PT-76


PT-76

Infobox Weapon|is_vehicle=yes
name=PT-76


caption=PT-76 on display near the Museum of the Great Patriotic War, Kiev.
type=Amphibious Light Tank
origin=flagcountry|Soviet Union
service=16 August 1952 - present
used_by=See Operators
wars=See Combat history
designer=N. Szaszmurin and Z.Y. Kotin
design_date=1949 - 1951
manufacturer=Vogograd tractor factory (VTZ)
Kirov plant at Leningrad
production_date=1953 - 1954 (PT-76 Model 1)
1954 - 1963 (PT-76 Model 2)
1958 - 1969 (PT-76B)
number=12,000
variants=See Variants
length=6.91 m hull only [http://www.inetres.com/gp/military/cv/tank/PT-76.html "Gary's Combat Vehicle Reference Guide"] ] [http://softland.com.pl/aerojac/aaa/artykul/pt76.html "softland"] ]
7.635 m with barrel in forward position [http://www.urrib2000.narod.ru/Tanques2-e.html "Cuban Tanks"] ]
width=3.15 m
height=2.325 m
weight=14.6 tonnes for PT-76 [http://www.militaryfactory.com/armor/detail.asp?armor_id=19 "Military Factory"] ]
15.4 tonnes for PT-76B
suspension=torsion-bar [http://mainbattletanks.czweb.org/Tanky/pt76.htm "Modern Tanks"] ]
clearance=370 mm
fuel_capacity=250 l for PT-76
400 l for PT-76B [http://warfare.ru/?lang=&catid=244&linkid=1773 "Warfare.ru"] ]
speed=44 km/h (road) [http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/russia/pt-76.htm "Global Security"] ]
25 km/h (cross country)
10,2 km/h (water)
vehicle_range=370 km - 400 km (road) for PT-76
480 km - 510 km (road) for PT-76 with additional fuel tanks
480 km (road) for PT-76B
590 km (road) for PT-76B with additional fuel tanks
100 km (water) for PT-76
120 km (water) for PT-76B
primary_armament=76,2 mm D-56T rifled tank gun for PT-76 Model 1
76,2 mm D-56TM rifled tank gun for PT-76 Model 2
76,2 mm D-56TS or D-56B rifled tank gun for PT-76B
40 rounds for PT-76
41 for PT-76B
secondary_armament=7.62 mm SGMT coaxial medium machine gun for PT-76
7.62 mm PKT coaxial general purpose machine gun for PT-76B
1000 rounds
armour=Homogeneous, cold rolled, welded steel
20 mm at 35° turret front
16 mm at 35° turret side
11 mm at 33° turret rear
8 mm at 0° turret top
10 mm at 80° upper hull front
13 mm at 80° lower hull front
14 mm at 0° hull side
7 mm at 0° hull rear
5 mm at 0° hull floor
engine=V-6 6-cylinder 4-stroke in line water cooled diesel for PT-76
V-6B 6-cylinder 4-stroke in line water cooled diesel for PT-76B
crew=3 (driver, commander and loader)
engine_power=240 hp (179 kW) at 1800 rpm for PT-76
263 hp (196 kW) at 1800 rpm for PT-76B [http://www.pancerni.abajt.pl/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=59&Itemid=71 "Pancerni.net"] ]
pw_ratio=16.4 hp/tonne (12.3 kW/tonne) for PT-76
17.1 hp/tonnes (12.7 kW/tonne) for PT-76B

The PT-76 (Obiekt 740) is a Soviet light amphibious tank which was introduced in the early 1950s and soon became the standard reconnaissance tank of the Soviet Army and the other Warsaw Pact armies. It was widely exported to other friendly states, like India, Iraq, North Korea and Vietnam — in all, over 25 countries used the PT-76. Its designation PT-76 (ПТ-76) stands for Russian "Plavayushtshiy Tank - 76" (Плавающий Танк - 76) - "Amphibious Tank - 76". Number "76" comes from the caliber of the main armament, 76.2 mm D-56T series rifled tank gun. Even though its armament and armour are obsolete by modern standards, its water propulsion system has an ability to sometimes outweigh armament and armour limitations. Its design was so sucessuful at the time that many specialized vehicles like BTR-50 APC, ZSU-23-4 SPAAG, ASU-85 airborne self-propelled gun and 2K12 Kub anti-aircraft missile launching vehicle were based on it.

History

After World War II, the concept of light tanks was resurrected in the USSR. They were to be used in reconnaissance units and therefore amphibious ability was essential for them. The requirements stated that the vehicle should be able to cross water obstacles with little preparation. Many prototypes of such light tanks were made in the late 1940s. The most successful one was designed by engineer N. Szaszmurin working at the Kirov plant in Leningradin 1948. The vehicle was so successful because it had a simple design, good navigational traits and good ability to cross muddy terrain. Its water-jet design was innovative at the time.

