Chronology of the Irish Civil War


Chronology of the Irish Civil War

The Irish Civil War, was fought between June 1922 and May 1923. On one side was the National Army of the Irish Free State established by the Anglo-Irish Treaty which ended the Irish War of Independence (1919-1921) with Britain. Opponents of the Treaty, which included the majority of the Irish Republican Army of 1919-1921, fought against the newly established Free State. They are referred to here as the Anti-Treaty IRA.

The Government of the Irish Free State (established as a Provisional Government in January 1922 and as a full government in December of that year), was ultimately victorious, the Anti-Treaty forces calling a ceasefire in April 1923 and ordering their men to "dump arms" in May.

This page aims to give a chronology of the major events of this conflict. The war involved both conventional warfare (from late June to August 1922) when the Free State forces took the major towns and cities and then a longer period of guerrilla warfare (September 1922 to April 1923) as the Anti-Treaty guerrillas were gradually brought to a standstill.

1922

January

*7 January, The Anglo-Irish Treaty is passed in the Dail (Parliament of the Irish Republic) by 64 votes to 57.

*14 January, A Provisional Government is set up to administer the handover from British rule to the new Irish Free State. The Cabinet is almost the same as that of the Irish Republic, with the exception of Éamon de Valera, Cathal Brugha and Austin Stack, who resign over the acceptance of the Treaty.

February

*February 18 An anti-treaty IRA unit under Ernie O'Malley seizes an RIC barracks in Clonmel, taking 40 policemen prisoner and capturing 600 rifles and thousands of rounds of ammunition.

*Anti-Treaty IRA leader Seamus Robinson closes down the Clonmel Nationalist newspaper over its support for the Treaty. Rory O'Connor has the Freeman's Journal closed down for the same reason.

March

*March, A stand-off occurs in Limerick between 700 pro-treaty IRA men under Michael Brennan and 800 anti treaty IRA fighters under Ernie O'Malley over who will take over the military barracks, which were being abandoned by British troops. After negotiations between the Mayor of Limerick, O'Mara, Anti-Treaty leader Liam Lynch and Pro-Treaty leader Richard Mulcahy, fighting is averted. It is decided that troops from outside Limerick will return to their own areas and that Limerick IRA men would divide the two military garrisons there between pro and anti-treaty units. Limerick Corporation will oversee the maintenance of the RIC barracks.

*More confrontations result over the occupation of former British garrisons at Birr, Renmore and Templemore.

*26 March, IRA leaders meet in an "Army Convention" and vote to repudiate the Treaty. They also reject the authority of the Dáil to accept the Treaty and set up their own 16 man "Army Executive", led by Liam Mellows and Rory O'Connor."See Also IRA and the Anglo-Irish Treaty"

*29 March Anti-Treaty IRA units in Cork under Sean Hegarty capture the British warship "Upnor" at sea. They take between 400 and 1,500 rifles, 60 machine guns, 700 handguns and over 25,000 rounds of ammunition, which they then distribute to Anti-Treaty IRA units.

*March, The Provisional Government's newly formed National Army takes over the British barracks at Beggar's Bush in Dublin.

April

*14 April, Rory O'Connor, Mellows and others lead 200 Anti-Treaty IRA men in taking over the Four Courts and several other public buildings around Dublin in a show of defiance calculated to provoke a response by the British troops still stationed in Dublin.

*Pro-Treaty Brigadier General Adamson is shot dead by Republicans in Athlone in a dispute over who would occupy the military barracks there.

May

*2 May, Republicans take over the centre of Kilkenny, including the city hall and Kilkenny Castle. The Provisional government sends 200 troops by train from Dublin to dislodge them. Fighting breaks out when the troops from Dublin arrive and there are up to 18 casualties. A truce is then brokered whereby both sides garrison different posts in the town.

*May 3 Pro and anti-Treaty leaders announce a "truce" in the Dail to try and prevent civil war.

*May 20 Michael Collins and Eamon de Valera sign a Pact, in which the pro and anti treaty wings of Sinn Féin would jointly contest the upcoming first election of the new state.

June

*Eamon de Valera repudiates the election pact with Collins.

*18 June, Irish general election, 1922, The Pro Treaty Sinn Féin party wins the election with 239,193 votes to 133,864 for anti-Treaty Sinn Féin. A further 247,226 people voted for other parties, all of whom supported the Treaty.

*22 June, Assassination in London of Henry Hughes Wilson by IRA men in retaliation for attacks on Catholics in Northern Ireland. Research will eventually come to suggest that it's Pro-Treaty leader Michael Collins who orders the killing, but at the time, Winston Churchill assumes that the Anti-Treaty Four Courts garrison is responsible and warns Collins that if he does not act, British troops will be used to re-take Dublin. The assassins are hanged by the British on 10 August.

*27 June, The Four Courts garrison kidnap's Free State General J.J. O'Connell. Collins gives a final ultimatum to the Four Courts garrison to surrender before they are attacked.
*28 June - 5 July, Battle of Dublin

*28 June, Michael Collins borrows two British 18 pounder field guns to bombard the Four Courts, marking the definitive start of the Civil War.

