- Cuisine of Armenia
Given the history of the
Armenian people, the cuisine of Armenia and of the Armenians in the Armenian Diasporais representative of the cuisine of the Mediterranean and the Caucasus, with strong influences from Eastern Europe, the Middle East, and, to a lesser extent, from the Balkans.Alan Davidson, "The Oxford Companion to Food", Oxford University Press, 1999, p. 35.] Armenians themselves have greatly influenced the culinary traditions of nearby countries or cities, such as Aleppo. [ [http://www.telegraph.co.uk/travel/main.jhtml?xml=/travel/2007/05/20/etmyaleppo120.xml My kind of town: Aleppo] .] The preparation of a large number of meat, fish, and vegetable dishes in the Armenian kitchen requires stuffing, frothing, and pureeing. [Pokhlebkin, V. V. Russian Delight: A Cookbook of the Soviet People. London: Pan Books, 1978] Lamb, aubergines, youghurt, and bread ( lavash) are basic features of the Armenian cuisine. Armenians use cracked wheat ( burghul) in preference to maize and rice popular among its Caucasian neighbors (Georgia and Azerbaijan).
Meals in Armenia often start with
mezze, a spread of appetizers served for "the table". Lavash, extremely thin leavened wrap bread made from wheat flour, is the usual accompaniment for mezze.
Hummus– smooth chickpea paste
* Chechil ("tel banir") – braided and pickled
string cheese, similar to Georgian sulguni
Mutabal– grilled eggplant chopped or mashed with spices and tahiniinto a coarse paste, known as baba ghanoushin other cuisines
Lahmajoun– a thin-crust pizza with a topping of ground meat
Amarva khorovadz-- barbecued vegetables mixed together, traditional Armenian salad
Eetch-- bulgur salad, similar to the Middle Eastern tabouleh
Boeregs are a popular snack and fast food, often served as appetizer. These are savory pies made with phyllo pastry and stuffed with cheese ("banirov boereg", from Armenian: "banir" for cheese) or spinach (similar to
spanakopitain Greek cuisine). "Sou boereg" ("su boeregi", or "water burek", in Turkish cuisine) is a lasagna-style dish with sheets of phyllo pastry briefly boiled in a large pan before being spread with fillings. ["Sou boereg" recipe on [http://www.chowhound.com/topics/353544 ChowHound] ] "Misov boereg" is a bread roll (not phyllo pastry) stuffed with ground meat (similar to Russian pirozhki). "Tepsi boereg".Fact|date=August 2008
Barbecueis very popular in Armenia, and makes the primary offer of main courses in most restaurants and at family gatherings. It is often eaten as fast food.
Khorovats(or khorovadz) – Armenian word for barbecued or grilled meats (the generic kebabin English), the most representative dish of Armenian cuisine enjoyed in restaurants, family gatherings, and as fast food. A typical "khorovats" is chunks of meat grilled on a skewer ( shashlik), although steaks or chops grilled without skewers may be also included. In Armenia itself, "khorovats" is often made with the bone still in the meat (as lamb or pork chops). Western Armenians outside Armenia generally cook the meat with bones taken out and call it by the Turkish name shish kebab. On the other hand, the word "kebab" in Armenia refers to uncased sausage-shaped patties from ground meat grilled on a skewer (called "losh kebab" or "lule kebab" by diasporan Armenians and Turks). In Armenia today, the most popular meat for khorovats (including losh kebab) is pork due to Soviet-era economic heritage. Armenians outside Armenia usually prefer lamb or beef depending on their background, and chicken is also popular.
* "Gharsi khorovats" – slivers of grilled meat rolled up in
lavash, similar to the Middle Eastern shawarmaand the Turkish doner kebab; this "shashlik Ghars style" takes its name from the city of Kars(Armenian: "Ghars") in eastern Turkey, close to the Armenian border. ["Gharsi (Karsi) khorovats" on [http://www.armenianfood.ru/recept.php?cat_recept=104&recept=110&sub_recept=561 ArmenianFood.ru] .]
