- Mobile home
Mobile homes (in the United States; also called trailers or house trailers) or static caravans (in other countries; also called caravans) are prefabricated homes built in factories, rather than on site, and then taken to the place where they will be occupied. Being built on a permanently attached chassis with highway-grade wheels and tires, they are usually transported by being pulled behind a tractor-trailer over public roads to a home site. Mobile homes share the same historic origins as travel trailers, but today the two are very different in size and furnishings, with travel trailers being used primarily as temporary or vacation homes.
Mobile homes are usually placed in one location and left there permanently, but they do retain the ability to be moved, as required in many areas. Behind the cosmetic work fitted at installation to hide the base, there are strong trailer frames, axles, wheels, and tow-hitches.
- 1 Mobile homes in the United States
- 2 Mobile homes in other countries
- 3 See also
- 4 References
- 5 Further reading
- 6 External links
Mobile homes in the United States
In the United States, this form of housing goes back to the early years of cars and motorized highway travel. It was derived from the travel trailer, a small unit with wheels attached permanently, often used for camping. The original rationale for this type of housing was its mobility. Units were initially marketed primarily to people whose lifestyle required mobility. However, beginning in the 1950s, the homes began to be marketed primarily as an inexpensive form of housing designed to be set up and left in a location for long periods of time, or even permanently installed with a masonry foundation. Previously, units had been eight feet or less in width, but in 1956, the 10-foot (3 m) wide home ("ten-wide") was introduced, along with the new term "mobile home".
The homes were given a rectangular shape, made from pre-painted aluminum panels, rather than the streamlined shape of travel trailers, which were usually painted after assembly. All of this helped increase the difference between these homes and home/travel trailers. The smaller, "eight-wide" units could be moved simply with a car, but the larger, wider units ("ten-wide", and, later, twelve-wide") usually required the services of a professional trucking company, and, often, a special moving permit from a state highway department. During the late 1960s and early 70s, the homes were made even longer and wider, making the mobility of the units more difficult. Nowadays, when a factory-built home is moved to a location, it is usually kept there permanently and the mobility of the units has considerably decreased. In some states, mobile homes have been taxed as personal property if the wheels remain attached, but as real estate if the wheels are removed.
Many people who could not afford a traditional site-built home or did not desire to commit to spending a large sum of money on housing began to see factory-built homes as a viable alternative for long-term housing needs. The units were often marketed as an alternative to apartment rental. However, the tendency of the units of this era to depreciate rapidly in resale value made using them as collateral for loans much riskier than traditional home loans. Terms were usually limited to less than the thirty year term typical of the general home-loan market, and interest rates were considerably higher. In other words, mobile home loans resembled motor vehicle loans more than traditional home mortgage loans.
Mobile homes come in two major sizes, single-wides and double-wides. Single-wides are 18 feet (5.5 m) or less in width and 90 feet (27 m) or less in length and can be towed to their site as a single unit. Double-wides are twenty feet or more wide and are 90 feet (27 m) in length or less and are towed to their site in two separate units, which are then joined together. Triple-wides and even homes with four, five, or more units are also built, although not as commonly. They also differ from site built homes in that it is not uncommon for owners of single-wides to "trade up", as one might with a car.
While site-built homes are rarely moved, single-wide owners often "trade" or sell their home to a dealer in the form of the reduction of the purchase of a new home. These "used" homes are either re-sold to new owners or to park owners who use them as inexpensive rental units. Single-wides are more likely to be traded than double-wides because removing them from the site is easier. In fact, only about 5% of all double-wides will ever be moved.
In the United States, these homes are regulated by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), via the Federal National Mfd. Housing Construction and Safety Standards Act of 1974. This national regulation has allowed many manufacturers to distribute nationwide because they are immune to the jurisdiction of local building authorities. By contrast, producers of modular homes must abide by state and local building codes. There are, however, windzones adopted by HUD that home builders must follow. For example, state-wide, Florida is at least windzone 2. South Florida is windzone 3, the strongest windzone. After Hurricane Andrew in 1992, new standards were adopted for home construction. The codes for building within these windzones were significantly amended, which has greatly increased their durability. During the 2004 hurricanes in Florida, these standards were put to the test, with great success. Yet, older models continue to face the exposed risk to high winds because of the attachments applied such as carports, porch and screen room additions. These areas are exposed to "wind capture" which apply extreme force to the underside of the integrated roof panel systems, ripping the fasteners through the roof pan causing a series of events which destroys the main roof system and the home.