*Fighting breaks out in Drogheda between pro and anti treaty units. One man on either side and a woman civilian are killed in a gun battle in the town. Many other civilians including the town's mayor are wounded. The Republicans are left in control of the town. The Anti-Treaty fighters blow up the railway bridge to the south of Drogheda, isolating it from Dublin.

*29 June, British give Collins two more 18 pounders to increase the bombardment of the Four Courts. Free State troops storm the eastern buildings of the complex, losing 3 dead and 14 wounded.

*Oscar Traynor leads Anti-Treaty members of the IRA's 1st Dublin Brigade to occupy O'Connell Street in order to help the Four Courts garrison. His men also take up positions in York St., South Circular Road, Capel St, Parnell Square and Dolphins Barn.

*Skirmish in Listowel county Kerry, Free State troops surrender their arms to Republicans.

*30 June, Anti-Treaty commander in the Four Courts, Paddy O'Brien is wounded by shrapnel. Ernie O'Malley assumes command. In the morning there is a truce to remove the wounded. Shortly afterwards, a massive explosion destroys the western wing of the Four Courts and the Irish Public Records Office along with it. It is thought to have been caused when fires from the artillery bombardment set off munitions stored there, although Free State troops claim that the building was mined. 20 Free State soldiers are maimed in the blast. O'Malley surrenders the Four Courts when Oscar Traynor sends word that he cannot break through to help them. Members of the IRA Army Executive Liam Mellows, Rory O'Connor, Joe McKelvey and Dick Barret are among the prisoners, but O'Malley himself escapes.

July

*1 July Free State troops take Republican outposts in the south of Dublin city and throw a cordon around their concentration on O'Connell street. About 400 Anti-Treaty prisoners are taken in the operation.

*Anti-Treaty IRA in county Sligo ambush National Army troops at Carrigarat.

*2 July, In Dublin, the Republican garrison of thirty men in Moran's hotel on the corner of Gardiner street and Talbot street surrender after being shelled at close range by artillery.

*Fighting breaks out in Boyle, County Roscommon, when Republicans attack Free State held buildings. Casualties include National Army officer Michael Dockery. Fighting continues in Boyle for 3 more days.

*3 July, Free State soldiers take the side streets around O'Connell street in Dublin and detonate a bomb under the YMCA building held by Republicans, leaving just Oscar Traynor and a little over 100 men holding out in a "Block" of buildings at the northeastern corner of O'Connell street. Traynor evacuates most of his men, leaving just 15 in the "block" under Cathal Brugha.

*A National Army officer is shot dead in Nenagh, county Tipperary, causing the Free State troops to attack Republican held positions in the town. The Republicans retreat, burning the barracks they were holding.

*4 July, Frank Aiken, writes to Richard Mulcahy stating the Fourth Northern Division of the IRA would stay neutral, called for an end to the fighting and for the removal of the Oath of Allegiance (Ireland) from the Free State Constitution.

*In Dublin, Free State troops bring up a field gun to Henry street, within 100 metres of the remaining republican held positions to fire on them at point blank range. Incendiary bombs are also thrown into the "block", which is set ablaze.

*Ernie O'Malley and 250 Anti-Treaty fighters take Enniscorthy in county Wexford after some fighting. They take the Free State garrison there captive but release them on condition that they do not fight again against Republicans. Seán Moylan and 230 republican troops occupy New Ross.
*A large Free State force takes Drogheda, county Louth. The republicans are based in Millmount Fort, which overlooks the town and also hold the railway station. National Army troops bring up mortars and 18 pounder guns to shell them. After several hours of bombardment, the Anti-Treaty fighters surrender.

*5 July, The remainder of Oscar Traynor's Anti-Treaty force in O'Connell street either slips away or surrenders. Republican leader Cathal Brugha is killed outside the Hamman hotel. Anti-Treaty Dublin forces re-group in Blessington. The fighting In Dublin has cost sixty-five combatants killed, of whom 16 are government troops and 49 are anti-treaty IRA men, and 280 wounded of whom 122 are Free State soldiers and 158 are Republicans. The civilian casualties are thought to comprise over 250 killed and injured.

*Republicans abandon Boyle in Roscommon when Seán Mac Eoin arrives with Free State troops and an 18 pounder gun.

*A battle takes place in Abbeyleix, county Laois. Vol. Christopher McGlynn of the Free State army is killed by a snipers bullet.

*6 July, A Free State expeditionary force is sent to county Wexford to re-take the towns there. It comprises 230 men under Colonel Commandant Keogh, with one field gun and four armoured vehicles.

*6 July, Two Anti-Treaty fighters are killed in a skirmish outside a pub in Urlingford.

*7 July, Free State troops move south from Dublin and break up the Anti-Treaty concentration at Blessington. They take 60 republican prisoners at Brittas and 13 more at Ballymore Eustace. Oscar Traynor and the main Anti-Treaty force from Dublin abandons Blessington. In exchanges of fire, one man on either side is killed and two Free State troops are wounded.

*Pro-Treaty forces take Galway, with minimal resistance. One anti-Treaty IRA captain, Donnellan is killed, five of his men are wounded and 12 captured before Free State troops secure the area. The remaining republican fighters set fire to a number of public buildings before fleeing the city. The National Army takes two killed and more wounded in the operation.