Armenian soups include "spas", made from
yogurt, hulled wheatand herbs(usually cilantro), [Irina Petrosian and David Underwood, "Armenian Food: Fact, Fiction & Folklore", published by Lulu.com, ISBN 1411698659, p. 60 (parts accessible through Amazon Online Reader).] and "aveluk", made from lentils, walnuts, and wild mountain sorrel (which gives the soup its name). ["Aveluk" soup on the menu of [http://en.restoran.ru/spb/detailed/restaurants/erivan/menu/?half=195232 Erivan Restaurant in St. Petersburg] ] "Kiufta" soup is made with large balls of strained boiled meat ("kiufta") and greens.
Another soup, "khash", is considered an Armenian institution. Songs and poems have been written about this one dish, which is made from ham hocks and herbs made into a clear broth. Tradition holds that khash can only be cooked by men, who spend the entire night cooking, and can be eaten only in the early morning in the dead of winter, where it served with heaps of fresh
garlicand dried lavash.
"T'ghit"Fact|date=July 2008 is a very special and old traditional food, made from "t'tu lavash" (
fruit leather, thin roll-up sheets of sour plum puree), [T'tu lavash [http://fita.org/countries/cadre_86.html described here] ] which are cut into small pieces and boiled in water. Fried onionsare added and the mixture is cooked into a purée. Pieces of lavashbread are placed on top of the mixture, and it is eaten hot with fresh lavash used to scoop up the mixture by hand.
"Karshm" is a local soup made in the town of
Vaikin the Shirakprovince. This is a walnut based soup with red and green beans, chick peas and spices, served garnished with red pepper and fresh garlic. ["Karshm" soup from [http://www.tacentral.com/destinations_story.asp?story_no=7 "Travel Guide to Shirak"] .] Soups of Russian heritage include borscht, a beet rootsoup with meatand vegetables(served hot in Armenia, with fresh sour cream) and okroshka, a yogurtor kefirbased soup with chopped cucumber, green onion, and garlic.
* "Arganak" – chicken soup with small meatballs, garnished before serving with beaten egg yolks, lemon juice, and parsley. ["Arganak" recipe on [http://www.armenianfood.ru/recept.php?cat_recept=104&recept=113&sub_recept=466 ArmeniaFood.ru] ru icon]
* "Blghourapour" – a sweet soup made of hulled wheat cooked in grape juice; served hot or cold. ["Blghourapour" recipe on [http://gnozis.info/?q=node/2153 Gnozis.info] ru icon]
* "Bozbash" – a mutton or lamb soup that exists in several regional varieties with the addition of different vegetables and fruits. ["Bozbash" in [http://www.amazon.com/gp/reader/078180695X/ref=sib_dp_pt#reader-link Sonia Uvezian, "The Cuisine of Armenia"] , Siamanto Press, Northbrook, IL, 2001 (parts accessible through Amazon Online Reader)]
* "Brndzapour" – rice and potato soup, garnished with coriander. ["Brndzapour" recipe on [http://www.armenianfood.ru/recept.php?cat_recept=104&recept=113&sub_recept=488 ArmenianFood.ru] ru icon]
* "Dzavarapour" – hulled wheat, potatoes, tomato puree; egg yolks diluted with water are stirred into the soup before serving. ["Dzavarapour" recipe on [http://www.armenianfood.ru/recept.php?cat_recept=104&recept=113&sub_recept=494 ArmenianFood.ru] ru icon]
* "Flol" – beef soup with coarsely chopped spinach leaves and cherry-sized dumplings (Armenian: "flol") made from oatmeal or wheat flour."Flol" recipe on [http://www.armenianfood.ru/recept.php?cat_recept=104&recept=113&sub_recept=360 ArmenianFood.ru] ru icon]
* Harissa –
porridgeof coarsely ground wheat with pieces of boned chicken
* "Katnapour" – a milk-based rice soup, sweetened with sugar. ["Katnapour" recipe on [http://www.armenianfood.ru/recept.php?cat_recept=104&recept=113&sub_recept=575 ArmenianFood.ru] ru icon]
