Pali; Skt.) is a Buddhistterm referring to multiple intrapsychic processes and is generally translated as "faculty" or, in specific contexts, as "spiritual faculty" or "controlling principle." [Bodhi (2000) translates "indriya" as "spiritual faculty" and, at times (particularly when referring to Abhidhammic sources), "faculty." Buddhaghosa & Ñāṇamoli (1999) consistently translate "indriya" simply as "faculty" both in the context of the five spiritual faculties (e.g., pp. 128-9) and the 22 phenomenological faculties (Ch. XVI). Conze (1993) mentions and uses translations of "faculty," "controlling faculty" and "spiritual faculty," and refers to the five "indriya" as "cardinal virtues." Thanissaro (1998) uses "faculty." Rhys Davids & Stede (1921-25), p. 122-123, [http://dsal.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/philologic/getobject.pl?c.0:1:3218.pali entry for "Indriya," (retrieved 2007-05-27)] defines it as: "Indriya is one of the most comprehensive & important categories of Buddhist psychological philosophy & ethics, meaning 'controlling principle, directive force, élan, dynamis'...: (a) with reference to sense-perceptibility 'faculty, function'...."] The term literally means "belonging to Indra," chief deity in the Rig Vedaand lord of IAST|Tāvatiṃsa heaven, [Indra is known as Sakkain the Pali Canon.] hence connoting supremacy, dominance and control. [Bodhi (2000), p. 1509; Conze (1993), "n". 1; Rhys Davids & Stede (1921-25), p. 122, entry "indriya"; and, Thanissaro (1998), Part II, sec. E, "The Five Faculties."]
In Buddhism, depending on the context, "indriya" traditionally refers to one of the following groups of faculties:
* the "Five Spiritual Faculties"
* five or six sensory faculties
* 22 phenomenological faculties.
5 Spiritual Faculties
Pali Canon's Sutta Pitaka, "indriya" is frequently encountered in the context of the "five spiritual faculties" (Pali: "IAST|pañc' indriyāni") comprised of::# faith or conviction or belief ("IAST|saddhā"):# energy or persistence or perseverence (" viriya"):# mindfulnessor memory ("sati"):# concentration or focus ("IAST| samādhi") :# wisdom or understanding or comprehension ("IAST|pañña"). Together, this set of five facutlies is one of the seven sets of qualities lauded by the Buddhaas conducive to Enlightenment. [While the Pali commentaries consistently use the term " bodhipakkhiyā dhammā" ("states conducive to enlightenment") to refer to "seven sets" of enlightement qualities (i.e., the four frames of reference, four right exertions, four bases of power, five faculties, five powers, seven bojjhanga, and Noble Eightfold Path) (see, e.g., Bodhi, 2000, p. 1937, "n". 235), a search of the Sinhala SLTP tipitaka (using La Trobe University's search engine at http://www.chaf.lib.latrobe.edu.au/dcd/pali.htm) finds the Pali phrase "bodhipakkhiyā dhammā" occurring only once in the early suttas: in the "Sālā Sutta" (SN 48.51) where the term references solely these five spiritual faculties of faith, energy, mindfulness, concentration and wisdom (Bodhi, 2000, p. 1695).]
SN 48.10 is one of several discourses that charactizes these spiritual faculties in the following manner::* Faith/Conviction is faith in the Buddha's awakening. [Alternatively, SN 48.8 and AN V.15 identify "faith" as referring to the four-fold faith of the stream-enterer which Conze (1993), "n". 28, and Nyanaponika & Bodhi (1999), p. 297, "n". 9, identify as faith in the
Triple Gemand "perfect morality."] :* Energy/Persistence refers to exertion towards the Four Right Efforts.:* Mindfulness refers to focusing on the four satipatthana.:* Concentration refers to achieving the four jhanas.:* Wisdom/Understanding refers to discerning the Four Noble Truths. [Bodhi (2000), pp. 1671-73; and, Thanissaro (1997a).]
In SN 48.51, the Buddha declares that, of these five faculties, wisdom is the "chief" ("agga"). [Bodhi (2000), p. 1695.]
Balancing the spiritual faculties
In AN 6.55, the Buddha counsels a discouraged monk, Sona, to balance or "tune" his spiritual faculties as one would a musical instrument::"... what do you think: when the strings of your [lute] were neither too taut nor too loose, but tuned to be right on pitch, was your [lute] in tune & playable?"