*8 July, The Republicans in Wexford abandon Enniscorthy and New Ross.

*11 July, Fighting breaks out in Limerick between Pro and Anti Treaty factions. National Army troops open fire on the Republicans holding the Ordnance Barracks.

*12 July, 13 Republicans are taken prisoner in fighting in Limerick city.

*Anti-Treaty forces capture 47 Free State troops in east county Limerick.

*Free State troops secure Maryborough after a four hour gun battle. Three Anti-treatyites are killed and two Free State soldiers wounded.

*13 July, Republicans take the Free State outpost, the Munster Tavern, in Limerick, but are driven back by armoured cars.

*Anti-Treaty IRA Mayo unit ambushes Pro-Treaty men at Rockwood, county Sligo, killing five, wounding four and capturing two armoured cars. They then occupy Collooney.

*One Free State soldier is killed and one fatally wounded in an ambush in Stranarlor, Donegal.

*14 July, Seán Mac Eoin and 400 Free State troops re-take Collooney, taking 74 Republican prisoners.

*15 July, National Army troops assault republican-held Strand Barracks and King John's Castle in Limerick, with armoured cars, grenades, machine gun and mortar fire, but fail to take them. Six Free State troops are killed and five wounded. One Republican is killed and five wounded.
*A skirmish takes place in Kiltimagh, county Mayo. Anti-Treaty fighters attempt to kidnap T. Ruane, Chairman of the Swinford District Council, but a fire-fight breaks out in which Ruane, an anti-Treaty officer and Free State officer are fatally wounded.

*National Army troops surround and take Cappard House, county Laois where the local anti-Treaty forces were billeted. Five Republicans are reported killed.

*16 July, Free State troops take Frank Aiken, who was previously neutral, along with 3-400 of his men from the Fourth Northern Division of the Irish Republican Army, prisoner in Dundalk. Two of Aiken's men are killed.

*17 July, Free State general Eoin O'Duffy arrives in Limerick with 1,500 National Army troops, 4 armoured cars and one 18 pounder field gun.

*18 July, Free State general John T. Prout arrives in Waterford with 700 troops, one artillery piece and four armoured cars to take the city. His second in command is deposed East Waterford Brigade Commandant Paddy Paul.The anti-Treaty IRA garrison consists of men under George Lennon, Flying Column Leader. The combined Waterford Brigade is under the overall command of Pax Whelan. Prout sets up his gun on Mount Misery (Mercy) and bombards Republican held positions along the River Suir in the city, forcing them to evacuate the prison, the military barracks and the post office.

*19 July, Free State forces capture the Ordnance Barracks and Castle Barracks in Limerick. The Republicans burn the remaining two barracks they are holding and retreat southwards. Fighting in Limerick has cost the lives of between eight and fifteen Free State soldiers and a further 87 wounded. About thirty Anti-Treaty IRA men are killed. Civilian casualties unknown but reported in the press as over 20 killed.

*20 July, Captain Ned O'Brien leads 100 National Army troops in boats in an attack on the quays in Waterford, taking 12 prisoners. Free State troops then cross the river Suir into the city. General Prout brings their field gun down to the Suir Ferry bank to fire at close range into the Anti-Treaty held Post Office, which then surrenders. The Republicans abandon Waterford escaping to Mt. Congreve in Kilmeadan, the Comeraghs and eventually, Dungarvan where many men of the Flying Column give up the struggle. Lennon resigns 1st August in a letter to First Division O/C Liam Deasy citing disagreements over "tactics employed by our side". Ten Free State soldiers have been killed in the fighting in Wateford and 19 wounded.

*23 July, Free State troops under General W.R.E. Murphy take Bruff and Kilmallock in County Limerick.See Battle of Kilmallock

*24 July, Republican fighters under Liam Deasy re-take Bruff and take 76 Free State prisoners.

*Naval landing of 400 Free State troops at Clew Bay, county Mayo. They link up with National Army troops advancing from Castlebar under Seán Mac Eoin and take Westport from the Anti-treaty forces there.

*Anti-Treaty IRA fighters ambush a prison train Killurin, county Wexford, freeing its prisoners, 2 Free State soldiers are killed and 7 wounded.

*Two civilians are shot dead in Dublin when Republican fighters rob a public house.

*25 July Republican fighters attack a lorry full of Free State troops at York Street, central Dublin with small arms and grenades. Six civilians are wounded and two men are arrested.

*26 July, Free State troops, 350 men under Jerry Ryan, take Golden, County Tipperary.

*27 July, Anti-Treaty IRA under Padraig Quinn attack Dundalk, dynamite the prison wall and in fifteen minutes the well-timed operation results in the freeing of republican prisoners, including Frank Aiken. There are no casualties. (References Ernie O'Malley's book The Singing Flame and Dundalk Democrat, July 29 1922)

*2 Free State soldiers are killed in an ambushes in Galway and 2 more in another ambush in Glenties in Donegal.

*Oscar Traynor, commander of the Anti-Treaty IRA's Dublin Brigade, is arrested by Free State troops in Dublin.

*Three National Army soldiers are killed in fighting near Kilmallock. Republican casualties are not reported.

