concept of value is not intended to be an
equilibrium price.He does not assume market equilibrium, but aims to explain how the process of convergence between supply and demand practically occurs.
Marx's interpretation of value from the point of view of a society as whole proved elusive for many critics. Marx took a swipe at them, in a letter to a friend, Dr.
"All that palaver about the necessity of proving the concept of value comes from complete ignorance both of the subject dealt with and of scientific method. Every child knows that a nation which ceased to work, I will not say for a year, but even for a weeks, would perish. Every child knows, too, that the masses of products corresponding to different needs require different and quantitatively determined masses of the total labour of society. That this necessity of the distribution of social labour in definite proportions cannot possibly be done away with by a particular form of social production but can only change the mode of its appearance, is self evident. No natural laws can be done away with. What can change in historically different circumstances is only the form in which these laws assert themselves. And the form in which this proportional distribution of labour asserts itself, in a state of society where the interconnection of social labour is manifested in the private exchange of the individual products of labour, is precisely the exchange value of these products" [Marx, letter to Dr Kugelmann, July 11, 1868, in Marx/Engels Selected Correspondence, p. 209 ] .
Despite these comments, Marx has been criticised strongly for adding the "socially-necessary" qualification to labour time by the libertarian philosopher
Robert Nozick, in his influential "Anarchy, State and Utopia", for whom it is an unjustified 'bolt-on' aspect of Marx's theory.
One debate in
Marxian economicsconcerns the question of whether the product-values formed and traded include both "direct" and "indirect" labor, or whether these product-values refer only to "current" average production costs (or the value of "current" average replacement costs).
Mirowski (1989) for example accuses Marx of vacillating between a field theory (labour-time "currently" socially necessary) and a substance theory of value ("embodied" labour-time).Marx's theory is probably best interpreted as a field theory, but modelling the determination of value by socially necessary labour time mathematically is admittedly a difficult exercise.
law of value
*W. Paul Cockshott and Allin F. Cottrell, [http://reality.gn.apc.org/econ/METRIC/metric.htm"Value's Law, Value's Metric"] , September, 1994
*Ernest Mandel, Introduction to Marxist Economic Theory. Pathfinder Press.
*I.I. Rubin, [http://www.marxists.org/subject/economy/authors/rubin/index.htm "Essays on Marx's theory of value."]
*Anwar Shaikh, [http://homepage.newschool.edu/~AShaikh/pal3.pdf "Market value and Market Price"]
*Romand Rosdolsky, "The Making of Marx's Capital". Pluto Press.
*Makoto Itoh, "Value and Crisis; Essays on Marxian Economics in Japan". Monthly Review Press.
*Abelardo Mariña-Flores, [http://www.gre.ac.uk/~fa03/iwgvt/files/9-marina.rtf "Market price of Production: Articulation of Market Value and Production Price as a Way for a Structural Interpretation of Disequilibrium in the Framework of the Law of Labour-Value"]
*James Heartfield, [http://www.heartfield.pwp.blueyonder.co.uk/economy.pdf "The Economy of Time"]
*P. Mirowski, "More Heat than Light". Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989.
*Klaus Hagendorf, [http://eurodos.chez-alice.fr/docu/econ/hagendorf_labour_theory_of_value_42008.pdf The Labour Theory of Value. A Historical-Logical Analysis] Paris: EURODOS Publication; 2008.
*Harvey, D. 2008 [http://davidharvey.org Reading Marx's Capital] , [http://davidharvey.org/2008/06/marxs-capital-class-01/ Reading Marx’s Capital - Class 1, Introduction] (video)
The concept of socially necessary labour time is discussed on the OPE-L list (Outline of Political Economy) [http://ricardo.ecn.wfu.edu/~cottrell/OPE/archive/]
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