Further development of the design was carried out between 1949-1951 under the leadership of Zh. Y. Kotin, and the tank was officially adopted on 16 August 1952 with the designation PT-76. Production started in 1953 at the Volgograd Tractor Factory and Kirov plant in Leningrad. The Model 1 was produced in limited numbers and was quickly replaced in production by Model 2. In 1958 an improved variant, PT-76B, was adopted and remained in production until 1968.

Description

PT-76 had a typical tank layout: steering compartment at the front, combat compartment in the center and the engine compartment in the back. The tank has a three-man crew, with the tank commander also acting as radio operator and gunner. This reduces his effectiveness as an observer. Commander and loader stations are located inside of the turret, commander sits on left hand side of the turret and the loader sits on the right hand side of the turret. They have a large oval shaped double hatch which opens forwards on top of the turret. Driver sits in the center of the front of the hull and has a one piece hatch that opens to the right, with three vision blocks and periscopes located beneath the main gun, at the top of the sloping glacis plate. Under the driver's seat there is an emergency hatch which can be used by all crew members. During night operations the center periscope is switched for the TVN-28 night vision device which gave the driver a clear vision up to 60 meters.

Armament

Its main armament consisted of 76.2 mm D-56T series rifled tank gun which had an effective range of approximately 1,500 meters and a rate of fire of six to eight rounds per minute. This gun was 42 calibers long. PT-76 carried 40 rounds for its gun. The typical ammo load consisted of 24 OF-350 Frag-HE rounds, 4 undercaliber AP-T rounds, 4 AP-T rounds and 8 BK-350M HEAT rounds. The gun is mounted in an oval dish-type circular truncated cone turret with flat sloping sides which is mounted over the second, third, and fourth pair of road wheels along with the 7.62 mm SGMT coaxial medium machine gun with an ammo load of 1,000 rounds. It had a maximum effective range of 1,000 meters in day light while the vehicle was stationary, 400 to 500 meters in day light while the vehicle was on the move and 600 during night operations. It had an aimed range of 1,500 meters. It fired 2 to 10 round bursts and had a practical rate of fire of 250 rounds per minute and cyclic rate of fire of 650 rounds per minute. Its main gun is considered light for a modern tank and fires BM-354P HVAP, undercaliber AP-T, AP-T, BR-350 API-T and OF-350 Frag-HE rounds (those are the same rounds as the ones fired by the 76.2 mm M1942 (ZiS-3) divisional gun) and is capable of penetrating armour of APCs and other lightly armored vehicles. The commander who acted as the gunner had a cupola on the flt side of the double hatch. The cupola had the TPKU-2B observation device and two TNP day periscopes and could be rotated 360 deg by hand. The commander also had 4X optical sight mounted to the left of the main armament and the TShK-66 sight-rangefinder. The loader had the MK-4 observation device mounted on the turret's roof in the front of the hatch. BM-354P HVAP round had a maximum effective range of 650 meters during daylight operations and 600 meters during night operations and maximum aimed range of 1,060 meters. It could penetrate 127 mm of armour at muzzle and 50 mm of armour at 1,000 meters. The armour piercing round could pierce 60 mm of armor inclined in 60 degrees from a range of 2,000 meters. BK-350M HEAT round had a maximum effective range of 650 meters during daylight operations and 600 meters during night operations and maximum aimed range of 1,000 meters. It could penetrate 280 mm of armour at 1,000 meters. OF-350 Frag-HE round had a maximum effective range of 600 meters during night operations and maximum aimed range of 4,000 meters. The gun could be fired while the vehicle was afloat. The gun also could be elevated between -4 and +30 degrees so like most Soviet tanks, the PT-76 had limited ability to depress its main gun, and therefore cannot fire effectively from higher ground. One of the greatest disadvantages of guns used in PT-76 Model 1 was the fact that they had no stabilization system and therefore couldn't be effectively fired while the vehicle was on the move. PT-76 Model 2 had 1-axis stabilization system and PT-76B had 2-axis stabilization system. All PT-76 models had a fume extractor for the main gun in the rear of the turret. [http://members.aol.com/panzersgt/Threat/pt76.html "panzersgt"] ] [http://www.enemyforces.com/tanks/pt76.htm "Enemy Forces"] ]

Armour protection

The armour of PT-76 costs of homogeneous, cold rolled, welded steel. It has 20 mm at 35° in the front of the turret, 16 mm at 35° in the sides of the turret, 11 mm at 33° in the rear of the turret, 8 mm at 0° in top of the turret, 10 mm at 80° in the upper front of the hull, 13 mm at 80° in the lower front of the hull, 14 mm at 0° in the side of the hull, 7 mm at 0° in the rear of the hull, 5 mm at 0° in the bottom of the hull. This gives it protection against 7.62 mm small arms fire and small artillery shell fragments. It doesn't however protect it against 12.7 mm or .50-caliber heavy machine gun fire (even though its armour protects it from 7.62 mm small arms fire, the 7.62 mm machine gun fire can sometimes penetrate it) and bigger artillery shell fragments.

