- Bethesda, Gwynedd
infobox UK place
country = Wales
postcode_district = LL57
postcode_area= LL |dial_code= 01248
map_type= location map|Wales Gwynedd|label=|position=left|float=none|long=-4.06|lat=53.16|caption=|width=190
Bethesda is a
townlying on the River Ogwenand the A5 roadon the edge of Snowdonia, in Gwynedd, north-west Wales, colloquially called "Pesda" by the locals.
The town grew around the slate and stone
quarrying industry, the largest of the local quarries being the Penrhyn Quarry. At its peak, it was exporting its dark blue-green slateall over the world, and in so doing it gained a reputation for being the world's best. The town was the site of a famous three-year strike led by the North Wales Quarrymen's Unionfrom 1900. This led to the creation of the nearby village of Tregarth, built by the quarry owners, which housed the families of the workers who did not strike.
During its heyday, the
populationof Bethesda peaked at 10,000 people, but it is currently around 4,327 people (2001 census). Current opportunities for employment are limited within the town. It is home to a small number of manufacturing businesses, although the majority of businesses are in the low-paid service sectorand hospitality industry. For employment with higher earning potential, residents tend to commuteto towns along the North Wales Coast. Bangor is the most popular location, however, some will travel as far as Cheshireon a daily basis.The lack of degree-based employment opportunities is one of the main reasons many of the younger people relocate out of the area to places such as Cardiffand Manchesteras soon as they are qualified.
The architecture and layout of the town is largely utilitarian. Most of the buildings are constructed of stone with slate roofs. Some are constructed wholly of slate blocks although such buildings tend to suffer from damp and structural slippage because the very flat and smooth surfaces of slate do not bind well to mortar.
Most of the town is to the east and north east of the A5 road with housing packed onto the hill-side in irregular rows. This was due to the A5 marking the border of Lord Penrhyn's land, and the
freeholdland. This can still be seen in the layout of the current high street where all the public houses are only found on one side of the road. The upper parts of Carneddi, Cilfodan and Tany y Foel owe more to stone quarrying on the nearby hills rather than slate quarrying that supported the lower end of the town. At the eastern limits, the town is bounded by the rising land of the Carneddaumountains which form some of the more remote landscapes of Snowdonia. Many people who live in little villages that are a part of Bethesda, such as Gerlan, Rachub and Braichmelyn.
Bethesda is noted for both the number of
chapels (mostly dating from the 1904-1905 Welsh Revival) and pubs in the town. The town was in fact named after the Bethesda Chapel, which was recently converted into residential flats. Considered by some infamous for its pubs, there are no less than ten public establishments that serve alcohol in the Bethesda area (excluding Tregarth). It is noted throughout the surrounding area that the busiest night in Bethesda is Sunday, not the typical Saturdays or Fridays. One well known pub is the Douglas Arms, which continues to accept shillings and old penceat the bar. (This pub was named after the family which owned the nearby Penrhyn Quarry.)
Welsh is the main language of the village, and can be seen and heard in most settings. According to the
United Kingdom Census 2001, 77.0% of the residents are Welsh-speaking, higher than the average for both Gwyneddand Wales as a whole.
S4Cseries "Amdani!" was based on a fictitious women's rugbyteam in Bethesda, and many of the location shots were filmed in the area. The series was based on the novel of the same name, by Bethan Gwanas, who lived in the town at the time.
Bethesda is the birthplace of Welsh novelist and poet
Caradog Prichard, author of "Un Nos Ola' Leuad", and of the singer Leila Megane. It was the childhood home of Gruff Rhysthe lead singer of Super Furry Animalswho grew up in the area known as Rachub/ Llanllechid. Welsh folk/rock group Celt also hail from Bethesda, as do Fend-15 members Gareth John Davies (drums) and Huw Pritchard (tambourine) and the solo artist Settembre Luna.
* [http://www.geograph.org.uk/search.php?i=3490983 www.geograph.co.uk : photo of Bethesda and surrounding area]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.