Avro Lancastrian


Avro Lancastrian

infobox Aircraft
name = Lancastrian
type = Passenger and mail transport
manufacturer = Avro




caption =
designer = Roy Chadwick
first flight = 1943
introduced = 1945 (BOAC)
retired = 1960s
status =
primary user = BOAC
more users = Trans Canada Airlines Alitalia Royal Air Force
produced = 1943-1945
number built = 91 (including conversions)
unit cost =
developed from = Avro Lancaster
variants with their own articles =

The Avro 691 Lancastrian was a British passenger and mail transport aircraft of the 1940s and 1950s developed from the Avro Lancaster bomber (an inhabitant of Lancaster city is a Lancastrian).

The Lancastrian was very similar to the Lancaster, differing primarily in having all of the armament removed and faired over, and a streamlined non-glazed metal nose. The Avro York was a similar conversion with a redesigned fuselage.

Design and development

In 1943, Avro through its wartime Victory Aircraft Canadian subsidiary converted a Lancaster X bomber for civil transport duties with Trans-Canada Airlines ("TCQ"). This conversion was a success resulting in eight additional Lancaster Xs being converted. The "specials" were powered by Packard-built Merlin 38 engines and featured a lengthened, streamlined nose and tail cone. Range was enhanced by two 400-gallon Lancaster long-range fuel tanks fitted as standard in the bomb bay. These Lancastrians were used by TCA on its Montreal–Prestwick route.

Operational history

In 1945, deliveries commenced of 30 British-built Lancastrians for BOAC. On a demonstration flight on 23 April 1945, "G-AGLF" flew 13,500 miles (21,700 km) from England to Auckland, New Zealand in three days, 14 hours at an average speed of 220 mph (354 km/h).

Since the Lancastrian had rather limited cubic capacity yet was fast and had a long range, it was most suited for transport of mail and VIP passengers. BOAC used it for flights between England and Australia from 31 May 1945. It also served with the RAF, one of whose planes named "Aries" (before conversion to a Lancastrian for the North Pole flight) a Lancaster I number PD328 completed the first airborne circumnavigation of the globe, as well as serving with QANTAS and Flota Aerea Mercante Argentina.

Lancastrians were also used during the Berlin Airlift to transport petrol; 15 aircraft made over 5,000 trips.

Lancastrians were also used for tests of various turboprop and jet engines. One powered with Rolls-Royce Nene turbojets is credited with the first international passenger jet flight from London to Paris on 23 November 1946; the flight time was just 41 minutes.

tar Dust

On 2 August 1947, Lancastrian "G-AGWH" "Star Dust" of British South American Airways crashed in the Argentine Andes after sending a cryptic radio message, what became known as the "Stendec incident". The wreckage was found 50 years later but the radio message remains a puzzle. "Stendec" was later adopted as the name of a UFO magazine.

The probable cause of the crash was a navigation error due to the then unknown effect of fast-moving, high altitude airstreams. Headwinds meant that dead reckoning of their position was inaccurate and the pilot started the descent while the plane was still over and not past the crest of the Andes mountains.

It was found that the aircraft's wreckage had moved several miles due to the movement of the glacier that it fell onto.

Variants

;Lancaster XPP:Nine built by converting Lancasters at Victory Aircraft Ltd Canada.;Lancastrian C.1:Nine-seat transport aircraft for BOAC and Qantas. Royal Air Force designation Lancastrian C.1 to Specification 16/44. A total of 23 built by Avro;Lancastrian C.2:Nine-seat military transport aircraft for the RAF. A total of 33 built by Avro;Lancastrian 3:13-seat transport aircraft for British South American Airways. A total of 18 built by Avro;Lancastrian C.4:Ten to 13-seat military transport aircraft for the RAF. Eight built by Avro

Operators

Civil Operators

;ARG
*Flota Aerea Mercante Argentina;AUS
*Qantas;flag|Canada|1921
*Trans Canada Airlines;ITA
*Alitalia;UK
*British European Airways
*British Overseas Airways Corporation (BOAC)
*British South American Airways
*Flight Refuelling Limited
*Silver City
*Skyways Limited

Military Operators

;ARG
*Argentine Air Force;UK
*Royal Air Force
** No. 24 Squadron RAF
** No. 231 Squadron RAF
** No. 232 Squadron RAF

pecifications (Lancastrian C.1)

aircraft specifications
plane or copter?=plane
jet or prop?=prop
ref=
crew=5
capacity=9 passengers
payload main=3,560 kg of mail
payload alt=
length main= 76 ft 10 in
length alt=23.4 m
span main=102 ft
span alt=31.1 m
height main=19 ft 6 in
height alt=5.9 m
area main= 1,297 ft²
area alt= 120.5 m²
airfoil=
empty weight main= 30,426 lb
empty weight alt= 13,800 kg
loaded weight main=65,000 lb
loaded weight alt= 29,480 kg
useful load main=
useful load alt=
max takeoff weight main=
max takeoff weight alt=
more general=
engine (jet)=
type of jet=
number of jets=
thrust main=
thrust alt=
thrust original=
afterburning thrust main=
afterburning thrust alt=
engine (prop)=Rolls Royce Merlin 12
type of prop=piston
number of props=4
power main= 1,250 hp
power alt=930 kW
power original=
max speed main= 310 mph at 5,000 ft
max speed alt= 500 km/h at 1,520 m
cruise speed main=
cruise speed alt=
stall speed main=
stall speed alt=
never exceed speed main=
never exceed speed alt=
range main= 4,150 miles
range alt=6,680 km
ceiling main= 23,000 ft
ceiling alt= 7,000 m
climb rate main=750 ft/min
climb rate alt= 230 m/min
loading main=
loading alt=
thrust/weight=
power/mass main=
power/mass alt=
more performance=
armament=
avionics=

ee also

aircontent
related=
*Avro Lancaster
*Avro York

similar aircraft=

lists=

see also=List of aircraft of the RAF

References

Notes

Bibliography

* Franks, Richard A. "The Avro Lancaster, Manchester and Lincoln: A Comprehensive Guide for the Modeller". London: SAM Publications, 2000. ISBN 0-9533465-3-6.
* Holmes, Harry. "Avro Lancaster (Combat Legend series)". Shrewsbury, UK: Airlife Publishing Ltd., 2002. ISBN 1-84037-376-8.
* Jackson, A.J. "Avro Aircraft since 1908, 2nd edition". London: Putnam Aeronautical Books, 1990. ISBN 0-85177-834-8.
* Mackay, R.S.G. "Lancaster in action". Carrollton, Texas: Squadron/Signal Publications Inc., 1982. ISBN 0-89747-130-X.
* Milberry, Larry. "The Canadair North Star". Toronto: CANAV Books, 1982. ISBN 0-07-549965-7.
*Taylor, John W. R. "Avro Lancaster." "Combat Aircraft of the World from 1909 to the present". New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1969. ISBN 0-425-03633-2.

External links

* [http://www.britishaircraft.co.uk/aircraftpage.php?ID=712 British Aircraft Directory]
* [http://www.jaapteeuwen.com/ww2aircraft/html%20pages/avro%20691%20lancastrian.htm British Aircraft of WWII]


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