:"In the same way, Sona, over-aroused persistence leads to restlessness, overly slack persistence leads to laziness. Thus you should determine the right pitch for your persistence, attune the pitch of the [five] faculties [to that] , and there pick up your theme." [Thanissaro (1997b). See also Nyanaponika & Bodhi (1999), pp. 168-70. Following Nyanaponika & Bodhi, the Pali word "IAST|vīṇā" (which Thanissaro leaves untranslated) is translated here as "lute"; other square-bracketed phrases are from Thanissaro (1997b). In Nyanaponika & Bodhi (1999), they translate this excerpt's last line as: "Therefore, SoIAST|ṇa, keep your energy in balance, penetrate to a balance of the spiritual faculties, and there seize your object." In the associated end note (pp. 301-2, n. 31), they provide the commentary's interpretation of "object" ("nimitta") as: "When such balance exists, the object can arise clearly, just like the reflection of the face in a mirror; and you should seize this object, be it of tranquillity, insight, path or fruition."]
Visuddhimaggaand other post-canonical Pali commentaries [For instance, in an end note associated with AN 6.55, Nyanaponika & Bodhi (1999, pp. 301-2, n. 31) reference the "IAST|Aṅguttara Aṭṭhakathā" (AN commentary).] caution against one spiritual faculty overpowering and inhibiting the other four faculties, and thus generally recommend modifying the overpowering faculty with the investigation of states (see " dhamma vicaya") or the development of tranquillity (" samatha"). Moreover, these commentaries especially recommend that the five spiritual faculties be developed in counterbalancing dyads: Mindfulness Faith Under-
Mindfulness "The balancing of the five spiritual faculties."
* "For one strong in faith and weak in understanding has confidence uncritically and groundlessly. One strong in understanding and weak in faith errs on the side of cunning and is as hard to cure as one sick of a disease caused by medicine. With the balancing of the two a man has confidence only when there are grounds for it." (Vism. Ch. IV, §47, ¶1)
* "... [I] dleness overpowers one strong in concentration and weak in energy, since concentration favours idleness. Agitation overpowers one strong in energy and weak in concentration, since energy favours agitation. But concentration coupled with energy cannot lapse into idleness, and energy coupled with concentration cannot lapse into agitation. So these two should be balanced ; for absorption comes with the balancing of the two." (Vism. Ch. IV, §47, ¶2)
* "... One working on concentration needs strong faith, since it is with such faith and confidence that he reaches absorption." (Vism. Ch. IV, §48)
* "... Then there is [balancing of] concentration and understanding. One working on concentration needs strong unification, since that is how he reaches absorption; and one working on insight needs strong understanding, since that is how he reaches penetration of characteristics; but with the balancing of the two he reaches absorption as well." (Vism. Ch. IV, §48)The commentator
* "Strong mindfulness, however, is needed in all instances; for mindfulness protects the mind lapsing into agitation through faith, energy and understanding, which favour agitation, and from lapsing into idleness through concentration, which favours idleness." (Vism. Ch. IV, §49). [Direct quotes from the Visuddhimagga are from Buddhaghosa & IAST|Ñāṇamoli (1999), pp. 128-9. Also mentioned in Bodhi (2000), p. 1511; and, Conze (1993), Part II, sec. 5, "The Balance of the Faculties."]
Relation to the Five Powers
In SN 48.43, the Buddha declares that the Five Spriritual Faculties are the
Five Powersand vice-versa. He uses the metaphor of a stream passing by a mid-stream island; the island creates two streams, but the streams can also be seen as one and the same. [Bodhi (2000), pp. 1688-89.] The Pali commentaries remark that these five qualities are "faculties" when used to control their spheres of influence, and are "powers" when unshakeable by opposing forces. [Bodhi (2000), p. 1511.]
5 Material or 6 Sensory Faculties
In the Sutta Pitaka, six sensory faculties are referenced in a manner similar to the six sense bases. These faculties are::# eye/vision faculty ("cakkh-undriya"):# ear/hearing faculty ("sot-indriya"):# nose/smell faculty (IAST|"ghān-indriya"):# tongue/taste faculty ("jivh-indriya"):# body/sensibility faculty (IAST|"kāy-indriya"):# mind faculty ("man-indriya")The first five of these faculties are sometimes referenced as the five material faculties (e.g., "IAST|pañcannaṃ indriyānaṃ avakanti"). [Rhys Davids & Stede (1921-25), pp. 122-23.]