Mobile homes and severe weather
While an F1 tornado might cause minor damage to a site-built home, it could do significant damage to a factory built home, especially an older model or one that is not properly secured. Also, structural components (such as windows) are typically weaker than those in site-built homes. 70 mile per hour (113 kilometers per hour) winds can destroy a mobile home in a matter of minutes. Many brands offer optional hurricane straps, which can be used to tie the home to anchors embedded in the ground.
The popularity of the factory built homes caused complications the legal system was not prepared to handle. Originally, factory built homes tended to be taxed as vehicles rather than real estate, which resulted in very low property tax rates for their inhabitants. This caused local governments to reclassify them for taxation purposes.
However, even with this change, rapid depreciation often resulted in the home occupants paying far less in property taxes than had been anticipated and budgeted. The ability to move many factory built homes rapidly into a relatively small area resulted in strains to the infrastructure and governmental services of the affected areas, such as inadequate water pressure and sewage disposal, and highway congestion. This led jurisdictions to begin placing limitations on the size and density of developments.
As noted above, early homes, even those that were well-maintained, tended to depreciate in value over time, much like motor vehicles, rather than appreciate in value, as with site-built homes. The arrival of these homes in an area tended to be regarded with alarm, in part because of devaluation of the housing potentially spreading to preexisting structures.
This combination of factors has caused most jurisdictions to place zoning regulations on the areas in which factory built homes are placed, and limitations on the number and density of homes permitted on any given site. Other restrictions, such as minimum size requirements, limitations on exterior colors and finishes, and foundation mandates have also been enacted. There are many jurisdictions that will not allow the placement of any additional factory built homes. Others have strongly limited or forbidden all single-wide models, which tend to depreciate in value more rapidly than modern double-wide models.
Apart from all the practical issues described above, there is also the constant discussion about legal fixture and chattels - meaning that the legal status of a trailer is, or could be, affected by its incorporation to the land or not. This sometimes involves such factors as whether or not the wheels have been removed.
Financing for manufactured homes can be very difficult to arrange. Most banks won’t finance manufactured homes when there is no land included in the loan. There are some companies that specialize in mobile home loans and mobile home financing. They can finance and refinance mobile homes in parks. The United States Department of Agriculture has rural development guaranteed loan and direct loan programs for low-income individuals living in small towns and rural areas who currently have inadequate housing. The restrictions on loans involving manufactured homes require that the unit be brand-new, located on a relatively small lot and sold to the new occupant as a package deal. The biggest problem with this program is that once the unit has been occupied, new buyers will not be able to qualify for the same type of loan, as the home is no longer new, making it difficult for the current occupant to "trade up" to a larger or better property.
Mobile home parks
Mobile homes are often sited in land lease communities known as trailer parks. Also referred to as trailer courts, mobile home parks, mobile home communities, manufactured home communities, and factory built home communities, these communities allow home owners to rent space on which to place a home. In addition to providing space, the community can provide basic utilities such as water, sewer, electricity, or natural gas and other amenities such as community rooms, pools, and playgrounds.
There are over 38,000 trailer parks in the United States ranging in size from 5 to over 1,000 home sites. Although most parks appeal to meeting basic housing needs, some communities specialize towards certain segments of the market. One subset of mobile home parks, retirement communities, restrict residents to those age 55 and older. Another subset of mobile home parks, seasonal communities, are located in popular vacation destinations or are used as a location for summer homes.
Newer homes, particularly double-wides, tend to be built to much higher standards than their predecessors and meet the building codes applicable to most areas. This has led to a reduction in the rate of value depreciation of most used units.
Additionally, modern homes tend to be built from materials similar to those used in site-built homes rather than inferior, lighter-weight materials. They are also more likely to physically resemble site-built homes. Often, the primary differentiation in appearance is that factory built homes tend to have less of a roof slope so that they can be readily transported underneath bridges and overpasses.
The number of double-wide units sold exceeds the number of single-wides, which is due in part to the aforementioned zoning restrictions. Another reason for higher sales is the spaciousness of double-wide units, which are now comparable to site-built homes. Single-wide units are still popular primarily in rural areas, where there are fewer restrictions. They are frequently used as temporary housing in areas affected by natural disasters, when restrictions are temporarily waived.