*28 July, Ambush of National Army troops by Anti-Treaty IRA at Tonduff, Abbeyleix, on the main road to Maryborough, county Laois. A mine is exploded and fire is exchanged, Vol. Grace from Mountrath is killed while retrieving his rifle from the road. Brigadier Mick Gray is wounded. In the rounding up operation, 21 Republicans are taken prisoner but two Free State officers, Comdt. General Austin McCurtain and Comdt. Seán (Jack) Collison are killed.

*29 July, About 400 Republicans attack Golden, Tipperary, but fail to take it and two of their men are killed. Their armoured car is knocked out by artillery and the National Army takes 26 prisoners.

*30 July, Free State troops take Bruree county Limerick. The Dublin Guard supported by artillery, attacks the village for five hours before the Anti-Treaty IRA retreats. At least 13 Free State soldiers and 9 Anti-Treaty fighters are killed in the action and more are wounded.

*Two Free State soldiers are killed in a skirmish in Mayo.

*31 July, Anti-Treaty activist Harry Boland is shot by Free State troops as he is being arrested in Skerries, near Dublin. He dies on August 2.

*Free State troops under Paddy O'Connor attack Republican held Tipperary town. Fighting continues for two days in which four Free State troops are killed and three wounded.

*Free State general Seán Mac Eoin reports to Michael Collins, “In the Midlands Divisions all posts and positions of military value are in our hands.”

*Late July, Anti-Treaty IRA in Dublin ambushes and destroys an armoured train in Inchicore.

August

*2 August, Naval Landing of Free State troops in county Kerry. Paddy Daly and the Dublin Guard, as well as others, a total of about 800, land at Fenit. They fight their way to Tralee at a cost of 9 killed and 35 wounded. Two republican fighters are killed in the fighting and more are wounded. The remainder retreat.

*Republican forces under Liam Deasy attack Bruree, county Limerick with three armoured cars, trying to re-take it from the Free State troops but their attack is beaten off.

*Republicans abandon Tipperary town and retreat to Clonmel, it is then occupied by National Army troops under Paddy O'Connor.

*Fighting around Carrick on Suir between 600 National Army troops under General Prout and 400 Republicans under Dan Breen.

*3 August, The Free State forces under General Prout take Carrick on Suir with one man killed and three wounded. Breen's men retreat southwards.

*National Army commandant Scally is killed in an ambush by Anti-Treaty IRA men between Swinford and Ballina in Mayo.

*Around 250 pro-treaty IRA men from County Clare are embarked from Kilrush to Tarbert in fishing boats and take Ballylongford and Listowel.

*4 August, Republican troops abandon Cashel, County Tipperary.

*4 August 150 Free State troops under Paddy Daly take Castleisland, county Kerry. The Republicans abandon their positions after six shrapnel shells are fired at them from an 18 pounder field gun.

*5 August, About 2,000 Free State troops under Eoin O'Duffy take Kilmallock, county Limerick. The Republicans retreat towards Charleville.

*Free State Intelligence officers discover from captured the Anti-Treaty officer Liam Clarke that Republicans have planned to destroy all the bridges leading into Dublin. As a result, they capture 104 Anti-Treaty fighters in the act in north county Dublin, including their officer Pat Sweeney, crippling the remnants of the anti-Treaty IRA in Dublin.

*6 August, Anti-Treaty IRA fighters ambush a Free State provisions column at Knockeen crossroads in Kerry. One National Army officer is killed and several privates are wounded.

*August 7, Heavy fighting takes place at Newcastlewest, county Limerick. Free State troops, advancing from Rathkeale, take the town with armoured cars and infantry supported by artillery. During the 12 hour battle, a party of republicans is caught in machine gun fire from one of the Free State armoured cars, taking many casualties. The Republican headquarters is shelled by field guns and they eventually retreat along the Cork road. Press reports say that 12 Anti-Treaty fighters are killed in the action. National Army casualties are reported as, 'less than those of the irregulars'

*8 August, Free State seaborne landings take place in county Cork. Emmet Dalton and 800 troops, with two artillery pieces and armoured cars, land at Passage West. A further 200 men are put ashore at Youghal and 180 troops land at Glandore. Heavy fighting takes place at Rochestown in Cork, as 200 Anti-Treaty troops try to block the Free State advance on Cork City. Nine National Army and seven Republicans are killed before the Free State troops secure the area.

*9 August, There is fighting at Douglas County Cork. The Free State troops take 36 republican prisoners.

*General Prout's Free State column takes Redmondstown, county Kilkenny, with the aid of artillery.

*10 August, The Republicans abandon Cork city and burn the barracks they had been holding, including Charles Fort. The National Army takes the city unopposed.

*General Prout's Free State troops take Clonmel.

*11 August, Liam Lynch, the Anti-Treaty IRA's Chief of Staff, abandons Fermoy, the last major republican held town. Lynch issues orders that Republican forces are to abandon the policy of holding towns, and orders them to form flying columns and pursue guerrilla warfare.

*A Free State Naval landing takes place at Kenmare. Commandant Tom "Scarteen" O'Connor (formerly local IRA commander) lands unopposed with 200 pro-treaty men and occupies Rathmore and Millstreet. Kerry operations in August have cost the National Army a total of 11 killed and 114 wounded.