Maneuverability

The torsion bar suspension consists of six evenly spaced large rubber-tired road wheels with the drive sprocket at the rear and the idler at the front. Road wheels are hollow to ensure additional amphibious abilities. Usage of hollow road wheels increased tank's buoyancy by 30%. There are no track-return rollers. The first and last road wheels have a hydraulic shock absorber and the steel tracks with a single pin have 96 chain links each when new. There is a small, thin, horizontal skirt over each track. Its V-6 6-cylinder 4-stroke in line water-cooled diesel engine developing 240 hp (179 kW) at 1800 rpm gives it a road speed of 44 km/h with a cruising range of 370 km to 400 km. The vehicle can cross 1.1 m high vertical obstacles and 2.8 m wide trenches and climb 52° gradients. The engine has a cooling system and initial heater (intended for ignition when air temperature is -20ºC or below). The PT-76 amphibious light tank had the 5 gear manual shaft-type transmission system similar to the one in T-34/85 medium tank. The gearbox has four forward gears and one reverse gear. The vehicle has a side clutch that enables it to make turns and a bandbrake. The vehicle has four mounts for additional external fuel tanks in the rear of the hull. The two mounts on the corners of the hull are for a flat type external fuel tanks and the two mounts in the center of the rear of the hull are for a drum type external fuel tanks. Four additional external fuel tanks increased the cruising range by 110 km from 370 km - 400 km to 480 km - 510 km. The PT-76 is a reliable, simple to operate and highly mobile reconnaissance vehicle and has ideal design for amphibious capability, but it has many limitations as a fighting vehicle.

Amphibious ability

The PT-76 is amphibious, thanks to its flat, boat-shaped hull which is hermetical and ensures minimal resistance when tank is afloat. It can swim after switching on the two electric bilge pumps, erecting the trim vane which improves vehicle's stability and displacement in water and prevents the water from flooding the bow of the tank and switching the driver's periscope for a swimming periscope that enables the driver to see over the trim vane. When not in use the trim vane is placed in its laying position in the front of the bow over the barrel of the main gun and serves as additional armour. There is also a manual bilge pump for emergency use. The bilge pumps keep the tank afloat even if it is hit, damaged or leaks. In water it is propelled by two hydrojets, one in each side of the hull, with the entrance under the hull and exits at the rear of the hull. There are also additional assistant water-jet entrances in both sides of the hull over the last road wheels. The rear exits have lids that can be fully or partially closed, redirecting the water stream to the forward-directed exits at the sides of the hull, thus enabling the vehicle to turn or float reverse, for example, to go left, the left water-jet is covered, to go the right, the right water-jet is covered and to make a 180° turn the left water-jet sucks in water and the right water-jet pushes it out. This system was designed by N. Konowalow. It is the same system as the one used in BTR-50 armoured personnel carrier which was based on PT-76. The tank can swim with speed of 10,2 km/h with a range of 100 km. The vehicle has a circular bulge of an air intake on the rear of turret to which a snorkel can be fitted. It can cross almost every water obstacle and can also swim in the sea. However its amphibious design makes it unnecessarily large for a vehicle of its weight class and allows less armor protection than in other light tanks.

Equipment

The PT-76 was equipped with tank communication device, a gyro compass, 10-RT-26E radio set and had an antenna for it which when needed extends itself, it is located on the left hand side of the turret. It also had two headlights in front of the hull and a searchlight on right hand side of the top of the turret. It lagged behind other Soviet armoured fighting vehicles because only the driver had a night vision device and also because it had no fire or NBC (nuclear, biological, chemical) protection systems, which significantly reduced its effectiveness. The lack of NBC protection system ended in PT-76B which had the PAZ ("protivo-atomnaya zashchita") NBC protection system. Because only the driver had night vision equipment, the crew had a vision range of 4,000 meters during daylight operations and 600 meters in night operations. PT-76 could be transported on trailer pulled by a truck.

ervice history

About 12,000 PT-76s were built during the vehicle's lifetime, of which about 2,000 were exported. Over 25 countries employed the vehicle, including Afghanistan, Albania, Angola, China, Congo, Cuba, Egypt, Finland, Guinea, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Iraq, Laos, Madagascar, Mozambique, North Korea, Pakistan, Poland, Vietnam, and Yugoslavia.

The PT-76 was used as the standard reconnaissance tank of the Soviet Union and Warsaw Pact armies. It was intended for reconnaissance, water obstacle fording operations and Naval Infantry landings. It served in reconnaissance subunits of tank divisions and mechanized divisions of the Red Army and Soviet marines divisions. Although it has been replaced in front line service by BMP-1 and BRM-1 vehicles, it may still be found in the reconnaissance companies and battalions of some motorized rifle and tank regiments and divisions, as well as in naval infantry units. Aside from its reconnaissance role, it is also used for crossing water obstacles in the first wave of an attack and for artillery support during the establishment of a beachhead.The main disadvantage of BMP-1 and BRM-1 vehicles when compared to PT-76 is the absence of a powerful main armament. However the BRM-1 vehicles are fitted with the more modern reconnaissance equipment. Also both BMP-1 and BRM-1 have stronger front armor and superior mobility features and can carry up to 8 fully equipped soldiers inside. The tank is still in active service in a number of countries mainly the third world ones. The Russian Army is reported to have used PT-76 units in the ongoing war in Chechnya.