Another recent trend has been parks in which the owner of the mobile home owns the lot on which his unit is parked. Some of these communities simply provide land in a homogeneous neighborhood, but others are operated more like condominiums with clubhomes complete with swimming pools and meeting rooms which are shared by all of the residents, who are required to pay membership fees and dues.
Difference from modular homes
Because of similarities in the manufacturing process, some companies build both types in their factories. Modular homes are transported on flatbed trucks rather than being towed, and lack axles and an automotive-type frame. However, some of these homes are towed behind a semi-truck or toter on a frame similar to that of a trailer. The home is usually in two pieces and is hauled by two separate trucks. Each frame has five or more axles, depending on the size of the home. Once the home has reached its location, the axles and the tongue of the frame are then removed, and the home is set on a concrete foundation by a large crane.
Both styles are commonly referred to as factory built housing, although its technical use is restricted to a class of homes regulated by the Federal National Mfd. Housing Construction and Safety Standards Act of 1974.
Most zoning restrictions on the homes have been found to be inapplicable or only applicable to modular homes. This occurs often after considerable litigation on the topic by affected jurisdictions and by plaintiffs failing to ascertain the difference. Most modern modulars, once fully assembled, are indistinguishable from site-built homes. Their roofs are usually transported as separate units. Newer modulars also come with roofs than can be raised during the setting process with cranes. There are also modulars with 2 or 3 stories. As the legal differentiation between the two becomes more codified, the market for modular homes is likely to grow.
Mobile homes in other countries
Mobile home, with or without the hyphen, is used in many European campgrounds to refer to fixed caravans, purpose-built cabins, and even large tents, which are rented by the week or even year-round as cheap accommodation, similar to the US concept of a trailer park. Like many US loanwords, this term is not used widely in Britain.
In the United Kingdom (UK), there are three main types of caravans: touring caravans and static caravans and mobile homes. A touring caravan is towed behind a car to its site and parked, often for only a brief period. Touring caravans are usually no larger than 8' wide and can have 1 or 2 axles (2 or 4 wheels respectively). Static caravans aren't towed because they are too large to tow and have a rudimentary chassis with no suspension or brakes; therefore, they are transported on the back of large flatbed lorries. The axle and wheels are used for movement to the final location when the static caravan is moved by tractor or 4x4. A static caravan will normally stay on a single plot for many years, and have many of the modern conveniences one would normally find in a home.
Static holiday caravans generally have sleeping accommodation for 6 to 8 people in 2 to 3 bedrooms and on convertible seating in the lounge. They tend towards a fairly "open-plan" layout, and while some units are insulated and centrally heated for year-round use, cheaper models without double glazing or central heating are available for mainly summer use. Holiday homes are intended for leisure use and are available in 10' and 12' widths, a small number in 13' and 14' widths, and a few 16' wide, consisting of two 8' wide units joined together. Generally, holiday homes are clad in painted steel panels. Static caravans are sited on caravan parks where the owner of the site leases a plot to the caravan owner. Many of these parks are sited in areas that are prone to flooding and anyone considering buying a sited static caravan needs to take particular care in checking that their site is not liable to flooding. Some park owners used to have unfair conditions in their lease contracts but the Office of Fair Trading has produced a guidance document available for download called Unfair Terms in Holiday Caravan Agreements which aims to stop unfair practices.
Mobile homes are designed and constructed to be transportable by road in one or two sections. Once assembled, you must be able to move the building around site in one section, and the structure must also remain divisible for road transport in no more than two sections. Mobile homes are no larger than 20 x 6.8m (65 x 22'3"ft) with an internal maximum height of 305cm. Legally, mobile homes can still be defined as "caravans".
Many Israeli Settlements and Outposts are originally composed of caravans (Hebrew: קראוואן caravan; pl. קראוואנים, caravanim). They are constructed of light metal, are not insulated but can be outfitted with heating and air-conditioning units, water lines, recessed lighting, and floor tiling to function in a full-service capacity.
In 2005, prefabricated homes, named caravillas (Hebrew: קרווילה), a portmanteau of the words caravan, and villa, were set up to house the Jewish families evicted from their homes in Gush Katif in the Gaza Strip as part of Israel's unilateral disengagement plan. A caravilla is composed of several prefabricated sections that are joined on a foundation. Caravillas, which vary in size from about 650 to 1,000 square feet (93 m2), are akin to the Israeli concept of a villa, or single-family home. The biggest of these caravilla camps was established in Nitzan, north of Ashkelon with 250 caravillas, which has grown to accommodate over 500.