*12 August Free State President Arthur Griffith dies of a stroke. He is replaced by William T. Cosgrave.

*14 August, 300 men of the Anti-Treaty IRA 4th Northern Division under Frank Aiken attack Dundalk. They use two mines to breach the walls of the barracks and temporarily take over the town. Four Free State soldiers are killed and fifteen wounded, with two dead and thirty wounded on the Republican side. About 240 Republican prisoners are freed from the prison and 400 rifles are taken. However, Aiken does not try to hold the town and, while in possession of it, calls for a truce in a meeting in the town square.

*15 August, Free State troops take Clifden in county Galway without resistance. The Republicans abandon the town and burn the local radio transmitter station.

*17 August, Free State troops under Dan Hogan re-occupy Dundalk unopposed. One civilian is killed in the operation.

*18 August, A lorry of Free State soldiers is ambushed between Clonmel and Cahir, county Tipperary. Three National Army troops are killed and seven wounded.

*18 August,Anti-Treaty fighters attack the Free State barracks in Monaghan town. They are driven off after a half hour gun battle. One National Army lieutenant is killed and three Republicans are wounded. The Republicans also raid the post office in the town, and shoot dead a postman. They get away with £900.

*19 August, There is a four hour gun battle on the border near Dundalk between pro and anti-treaty fighters. The republicans eventually retreat across the border into Northern Ireland where they cannot be followed. Elsewhere, there are renewed attacks on Free State troops in Dublin and the railway bridge at Carrick on Shannon is blown up and destroyed by Republicans.

*In Kerry, near Killarney, two Free State medical officers are ambushed and shot dead.

*21 August One Free State soldier is killed in an ambush at Blessington, county Wicklow. Four more are wounded in an ambush near Enniscorthy, county Wexford. Free State troops occupy Bandon and Dunmanway, county Cork without resistance.

*22 August, Two National Army soldiers are killed in an ambush at Redmondstown county Kilkenny. Free State commandant Thornton is also fatally wounded in the incident. Three other National Army officers had been captured by the irregulars in the same spot the previous night.

*22 August, National Army Commander-in-Chief Michael Collins is killed in an ambush by anti-treaty republicans at Béal na mBláth, near his family home in County Cork, he is the only fatality of the 45 minute fire fight. Richard Mulcahy takes over as National Army commander in chief. Collins had been pursuing talks with Anti-Treaty leaders Dan Breen, Liam Deasy and others in order to try to stop the fighting. His killing greatly embittered the war and probably prolonged it by several months.

*26 August, A Free State convoy of 100 troops is ambushed between Tralee and Killorglin, county Kerry. One officer is killed. The National Army troops are caught in several more ambushes along their line of retreat, taking more casualties.

*Anti-Treaty fighters ambush Free State troops at Glasson, near Athlone. National Army officer Lieutenant McCormack is killed and several more soldiers are wounded.

*27 August, Three National Army soldiers are killed in ambush near Nenagh, county Tipperary, when a mine is exploded under their lorry and they are fired on by anti-Treaty fighters. Several more men are injured in the shooting.

*Anti-Treaty IRA units mount an ambush of Free State troops at Glenflesk, near Killarney, county Kerry. The Free State troops bring up an 18 pounder artillery piece and eventually drive off their attackers. Press reports say that the bodies of 20 Anti-Treaty fighters are found at the scene.

*Two Anti-Treaty IRA men are captured in Tralee, Kerry and shot by Free State troops. One of them, James Healy, survives and escapes.

*Free State troops assault an Anti-Treaty IRA position at Convent hill, near Newport, county Mayo. They are repulsed with seven men wounded.

*29 August, Four Free State soldiers are killed in three separate ambushes in Tullamore, Clonakilty and county Kerry.

*30 August, Anti-Treaty IRA attack Bantry in county Cork for several hours. They withdraw after losing four officers and more men killed. One National Army soldier is also killed and two wounded in the attack.

*31 August, The Anti-Treaty IRA mounts gun and grenade attacks on National Army sodiers at Stephen's Green, Dublin. In Cork, there is an exchange of fire between Free State troops and Anti-Treaty snipers. One Republican is killed by machine gun fire.

*August, republicans blow up the railway bridge over the river Blackwater at Mallow, County Cork, disabling the rail line between Cork and Dublin.

*August, Two Republicans are taken from a car in Drumcondra in Dublin and shot dead. Their bodies are left on the street. A British soldier on the scene reported that the car contained three men in "Provisional Government uniform" and three more in trench coats - presumed to be from the Criminal Investigation Department (CID) intelligence unit.

eptember

*2 September, Republicans attack Macroom, Cork with men and a captured armoured car. They withdraw after a seven hour fire fight.

*2 September, Republicans attack National Army troops while they are drilling in front of the City Club in Cork city. They drive up in a lorry and open machine gun fire on the Free State troops, killing two and injuring 6.

*2 September, Two National Army soldiers are killed in an ambush at Watergrass Hill county Cork.

*There are also attacks by anti-Treaty fighters on Free State troops in Dublin city centre and Rathfarnham in county Dublin. Two Free State soldiers are wounded and the barracks in Rathfarnham is destroyed. A Republican activist James Stephens was abducted from his home near the Grand Canal in Dublin and shot dead.