The PT-76 aphibious light tanks are used/stationed by/in following units/bases: 61st tank repair plant (personnel: 35, equipment: 280 T-80U, T-80UM or T-80UD, 177 T-72, 2 BMP-3, 7 BTR-80 and 1 PT-76), 61st Kirkinesskaya marine brigade from Sputnik which is part of the Murmansk military district (personnel: 1720, equipment: 40 T-55A, 26 PT-76, 132 BTR-80, 5 BTR-60PB, 113 MT-LB, 18 2S1, 24 2S9, 18 9P138, ZSU-23-4 and Strela-10), 175th marine brigade from Tumannyy which is part of the Murmansk military district (equipment: 40 T-55A, 26 PT-76, 73 BTR-80, 40 BTR-60PB, 91 MT-LB, 18 2S1, 18 2S9, 18 9P138, ZSU-23-4 and Strela-10) and 336th Belostokskaya marine brigade from Baltyysk which is part of the Kaliningrad military district (personnel: 1157, equipment: 40 T-55A, 26 PT-76, 96 BTR-80, 64 BTR-60PB, 91 MT-LB, 18 2S1, 24 2S9, 18 9P138, ZSU-23-4 and Strela-10).

In Ludowe Wojsko Polskie (LWP) PT-76 and PT-76B light amphibious tanks were used by reconnaissance subunits of tank divisions and mechanized divisions and Coast Defense units including the 7th Lusatian Landing Division (officially known as 7th Coast Defense Division). Poland also operated FROG-5 "Luna" tactical missile launching vehicles. [http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/russia/frog-3-pics.htm FROG-5 pictures] ]

The PT-76 was employed by North Vietnam several times during the Vietnam War. As part of the Battle of Khe Sanh (1968), during the Battle of Lang Vei twelve PT-76s were used in an assault against a US Special Forces camp. At least five were destroyed by Recoilless rifle fire and LAWs, but they were decisive in the successful assault.

North Vietnamese PT-76 amphibious light tanks were involved in the only tank-against-tank battle of the war prior to the US withdrawal. It was a night assault on US Special Forces camp. Americans were warned and reinforced the garrison with a platoon of US Army M48A3 main battle tanks of the 1st Battalion 69th Armor. Apart from that and standard US personnel the garrison also consisted of a CIDG unit. The engagement took place on March 3 1969 at Ben Het in Kontum Province near the Laotian border. After North Vietnamese fired 639 mixed artillery and mortar rounds into the camp, a battalion from the 66th NVA Regiment supported by ten PT-76 amphibious light tanks and few APCs attacked the west hill held by a CIDG company supported by a platoon of US Army M48A3 main battle tanks. The PT-76 amphibious light tanks drove straight up the road into a minefield in which two were destroyed by land mines. Two PT-76 amphibious light tanks and one APC were destroyed by M48A3's fire. Six remaining PT-76 amphibious light tanks were destroyed by artillery fire and airstrikes. The US casualties consisted of one M48A3 main battle tank being lightly damaged during the battle. [http://www.rjsmith.com/ben-het.html] . ["Czołgi Świata" (World's Tanks or Tanks Of The World) magazine issue 1] [ [http://www.flyarmy.org/panel/battle/69030320.HTM Vietnam War Battle of Ben Het ] ]

The PT-76 saw action with Indian forces in the Indo-Pakistani Wars of 1965 and 1971. Despite being obsolete in the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, the superior tactics and overwhelming numbers of the Indian Army enabled it to play to vital role in defeating Pakistan Army. During fights in the Eastern theater the high numbers of PT-76 amphibious light tanks proved superior to Pakistani World War II era M24 Chaffee light tanks. However during fights in the western theater they proved incapable of facing Pakistani M48 Patton and Type 59 main battle tanks especially at the crucial Battle of Cyhamb.

The tank also saw service in the Six Day War (1967) during which the Israeli army has destroyed or captured about 200 Egyptian T-54, T-55 and PT-76 tanks. During the Yom Kippur War (1973) PT-76 amphibious light tanks were used yet again during the crossing of the Great Bitter Lake by the Egyptian 135th Marines Brigade. ["Czołgi Świata" (World's Tanks or Tanks Of The World) magazine issue 25]

It also saw service during the Angolan Civil War (1975-2002).

During the Yugoslav wars, PT-76 was saw service with Yugoslav Peoples Army and later army of Krajina Serbs in few battles during Ten-Day War in Slovenia (1991) and Croatian War of Independence in Croatia (1991 - 1995).

The Indonesian Army used its PT-76B amphibious light tanks on the Indonesian island of Ambon during civil unrest from 2000 onwards.