* "Kololik" – soup cooked from mutton bones with ground mutton dumplings, rice, and fresh tarragon garnish; a beaten egg is stirred into the soup before serving. ["Kololik" recipe on [http://www.armenianfood.ru/recept.php?cat_recept=104&recept=113&sub_recept=231 ArmenianFood.ru] ru icon]
* "Krchik" – soup made from
sauerkraut, hulled wheat, potatoes, and tomato puree. ["Krchik" recipe on [http://www.armenianfood.ru/recept.php?cat_recept=104&recept=113&sub_recept=573 ArmenianFood.ru] ru icon]
* "Mantapour" – beef soup with manti; the manti are typically served with
yogurtor sour cream("ttvaser"), accompanied by clear soup. ["Mantapour" recipe on [http://www.armenianfood.ru/recept.php?cat_recept=104&recept=113&sub_recept=351 ArmenianFood.ru] ru icon]
* "Putuk" – mutton cut into pieces, dried peas, potatoes, leeks, and tomato puree, cooked and served in individual crocks. ["Putuk" recipe on [http://www.armenianfood.ru/recept.php?cat_recept=104&recept=113&sub_recept=230 ArmenianFood.ru] ru icon]
* "Snkapur" – a
mushroomsoup [http://www.haias.net/kochbuch/suppen.html "Armenian cookbook"] ]
* Tarkhana – flour and yogurt soup
* "Vospapour" – lentil soup with dried fruits and ground walnuts. ["Vospapour" recipe on [http://cook-recept.ru/national.htm?cod=4406 Armenian National Cuisine] ru icon]
*Ishkhan – Sevan trout (endangered species), served steamed, grilled on a skewer, or stuffed and baked in the oven
*Sig – a whitefish from Lake Sevan, native to northern Russian lakes (endangered species in Armenia)
Karmrakhayt("alabalagh") – a river trout, [ [http://armenianow.com/?action=viewArticle&AID=2387&CID=2362&IID=1143&lng=eng "Karmrakhayt" in Marmarik River ] ] also produced in high-altitude artificial lakes (e.g., the Mantash Reservoir in Shirakprovince). [ [http://www.gyumri.am/eng/neighborhood.html "Karmrakhayt" in Mantash Reservoir ] ]
*Kogak – an indigenous Lake Sevan fish of the
carpfamily, also called Sevan khramulya(overfished)
Fasulya("fassoulia") – a stew made with green beans, lamb and tomato broth or other ingredients
Ghapama– pumpkin stew
Kchuch– a casserole of mixed vegetables with pieces of meat or fish on top, baked and served in a clay pot
Moussaka– baked dish consisting of spiced ground meat (usually lamb) between layers of aubergineslices
Mujaddara– cooked lentils and rice
Tjvjik– a dish of fried liver and kidneys with onions
Satsivi- pieces of roast chicken in walnut sauce, taken from Georgian cuisine
Basturma– a highly seasoned, air-dried raw beef, similar to pastrami
* Yershig – a spicy beef sausage (called
* Kiufta – meaning meatball comes in many types, such as Hayastan kiufta, Kharpert kiufta (Porov kiufta), Ishli kiufta, etc.
Labneh– Strained dense yogurt made from sheep, cow, or goat milk; often served in mezzewith olive oil and spices
* Matsoun – yogurt
Tahn("ayran") – a sour milk drink prepared by diluting yogurt with cold water
* "Ttvaser" – sour cream in Armenian; also known by the Russian-derived word "smetan"
Lavash– the staple bread of Armenian cuisine
Matnakash– soft and puffy leavened bread, made of wheat flour and shaped into oval or round loaves; the characteristic golden or golden-brown crust is achieved by coating the surface of the loaves with sweetened tea essence before baking. ["Matnakash" recipe on [http://www.armenia.ee/Cocking/Hac_html/H002.htm Armenian Portal in Estonia.] ru icon]
* "Paghach" – flaky layered bread.Bread recipes in [http://www.saintsarkis.org/breads.htm Adventures in Armenian Cooking] ]
* Choereg (or
choreg) – braided bread formed into rolls or loaves, also a traditional loaf for Easter.