*4 September, Anti-Treaty IRA unit under Liam Pilkington takes Dromhaire barracks, county Sligo. Free State garrison there surrenders.

*5 September, A secret meeting takes place between Richard Mulcahy and Éamon de Valera, political leader of the Republicans, to try to arrange a truce. However, according to de Valera, they, "couldn't find a basis" of agreement.

*6 September A Free State column is ambushed outside Kilkelly, county Mayo by anti-Treaty fighters. The Free State troops have five wounded and claim to have killed seven irregulars.

*A skirmish takes place in Mitchelstown, Cork. One Anti-Treaty officer is killed and 12 of his men are captured.

*9 September, Republicans attack and take Kenmare in county Kerry. A total of 84 Anti-Treaty fighters take over the town and shoot dead local pro-treaty officer Tom "Scarteen" O'Connor" and his brother after taking them prisoner. They take 120 National Army troops in the town prisoner, but later release them. They capture 110 rifles and 20,000 rounds of ammunition. This action allowed the Kerry Anti-Treaty units to pursue a fairly effective guerrilla campaign for the remainder of the war.

*A British intelligence report states that the Free State intelligence unit, the Crime Investigation Department or CID has, "murdered a number of prominent republicans" in Dublin.

*10 September, Anti-Treaty ambush of Free State troops near Rathmore, county Kerry. Seven National Army soldiers are killed. The Republicans retire after an artillery piece is brought up to fire seven shells at them.

*Republicans take Tarbert, County Kerry, temporarily, capturing 40 rifles.

*11 September, A Free State column travelling from Macroom, Cork, towards towards Kerry, is attacked with a mine on a bridge at Carrigphooka, west Cork. National Army commandant Tom Keogh and eight other soldiers are killed in the blast.

*12 September, Republicans under Michael Kilroy take Ballina, county Mayo, in a surprise attack while the National Army troops there are at a Mass service for a comrade killed in the fighting. Kilroy's men capture 100 rifles, 20,000 rounds of ammunition and are reported by Free State authorities to have looted £25,000 worth of goods from local shops. Kilroy later admits to drunkenness and indiscipline on behalf of his men. Two civilians are shot dead in the fire-fight between the combatants. The Republicans leave the town when Free State reinforcements arrive. The Republican's armoured car breaks down in the retreat and has to be abandoned.

*September 13, The Anti-Treaty IRA in Dublin mounts three separate ambushes of Free State troops at Stephen's Green, Mountjoy Square and O'Connell Bridge in the city centre. The ambushes, consisting of gun and grenade attacks, result in the death of one republican, the injury of another and the serious wounding of three National Army soldiers and three civilians.

*14 September, Republicans under Michael Kilroy ambush a Free State convoy near Belderg, county Mayo, killing 4 National Army soldiers and taking 16 prisoners. Another ambush in the Ox Mountains kills up to 15 National Army soldiers, including Brigadier Joe Ring. Republican losses are reported in the press as 10 killed and more wounded, but this may be an overstatement.

*Drumshambo barracks in County Leitrim is seized by Republicans after successful ambush of National Army troops.

*A skirmish takes place at Donoughmore, county Cork. Two Anti-Treaty IRA men are killed.

*Press reports say that a total of six Anti-Treaty and six pro-treaty troops are killed in an ambushes at Blarney.

*Republican fighters open fire on Free State troops landing by sea at CourtmacSherry in Cork. Three Anti-Treaty fighters and one Free State soldier are killed.

*Republican activist Timothy Kenefick is abducted from his home in Cork city by Free State troops. He is shot dead and his body is dumped near Macroom. In Killarney, Free State troops break into the houses of six women republicans and paint their bodies green.

*15 September, Anti-Treaty fighters attempt to take over the Telephone exchange and Kingsbridge Railway Station in Dublin. They also attack the Wellington and Portobello military barracks. The attacks were driven off by Free State troops after several hours of firing.

*In Dundalk, the Anti-Treaty IRA made several attacks on Free State troops and took over the power station, cutting off the town's electricity supply. One National Army soldier is killed by a hand grenade in the clashes.

*The Free State's Lord Chief Justice rules that the country is in a state of war and Habeas Corpus no longer applies. He rejects an application to free two of the 5,000 prisoners taken by National forces since the outbreak of the civil war.

*16 September, Michael Kilroy's Anti-Treaty IRA men attack Newport, county Mayo, but fail to take it and withdraw after a day of fighting.

*19 September, Republican fighter Bertie Murphy is shot dead in Kilarney, Kerry, by National Army troops in reprisal for ambushes in the area.

*19 September, Seán Mac Eoin begins a Free State sweep of northern county Sligo to clear it of Anti-treaty guerrillas. The operation is largely successful.

During MacEoin's operation, a Republican column, including an armoured car, is cornered north of Sligo town. The car is put out of action by shells from a Free State armoured car and nine republicans flee up the slopes of Ben Bulben mountain. All nine are killed by the pursuing Free State troops, four of them, it is alleged, are killed after surrendering. Among those killed is Brian MacNeill, (son of Eoin MacNeill, founder of the Irish Volunteers), who is shot at close range in the forehead. One National Army sergant is killed in the operation and 30 Irregulars are taken prisoner.