Combat history

* 1959 - 1975 Vietnam War
* 1965 Indo-Pakistani War
* 1967 Six Day War
* 1968 Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia
* 1971 Indo-Pakistani War
* 1973 Yom Kippur War
* 1975 - 2002 Angolan Civil War
* 1990 - 1991 First Persian Gulf War
* 1991 – 2001 Yugoslav wars
** 1991 Ten-Day War
** 1991 - 1995 Croatian War of Independence
* 1999 - Second Chechen War
* 2000 Civil unrest on Indonesian island of Ambon
* 2003 - Second Persian Gulf War
** 2003 Invasion of Iraq

Variants

Former USSR

* PT-76 Model 1 (Ob'yekt 740) (1951) - Original PT-76 with a 76,2 mm D-56T rifled tank gun (no bore evaluator, long multi-slotted muzzle brake and fume extractor). It was produced in small numbers between 1953 and 1954.
** PT-76 Model 2 (1954) - PT-76 with a 76,2 mm D-56TM rifled tank gun (double-baffle muzzle brake, bore evaluator, fume extractor and single-axis stabilisation). It also has turret spotlight fitted to a bracket on right hand side edge of the turret roof. Appeared in 1954. It produced between 1954 and 1963.
*** PT-76B (PT-76 Model 4, Ob'yekt 740B) (1958) - PT-76 with a 76,2 mm D-56TS or D-56B rifled tank gun (double-baffle muzzle brake, cartridge ejector, fume extractor and STP-2P 'Zarya' 2-axis stabilization system), 7.62 mm PKT coaxial general purpose machine gun instead of 7.62 mm SGMT coaxial medium machine gun, TDA thermo smoke generating system, new R-113 radio set instead of the old 10-RT-26E radio set (It was later replaced by R-123 radio set), PAZ (protivo-atomnaya zashita) NBC protection system, automatic fire extinguishing system, improved TShK-2-66 sight, filtration-ventilation system, improved observation devices, improved electric equipment, new V-6B 6-cylinder 4-stroke in line water cooled diesel engine developing 263 hp (196 kW) at 1800 rpm and additional internal fuel tanks for which the shape of the armour had to be slightly changed. These additional internal fuel tanks increase the fuel capacity from 250 l to 400 l. The new engine is same engine that is used in one bank of that fitted to the T-54 main battle tank. Thanks to the new engine and additional fuel tanks, the range of the vehicle has gone up to 480 km on the road, 590 km on road with additional external fuel tanks and 120 km on the water. The 76,2 mm D-56TS or D-56B rifled tank gun could fire a new undercaliber AP projectile piercing up to 75 mm at 60° hitting angle from a range of 2,000 meters. One such round was added to PT-76B typical ammo load and so it now carried 41 duffrent rounds. The vehicle also has an increased height of the hull. This variant was produced between 1958 - 1969.
**** PT-71 (Not to be confused with Israeli PT-71) - PT-76B fitted with 9M14 "Malyutka" (NATO code: AT-3 Sagger) ATGM pack on the rear of the turret.
* PT-76A - A designator for different PT-76 and PT-76B models armed with 12.7 mm DShK 1938/46 antiaircraft heavy machine gun on a rotateable mount on top of the turret.
* PT-76 armed with a 57 mm autocanon.
* PT-76K - Command version with an additional antenna on the right hand side of the turret and a generator on the rear of the deck.

* PT-76M (Ob'yekt 740M) - PT-76 with improved amphibious features thanks to slightly larger displacement was developed for the Russian Navy Marines but was never adopted because it didn't had increased combat features so instead the Navy Marines adopted usual PT-76B with a snorkel, placed over ventilator preventing water from getting in.
* PT-85 (Ob'yekt 906) (Not to be confused with PT-85 with a cast turret or North Korean Type 82) - PT-76 armed with 85 mm rifled tank gun.
* PT-90 (Ob'yekt 906) - PT-76 armed with 90 mm rifled tank gun.
* PT-85 (Not to be confused with Ob'yekt 906 or North Korean Type 82) - PT-76 with a cast turret and a 85 mm gun. It was used during Invasion of Czechoslovakia.
* Objekt 280 - PT-76 fitted with 16x130mm multi barrel rocket launcher.
* PT-76RKh - PT-76 converted to a light amphibious NBC reconnaissance tank. It has a dome cupola and a flag marker on the rear.
* BTR-50 - PT-76 converted into an amphibious tracked APC. [http://www.fas.org/man/dod-101/sys/land/row/btr-50.htm] .
* Ob'yekt 914 - experimental IFV. The vehicle was developed in the early 1960s by a design team led by I. V. Gavalov at Volgograd Tractor Works (VTZ) and the prototype was ready for trials in 1964. It had similar armament to other BMP prototypes (but Ob'yekt 914 was also armed with two 7.62 mm PKT general purpose machine guns mounted in the hull on both sides of the driver). It had the crew of two and could transport up to eight fully equipped soldiers (two of whom operated the mentioned PKT machine guns). Its combat weight was 14.4 tons. After a series trials in 1964, the competitor Ob'yekt 765 was selected to become the new BMP-1 mostly because the rear engine design forced infantry to mount and dismount through the single door in the rear of the right hand side of the vehicle and roof hatches. Also it was felt that the Ob'yekt 764 had a better layout.
* MTP-1 PT-76 converted into a technical support vehicle.
* UR-67 (ustanovka razminirovaniya) - Mine-clearing vehicle equipped with a UR-67 rocket launcher system which has three launchers firing UZP-67 or UZR-3 tubes filled with explosives. The UZP-67 or UZR-3 are carried in a fabric tube container carried inside the hull of the vehicle. The mine clearing procedure is composed of driving the vehicle to the edge of a minefield and aligning it before the rockets are fired from its elevated launcher at the rear of the vehicle. As the rocket travels it tows the line charge, which is secured by a line to the launcher vehicle, across the minefield. The line charge is then positioned by the vehicle crew using the securing line and detonated to clear any mines in its vicinity. The cleared lane is usually 60 m to 150 m long and 2 m to 5 m wide. The vehicle has a crew of three. Some of the vehicles were based on BTR-50PK APC while some were based on PT-76 amphibious light tank. Used to be known in the West as MTK and MTK-1. Only a small number remains in service, most have been replaced by the UR-77.
* ZSU-23-4 - PT-76 converted into a self-propelled anti-aircraft gun.
* ASU-85 - PT-76 converted into an 85 mm airborne assault gun [http://www.fas.org/man/dod-101/sys/land/row/asu-85.htm] .
* FROG-2 "Mars" tactical missile launching vehicle. [http://www.fas.org/man/dod-101/sys/missile/row/frog-2.htm]
* FROG-5 "Luna" tactical missile launching vehicle. [http://www.fas.org/man/dod-101/sys/missile/row/frog-2.htm]
* 2K12 Kub - PT-76 converted into an anti-aircraft missile launching vehicle. NATO gave it a designation SA-6 Gainful. [http://www.fas.org/man/dod-101/sys/missile/row/frog-2.htm]