22 Phenomenological Faculties
Abhidhamma Pitaka, the notion of "indriya" is expanded to the twenty-two "phenomenological faculties" or "controlling powers" (Pali: "IAST|bāvīsati indriyāni") [Bodhi (2000), pp. 1508-1509, refers to these 22 faculties as "phenomenological faculties"; while Rhys Davids & Stede (1921-25), p. 122-3, entry on "indriya" refers to these 22 faculties as "controlling powers."] which are:
* six sensory faculties:# eye/vision faculty ("cakkh-undriya"):# ear/hearing faculty ("sot-indriya"):# nose/smell faculty (IAST|"ghān-indriya"):# tongue/taste faculty ("jivh-indriya"):# body/sensibility faculty (IAST|"kāy-indriya"):# mind faculty ("man-indriya")
* three physical faculties:# femininity ("itth-indriya"):# masculinity ("puris-indriya"):# life or vitality (IAST|"jīvit-indriya")
* five feeling faculties [The five feeling faculties are essentially an expanded scale of the three
vedana, where pleasant and unpleasant feelings/sensations are divided between physical and mental experiences (see, e.g., Bodhi, 2000, p. 1510).] :# physical pleasure ("sukh-indriya"):# physical pain ("dukkh-indriya"):# mental joy ("somanasa-indriya"):# mental grief ("domanass-indriya"):# indifference ("upekh-indriya")
* five spiritual faculties:# faith ("IAST|saddh-indriya"):# energy ("viriy-indriya"):#
mindfulness("sat-indriya"):# concentration ("IAST| samādhi-indriya") :# wisdom ("IAST|paññ-indriya")
* three final-knowledge faculties :# thinking "I shall know the unknown" ("IAST|anaññāta-ñassāmīt-indriya"):# gnosis ("IAST|aññ-indriya"):# one who knows ("IAST|aññātā-vindriya")
According to the post-canonical
Visuddhimagga, the 22 faculties along with such constructs as the aggregates, sense bases, Four Noble Truthsand Dependent Originationare the "soil" of wisdom ("IAST|paññā"). [Buddhaghosa & IAST|Ñāṇamoli (1999), pp. 442-443.]
Other faculty groupings
At times in the Pali Canon, different discourses or Abhidhammic passages will refer to different subsets of the 22 phenomenological faculties. Thus, for instance, in the
Abhidhammathere are references to the "eightfold form-faculty" ("IAST|aṭṭhavidhaṃ indriya-rūpaṃ") which includes the first five sensory faculties (eye, ear, nose, tongue and body faculties) plus the three physical faculties (femininity, masculinity and vitality). [See, for instance, Dhs. 709-717, 971-973 (Rhys Davids, 2003, pp. 215-217, 247); and, Rhys Davids & Stede (1921-25), pp. 122-123.]
* Bodhi, Bhikkhu (trans.) (2000). "The Connected Discourses of the Buddha: A Translation of the Samyutta Nikaya". Boston: Wisdom Publications. ISBN 0-86171-331-1.
Buddhaghosa, Bhadantacariya & Bhikkhu IAST|Ñāṇamoli (trans.) (1999). "The Path of Purification: Visuddhimagga". Seattle, WA: BPS Pariyatti Editions. ISBN 1-928706-00-2.
* Conze, Edward (1980, 1993). "The Way of Wisdom: The Five Spiritual Faculties" (The Wheel Publication No. 65/66). Kandy:
Buddhist Publication Society. Retrieved on 2007-05-27 from "Access to Insight" at: http://www.accesstoinsight.org/lib/authors/conze/wheel065.html.
Nyanaponika Thera& Bhikkhu Bodhi (trans.) (1999). "Numerical Discourses of the Buddha: An Anthology of Suttas from the Anguttara Nikaya". Kandy, Sri Lanka: Buddhist Publication Society. ISBN 0-7425-0405-0.
* Rhys Davids, Caroline A. F. (  , 2003). "Buddhist Manual of Psychological Ethics, of the Fourth Century B.C., Being a Translation, now made for the First Time, from the Original Pāli, of the First Book of the IAST|Abhidhamma-Piṭaka, entitled IAST|Dhamma-Sangaṇi (Compendium of States or Phenomena)". Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 0-7661-4702-9.
* Rhys Davids, T.W. & William Stede (eds.) (1921-5). "The Pali Text Society’s Pali–English Dictionary". Chipstead:
Pali Text Society. A general on-line search engine for the PED is available at http://dsal.uchicago.edu/dictionaries/pali/.
Thanissaro Bhikkhu(1996, 1998). "Wings to Awakening: An Anthology from the Pali Canon". Retrieved 2007-05-27 from "Access to Insight" at: http://www.accesstoinsight.org/lib/authors/thanissaro/wings/index.html.
* Thanissaro Bhikkhu (trans.) (1997a). "Indriya-vibhanga Sutta: Analysis of the Mental Faculties" (SN 48.10). Retrieved 2007-05-27 from "Access to Insight" at: http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/sn/sn48/sn48.010.than.html.
* Thanissaro Bhikkhu (trans.) (1997b). "Sona Sutta: About Sona" (AN 6.55). Retrieved 2008-04-15 from "Access to Insight" at http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/an/an06/an06.055.than.html.
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