*19 September, A party of National Army soldiers is ambushed on its way to Mass in Nenagh, Tipperary. Three soldiers are killed along with one civilian. the Republicans disarm the remainder and take their weapons.

*22 September, One National Army soldier is killed and several soldiers and three civilians are injured in a gun and grenade attack by Republicans on Free State troops at noon on O'Connell Bridge, central Dublin.

*24 September, the Free State evacuates its garrison at Newport, county Mayo due to the intense guerrilla activity in the area.

*27 September, The Free State's Provisional Government puts the "Public Safety Bill" before the Dáil, setting up military courts which allow for the execution of men captured bearing arms against the state and aiding and abetting attacks on state forces. It passes by 48 votes to 18. The Irish Labour Party oppose it.

*27 September About 500 Anti-Treaty IRA men attack Killorglin, county Kerry, led by Seán Hyde. However, they fail to dislodge a pro-treaty garrison of 60 men from Clare who hold the barracks in the town. British Intelligence reports that 23 Republicans are killed in the action and 30 wounded. Anti-Treaty soldier David Robinson admits to 2 killed, 15 wounded and 14 captured. The republicans disperse after 24 hours of fighting, when Free State troops arrive from Tralee.

*28 September, John Galvin, a republican captured in the Killorglin raid is shot by Free State troops in Tralee and his body dumped in nearby Ballyseedy wood. Galvin had admitted under interrogation to the killing of a National Army officer at Castlemaine.

*Anti-Treaty forces mount an ambush at Kilfenora, county Clare. One Free State captain, Consadine is killed.

*September, Lismore Castle in county Waterford is burned by Republican fighters.

*The Republican leader Tom Barry, who was captured in the Dublin fighting, escapes from an internment camp in Gormanston, county Dublin.

*A National Army medical orderly named Lydon is shot dead by a republican sniper as he cycles out of Tralee, Kerry, despite the fact that he is unarmed and wearing a Red Cross armband.

*There is s fire fight on Mount street bridge in Dublin city centre. Republican fighter Patrick Mannion is shot in the head by Free State troops as he lies wounded.

October

*3 October, The Free State offers an amnesty to Anti-Treaty fighters who surrender their arms and recognise the government.

*6 October, National Army officer Tony Lawlor shoots dead republican prisoner, Patrick Mulrennan during a riot in the prison in Athlone.

*6 October Anti-Treaty fighters in Tullycrine county Clare ambush a National Army column. A number of Free State troops and one anti-Treaty IRA man are killed in the firefight.

*A number of gun and grenade attacks are carried out by Republican fighters in Dublin. Three people are wounded. In Limerick, Republicans raid the hospital and free six of their prisoners who were being treated there. One anti-Treaty fighter killed in action at White's Cross, Cork.

*10 October, The Roman Catholic Bishops of Ireland issue a formal statement, supporting the Free State as the lawful and democratic government, denouncing the anti treaty campaign as an unlawful rebellion and denying their fighters access to Holy Communion or Confession.

*Peadar Breslin, a Republican captured after the fall of the Four Courts, is shot dead during an attempt to escape from Mountjoy Prison in Dublin.

*A senior Free State army officer, Commandant Peter Doyle, of Ballinakill, Marshalstown, is shot in the grounds of St. Aidan’s Cathedral, Enniscorthy, by anti-Treaty I.R.A. after mass. Five girls are injured in the process, two of them seriously.

*October 14, An ambush in the Cornmarket area of Dublin leaves three civilians and four Free State soldiers wounded. In a separate ambush near Tralee, one National Army soldier is killed and another wounded.

*15 October, The Public Safety Bill comes into effect, allowing for summary executions of captured Anti-Treaty fighters.

*Directives are sent to the press by Free State director of communications, Piaras Beaslai to the effect that; Free State troops are to be referred to as the "National Army", the "Irish Army", or just "troops". The Anti-Treaty side are to called "Irregulars" and are not to be referred to as "Republicans", "IRA", "forces", or "troops", nor are the ranks of their officers allowed to be given. No letters about the treatment of Anti-Treaty prisoners are to be published. The words "attacked, commandeered and arrested" as used to describe their actions are to be replaced by, "fired at, seized and kidnapped".

*25 October, Éamon De Valera, at the request of the IRA Army Executive, sets up a "Republican Cabinet", formed from anti-Treaty TDs to: "be temporarily the Supreme Executive of the Republic and the State, until such time as the elected Parliament of the Republic can freely assemble, or the people being rid of external aggression are at liberty to decide freely how they are to be governed".

*27 October, Four National Army troops are killed in an ambush in county Wexford.

*29 October, An Anti-Treaty IRA column under Michael Kilroy attacks and takes Clifden, county Galway, capturing 80 Free State soldiers, after a ten hour gun battle. The Irregulars burn the barracks there and take the Free State soldiers rifles before retreating. In a separate incident, a Free State soldier is killed by a landmine.

*30 October, National Army troops raid Ballyheigue County Kerry. One Anti-Treaty fighter is killed, allegedly after he had been taken prisoner.