Former Czechoslovakia

* OT-62 TOPAS (OT-62 stands for "Obrněný Transportér vzor 62" - "Armoured Personnel Carrier model 62") ("TOPAS" stands for "Transportér Obrněný PÁSový" - "Tracked Armoured Personnel Carrier") - Series of BTR-50 variants developed jointly by Poland and Czechoslovakia. They are similar to BTR-50PK but have side hatches in the hull sides, stronger PV-6 engine with power of 300 hp (224 kW) and with two projecting bays like the BTR-50PU. [http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/europe/ot-62.htm] .

Former East Germany

* K1 - Designation for command versions with extra R-112 radio set of PT-76 Model 2 and PT-76B. [http://www.jedsite.info/tanks-papa/papa/pt-76_series/pt76-series.html "JED The Military Equipment Directory"] ]

Indonesia

* PT-76B fitted with Cockerill 76,2 mm tank gun (clean barrel with multi-slot muzzle-brake on end) and larger gunners sight.

Israel

* PT-71 (Not to be confused with Soviet PT-71) - PT-76 upgrade made by "Nimda Group Ltd.", which included a 90 mm Cockerill tank gun, a new machine gun, a new fire control system, laser range finder, night vision devices and a 300 hp (224 kW) diesel engine. The only known customers were Israeli army and Indonesian army. [http://nimda.co.il/projects2.html] .

North Korea

* PT-85 (Type 82) (Not to be confused with Ob'yekt 906 or PT-85 with a cast turret) - North Korea apart from using PT-76 also developed their own vehicle based partly on PT-76.

People's Republic of China

* Type 60 - The Chinese obtained a few PT-76 amphibious light tanks in mid 1950s. In October 1958, the PLA decided to develop an indigenous amphibious tank based on the PT-76 design. The development program was carried out by 201 Institute and 615 Factory. A prototype known as WZ221 was built and tested in 1959, but the design suffered from a number of problems including engine overheating. The PLA wasn't satisfied with the performance of the vehicle, which led to the development of a new vehicle based on Type 60, Type 63 amphibious light tank.

Poland

* PT-76 Model 2 with additional 12.7 mm DShK 1938/46 antiaircraft heavy machine gun on a rotatable mount and separate hatches for commander and loader.
* PT-76 Model 2 with additional periscopes fitted on right hand side of the turret roof.
* PT-76 Model 2 without the muzzle brake.
* PT-76B with additional 12.7 mm DShK 1938/46 antiaircraft heavy machine gun on a rotatable mount and separate hatches for commander and loader.
* OT-62 TOPAS (OT-62 stands for "Obrněný Transportér vzor 62" - "Armoured Personnel Carrier model 62") ("TOPAS" stands for "Transportér Obrněný PÁSový" - "Tracked Armoured Personnel Carrier") - Series of BTR-50 variants developed jointly by Poland and Czechoslovakia. They are similar to BTR-50PK but have side hatches in the hull sides, stronger PV-6 engine with power of 300 hp (224 kW) and with two projecting bays like the BTR-50PU. [http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/europe/ot-62.htm] .
* WPT-76 - Polish FROG launcher vehicle converted to an ARV.