* "Alani" – pitted dried peaches stuffed with ground walnuts and sugar. ["Alani" described on [http://www.millionmenu.info/eng/rus/kitchen/facts/posts1/articl545/ Million Menu] ]
Kadaif" ("ghataif") – shredded dough with cream, cheese, or chopped walnut filling, soaked with sugar syrup.Desserts on [http://www.saintsarkis.org/desserts.htm Adventures in Armenian Cooking] ]
* "Anoushabour" – dried fruits stewed with barley, garnished with chopped almonds or walnuts (a traditional Christmas pudding).
* "Bastegh" ("pastegh") - homemade
* "T'tu lavash" – thin roll-up sheets of sour plum puree (
Nshkhar-- bread used for Holy Communion
Mas-- literally means "piece" a piece of leftover bread from the making of Nshkhar, given to worshippers after church service
Matagh-- sacrificial meat. can be of any animal such as goat, lamb, or even bird.
Armenian coffee-- strong black coffee, finely ground, sometimes sweet
Kefir-- fermented milk drink
Kvas-- sweet, fermented bread drink
*Tahn – yoghurt drink (still or carbonated)
*Jermuk -- a band of mineral water from the
Hayq, Sari– a brand of bottled mountain spring water from the Jermukarea (in Armenian "Hayq" stands for "Armenia" and "Sari" for "from the mountains").
*"Gazoz" – a generic name for a flavored carbonated drink, either bottled soda or sparkling water mixed with syrup in a glass.Fact|date=August 2008
Beer( [http://biggestmenu.com/rdr/CA/Glendale/Raffi's-Place-1590603/Armenian-Beer-Kotayk-Erebuni-Kilikia-17522 popular brands] "Kotayk", "Erebuni", "Kilikia")
brandy(popular brand names "Ararat", "Dvin")
* Oghi – an aniseed-flavored distilled alcoholic drink (called "arak" in the
Middle East, raki in Turkey, or ouzoin Greece)
* Pomegranate wines – sweet and semi-sweet
fruit wines made from pomegranate juice.
* "Areni wines" are red wines made from the Armenian Аreni grape (
Vayots Dzorregion). While most Areni wines are dry, Vernashen is semi-sweet.
* [http://flowers.hovoson.com/products_170_679_products_winereserveijevan.html "Ijevan"] – a dry white wine from the
Tavushregion (Lalvari grape). Semi-sweet red Ijevan is produced from the Kakhet grape in Tavush, while dry red Ijevan is made from Areni grapes and is properly classified as an Areni wine. [ [http://www.vsprogress.ru/catalog/?id=7 Ijevan Winery] ru icon]
*The Cuisine of Armenia by Sonia Uvezian, Dikran Palulian (Illustrator)
*Armenian Food: Fact, Fiction & Folklore, Irina Petrosian and David Underwood
* [http://www.saintsarkis.org/laydies_guild_cookbook.htm "Adventures in Armenian Cooking"] , St. Sarkis Armenian Apostolic Church, Indian Orchard, MA
* [http://www.menu.am/eng/ Armenian Cuisine]
* [http://armenianfood.blogspot.com/ Armenian Food Blog]
* [http://www.armenianfood.ru/index.php ArmenianFood.ru — an extensive selection of Armenian dishes with recipes] ru icon.
* [http://hats.xside.ru/ Armenian cuisine — hundreds of recipes organized by courses] ru icon.
* [http://cooking-book.ru/national/armenia/ Armenian cuisine — a compact list of 78 Armenian dishes] ru icon.
* [http://www.armnet.ru/kuhnya.htm Armenian cooking — a general description of Armenian cuisine, including 90 recipes] ru icon.
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