- All Parks Alliance for Change
- Construction trailer
- Manufactured housing
- Trailer Park
- Trailer trash
- ^ "Database of Mobile Home Parks in the United States". http://www.mhvillage.com/. Retrieved 2009-02-17.
- ^ "Homes". http://www.answers.com/topic/mobile-home. Retrieved 2006-09-12.
- ^ Orit Arfa: A perpetual sukkah. As Sukkot approaches, most Gaza evacuees still live in temporary housing. JewishJournal.com, September 21, 2010. Retrieved 2010-11-19
- Benson, J. E. (1990). Good neighbors: Ethnic relations in Garden City trailer courts. Urban Anthropology,19, 361–386.
- Burch-Brown, C. (1996). Trailers. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia. Text by David Rigsbee.
- Geisler, C. C., & Mitsuda, H. (1987). Mobile-home growth, regulation, and discrimination in upstate New York. Rural Sociology, 52, 532–543.
- Hart, J. F., Rhodes, M. J., & Morgan, J. T. (2002). The unknown world of the mobile home. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
- MacTavish, K. A., & Salamon, S. (2001). Mobile home park on the prairie: A new rural community form. Rural Sociology, 66, 487–506.
- Moore, B. (2006). Trailer trash: The world of trailers and mobile homes in the Southwest. Laughlin: Route 66 Magazine.
- Thornburg, D. A. (1991). Galloping bungalows: The rise and demise of the American house trailer. Hamden: Archon Books.
- Wallis, A. D. (1991). Wheel estate: The rise and decline of mobile homes. New York: Oxford University Press.
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См. также в других словарях:
mobile\ home — [ mɔbilom ] n. m. VAR. mobile home • v. 1970; mot angl. amér. « maison mobile » ♦ Anglic. Grande caravane tractable surtout conçue pour rester sur place de façon relativement durable et possédant souvent des raccordements d eau et d électricité.… … Encyclopédie Universelle
mobile-home — [ mɔbilom ] n. m. VAR. mobile home • v. 1970; mot angl. amér. « maison mobile » ♦ Anglic. Grande caravane tractable surtout conçue pour rester sur place de façon relativement durable et possédant souvent des raccordements d eau et d électricité.… … Encyclopédie Universelle
mobile home — [mɔbilom] n. m. ÉTYM. V. 1970; mot angl. des États Unis, « maison, demeure (home) mobile », av. 1950. ❖ ♦ Américanisme. Maison légère transportable par route ou par rail, et s installant de manière relativement durable, avec raccordements… … Encyclopédie Universelle
mobile home — mobile homes N COUNT A mobile home is a large caravan that people live in and that usually remains in the same place, but which can be pulled to another place using a car or van. Syn: trailer … English dictionary
mobile home — ☆ mobile home [mō′bəl ] n. a movable dwelling with no permanent foundation, but connected to utility lines and set more or less permanently at a location: cf. MOTOR HOME … English World dictionary
mobile home — n 1.) AmE a type of house made of metal, that can be pulled by a vehicle and moved to another place 2.) BrE a large ↑caravan which always stays in the same place and is used as a house American Equivalent: trailer … Dictionary of contemporary English
mobile home — noun count 1. ) AMERICAN a house built in a factory and moved to a piece of land on a truck 2. ) BRITISH a TRAILER you can live in … Usage of the words and phrases in modern English
mobile home — ► NOUN ▪ a large caravan used as permanent living accommodation … English terms dictionary
Mobile home — Caravane Pour les articles homonymes, voir Caravane (homonymie). Une caravane est à l origine d un convoi de transport de marchandises. Le stéréotype de la caravane reste celui de la caravane de nomades du Sahara, constituée d une longue file de… … Wikipédia en Français
Mobile Home — Ein Mobilheim in den USA der 1970er Ein Mobilheim, auch Mobile home genannt, ist eine transportable Wohneinheit, deren Inneneinrichtung mit einer Wohnung vergleichbar ist. Es ist eine Art vergrößerter Wohnwagen, der allerdings kein wirklich… … Deutsch Wikipedia