Russia

* PT-76B fitted with a new B6M diesel engine developing 300 hp (224 kW) which increased the maximal road speed from 44 km/h to 45 km/h and maximal swimming speed from 10,2 km/h to 11,2 km/h. This increased the power to weight ratio from 17.1 hp/tonne (12.3 kW/tonne) to 19.5 hp/tonne (14.5 kW/tonne).
* PT-76E - The most recent PT-76 modernization program which increases vehicle's battle efficiency. Therefore it includes a radical growth of firepower which required a new turret with armament complex. It is armed with 57 mm autocannon (modification of 57 mm L/76.6 S-60 AA gun, this modified variant was developed by CB Burevestnik (Nizhniy Novgorod). The armor-penetrating tracer rounds fired from a range of 1,120 m can penetrate 100 mm of steel armour (corps of a modern tank). The new cannon can destroy modern APCs and IFVs from any range. The maximum inclined range of fire which allows firing at air targets is more than 6 km. The 57 mm autocannon can uses two types of staff unitary shots with the splinter-tracer or armor-penetrating-tracer shell. However, it is possible to fire with a special zenith shell. The autocannon can fire single shots or short bursts (2 to 5 rounds) or continuous bursts (up to 20 rounds). It can also continuously fire up to 120 rounds per minute. The automatic fire operates at the expense of each shot's energy and can be done without using an outward driving gear, as it is done on the majority of foreign autocannons. Because of that the construction could have acceptable mass-overall dimensions characteristics and does not demand any extra power sources. The gun can fired even at a lack of a power supply. The cannon is equipped with a special automatic machine which lets it charge and throw out the ammunition at high rates and provide a rate of fire of 120 rounds per minute. The ammunition can be placed in either the automatic gear (20 rounds in each) or in the mechanical one (72 rounds). The automatic gear is a machine carbine, which allows the usage of different ammunition. The change takes place in 2 to 4 seconds. The charger replenishes the ammunition gear. At that, no complicated manipulations are required as the next shell is chosen from the mechanic gear and is placed in the automatic one. The time of full replenishment is two minutes. Such construction doesn't have an equivalent in the rest of the world and is considered an original Russian design. The new turret is also armed with 7.62 mm PKT coaxial tank machine gun. The modern automatic fire control system is included for high-precision shooting. It operates together with the new 2-plane armament stabilizer. The FCS provides detection of targets in both day and night conditions and estimation of range it also determines shooting correction, has stabilization for both primary and secondary armament and allows shooting at land, above-water and air targets with any kind of shells. Sights and observation devices include combined sight Liga-S (developed by Public Corporation Peleng in Minsk) with independent stabilized vision line with optic, infrared and laser channels, as well as the double of the 1P67 zenith aim main sight. The corrections are made by ballistic calculator which operates together with a complex of automatic sensors of firing conditions. Such sensors include block of the main mirror of Liga-S sight, laser rangefinder, sensors of bank, course angle, tank speed and weather conditions. A part of necessary information is inputed manually this includes temperature of air and of a shell, deterioration of barrel, atmospheric pressure and other indexes as well. After all the information is inputed, the ballistic calculator works out automatic signals corresponding to the angles of sighting and forestalling, which are sent to the control block over the stabilizer and gears of biplanar armament stabilizer receive the corresponding aiming. Overall the firepower is 5.5 times greater in PT-76E than it is in PT-76B. To increase the maneuverability on land (the swimming maneuverability wasn't altered as the PT-76 still has no competition in that matter) the PT-76E is fitted with a more powerful UTD-20 6-cylinder 4-stroke V-shaped airless-injection water cooled multifuel 15.8 litre diesel engine developing 300 hp (224 kW) at 2,600 rpm from BMP-1 as well as the transmission from BMP-1. This allows an increase of the power to weight ratio up to 20 horsepower per ton. This also increases the maximum road speed from 44 km/h to 60 km/h, average cross country speed from 32 km/h to 42 km/h. The vehicle also includes new caterpillar tracks. The fatigability of the driver was also lessened. The vehicle's survivability on the battlefield is increased at the expense of new fast-acting firefighting system. The vehicle also has a scanning system, detection system of optical devices with automatic aiming directions. As soon as any optical device is caught by the system, FCS turns the turret in the automatic regime and prepares the information for shooting and aiming. When all is ready the gunner pushes the button to fire. The tank is also equipped with dynamic defense system, which lets it protect itself from grenades and ATCM with tandem battle parts. Such systems have already been tested in Russia. The vehicle also has complexes of optic-electronic interference in channels of anti-tank missiles control, as well as a complex of active defense. The vehicle also has new communication devices. The very process of PT-76 modernization is purely technological, and its laboriousness is comparatively low. That is attained at the expense of using module technology. The modernization may be run at enterprises possessing very little technological hardware. This modernization increases PT-76's battle possibilities by 2.7 times, which is comparatively low at insignificant expenses. The vehicle was accepted into service by Russian marines in 2006 and about 40 to 50 vehicles were ordered. [Voyenny Parad, No 3, 2005, pp. 72-74]

United States of America

* PT-76 used by the US Army for OpFor training. They were modified in a number of ways including the replacement of the engine with a caterpillar diesel engine, changing the turret hatch to a rear hinged arrangement and the fitting of US radios and antennae mounts. Due to the new engines different exhaust arrangements the exhausts were rerouted to use the water jet ports rather than the original engine exhaust.

Vietnam

* PT-76 fitted with an antiaircraft machine gun on top of the turret.

Operators

* - 60 as of 1996. [http://www.pancerni.abajt.pl/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=59&Itemid=71&limit=1&limitstart=1 "Pancerni 2"] ]
* - 150
* - 12 as of 1996.
* - 20 as of 1996.
* - 5
* -
* - 10
* - 50 served with the Cuban Marines as of 1996. Originally 60 were bought from 1970s onwards.
* -
* - 20 as of now in service, 18 were in service as of 1996.
* - 20
* -
* - 100 as of 1990 and 1995, 90 as of 1996, 2000, 2002 and 2005. [ [http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/india/army-equipment.htm Army Equipment ] ]
* - 30 PT-76B amphibious light tanks as of now are in service with the Marine Corps. 130 were originally bought. 60 were in service with the Marine Corps as of 1996.
* - Captured a number of Syrian and/or Egyptian PT-76 amphibious light tank during Six Day War (1967) and Yom Kippur War (1973).
* - 25 as of now in service, 30 were in service as of 1996.
* - 32
* - One battalion of PT-76 amphibious light tanks and Type 62 light tanks.
* - 16
* - 10
* - 100 as of 1985, 600 as of 1990, 550 as of 1995 and 2000, 400 as of 2002 and 560 as of 2005. North Korea also operates a number of North Korean PT-85 amphibious light tanks. [ [http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/dprk/kpa-equipment.htm Equipment Holdings - Korean People's Army ] ]
* -
* - 3
* - 1,100 in 1996, 150 in 2000, 2003 and 2005. As of now there are 79 PT-76 amphibious light tanks in service, 78 of which are currently used by the marines, 1 is at a tank repair base. [ [http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/russia/army-equipment.htm Russian Army Equipment ] ]
* - 100 as of 1996.
* - 20
* - 300 as of now in service, 500 were in service as of as of 1996. Vietnam also operates a number of North Korean PT-85 amphibious light tanks.
* - 30

Former Operators

* - 8, not used since 2000. [ [http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/belarus/army-equipment.htm Belarus Army Equipment ] ]
* - 9 captured from JNA, later scrapped.
* - Bought only 1 PT-76 for testing [ [http://www.vojenstvi.cz/verteneverte-2003.htm Věřte Nevěřte historii Armády České republiky ] ]
* - PT-76 Model 2 and PT-76B, passed on to the unified German state.
* - 15
* Iraq - 100 in service with Iraqi Regular Army in 1990, 1995, 2000, 2002 and 2003. All destroyed or scrapped. [ [http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/iraq/ground-equipment.htm Iraqi Ground Forces Equipment ] ]
* North Vietnam - Passed on to the successor state.
* - Designed a copy of PT-76, Type 60 but was unsatisfied and therefore it was replaced by a Chinese design, Type 63.
* - 30 PT-76 Model 2 and PT-76B amphibious light tanks as of 1996. They served with reconnaissance subunits of tank divisions and mechanized divisions and Coast Defense units including the 7th Lusatian Landing Division (officially known as 7th Coast Defense Division). Poland also used FROG-5 "Luna" tactical missile launcher vehicle. Some of them were converted into WPT-76 ARVs. All PT-76 amphibious light tanks and vehicles based on it were withdrawn from service.
* - About 12,000 produced (about 10,000 for Red Army and about 2,000 for export). About 1,113 were in service during the breakout of USSR. They were passed on to successor states.
* - 5, not used since 2000. [ [http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/ukraine/groundforces-equipment.htm Ground Forces Equipment - Ukraine ] ]
* - The US Army used a number of PT-76 amphibious light tanks in the OPFOR role for training.
*/GER - PT-76 Model 2 and PT-76B, taken from GDR's army. All were scrapped or sold to other countries.
* - 100 delivered in 1963 [http://www.mycity-military.com/Uploads/2705_5481073_Trade-Register-1950-2007.rtf Trade Register 1950 to 2007] ] , passed on to successor states.
* - 5, withdrawn.

ee also

*M551 Sheridan - the US "answer" to the PT-76.

References

External links

* [http://www.fas.org/man/dod-101/sys/land/row/pt-76.htm PT-76] at FAS.org
* [http://www.enemyforces.com/tanks/pt76.htm PT-76 Light Tank] at enemyforces.com
* [http://armoured.vif2.ru/pt-76.htm PT-76 description (in Russian) and photo gallery] at armoured.vif2.ru
* [http://www.battletanks.com/pt-76.htm PT-76 Model 2] at battletanks.com
* [http://www.sinodefence.com/army/tank/type63.asp Chinese Type 63] at sinodefence.com
* [http://www.urrib2000.narod.ru/Tanques2-e.html Cuban PT-76]


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