*October, Charlie Dalton, a National Army intelligence officer, captures three youths in Dublin holding republican posters. The next morning they are found shot dead in a ditch in Clondalkin.

*Anti-Treaty fighter Bobby Bondfield is arrested on St. Stephen's Green in Dublin by W. T. Cosgrave's bodyguards. He is shot dead and dumped in Clondalkin.

November

*1 November, A 20 strong Anti-Treaty IRA column encounters 250 Free State troops at Brockagh Fahy, county Mayo. Six republicans are captured, one is wounded and another is killed.

*2 November, Skirmish near Headford, county Kerry, one Anti-Treaty IRA man is killed.

*3 November, Tom Powell and his East Mayo Anti-Treaty IRA unit are captured in Ballinrobe, county Mayo.

*4 November, Ernie O'Malley, Anti-Treaty IRA commander in Dublin, is captured following a shoot out with Free State soldiers on Ailesbury road in Donnybrook. O'Malley is hit over 20 times, but survives. He kills a National Army soldier in the gun fight.

*Two Free State soldiers are killed by a land mine near Dundalk.

*5 November, Skirmish between National Army and Republican troops under Seán Moylan near Macroom. One Free State soldier is injured, republican losses are unknown, but reported in the Irish Times as "heavy".

*6 November, Republicans attack the National Army barracks at Glanmire, Cork. One civilian is wounded in the crossfire.

*7 November, Attack on Wellington barracks in Dublin by Republican fighters. Over ten National Army soldiers are wounded, of whom seven were seriously wounded, requiring surgery.

*8 November, National Army troops fire on Republicans parading near the Grand Canal in Dublin. Up to 20 men are killed by machine gun fire [Meda Ryan, "Tom Barry, IRA Freedom Fighter", p.185] .

*One Garda Siochana is mortally wounded.{reference only}

*9 November, Anti-Treaty fighters in Dublin attack Portobello barracks. One Anti-Treaty fighter is killed.

*William Ahearne shot as an alleged spy by the Anti-Treaty IRA and dumped in Bishopstown, Cork.

*11 November, Republican head of propaganda Robert Erskine Childers is captured by the Free State at the house of Robert Barton in Annamoe, County Wicklow.

*15 November, A seven man Free State Army patrol, escortinga prisoner is ambushed at Ulverton road, Dalkey, county Dublin. A Free State soldier and a civilian are killed in the action, in which shots are exchanged and two grenades are thrown by the Anti-Treaty fighters.

*17 November, Four Anti-Treaty IRA men from Dublin, who were captured with weapons in county Wicklow, are shot by firing squad.

*18 November, Four anti-Treaty IRA fighters are killed when a land mine they are preparing on the Naas road near Dublin explodes prematurely.

*19 November, Three more Republican prisoners are executed in Dublin by the Free State.

*23 November, A National Army force surprises Michael Kilroy and the leader of the Mayo anti-treaty IRA at Carrowbeg house. In the ensuing fight, 4 Free State soldiers are killed and more are wounded but Kilroy and several of his officers are captured.

*Free State troops re-take Newport, Mayo, after some resistance by republicans. The Free State troops reportedly took 35 casualties between killed and wounded before the republicans abandoned their positions and the National Army took possession of the town.

*In the rest of the month of November, Free State troops under Tony Lawlor sweep south and west county Mayo and Connemara for Republican guerrillas. Lawlor reports that 5 of his men were killed in the operation and 9 wounded. He reports the Republican losses as 9 killed, 19 wounded and 23 taken prisoner. Thirty National Army soldiers are also hospitalised as a result of influenza.

*One Free State soldiers is killed and another badly injured when their truck crashes in Dalkey, Dublin, while driving too fast close to the scene of an ambush on November 15.

*24 November, Former Treaty negotiator Robert Erskine Childers is executed by the Free State, having been captured in possession of a pistol-which, ironically, had been given to Childers by Michael Collins (Irish leader).

*30 November, In reprisal for the executions, Liam Lynch, Anti-Treaty IRA Commander, issues a general order to his forces to kill members of the Dáil (T.D.s) and senators who had voted for the Emergency Powers legislation. He also orders the killing of hostile judges and newspaper editors.

*Three Anti-Treaty IRA prisoners are executed by firing squad in Dublin for possession of arms.

*Anti-Treaty IRA officer Patrick Lynch is killed in a Free State raid on his home in Moyrisk, county Kerry.

*Two National Army soldiers are killed in an action at Woodhouse, county Waterford.

*Anti-Treaty fighters ambush Free State troops near Tubbercurry, county Sligo. Two National Army soldiers are killed.

*In November 1922, members of the South Wexford Brigade I.R.A. (anti-Treaty) ambush a Lorry near Begerin, Old Ross, carrying Free State soldiers, killing one and wounding seven others.

December

*1 December, After a skirmish on the border of county Kildare and county Meath, the Meath Anti-Treaty IRA column, consisting of 22 men under Paddy Mullally is captured. One republican and one Free State solider are killed in the action.

*Several hundred National Army troops mount a major operation in Dublin, setting up checkpoints at all major roads in an effort to halt the daily small scale ambushes in the city. They stop and search all in-coming traffic and male civilians for arms. Three men are found carrying weapons and detained. The military barracks at Tallaght, county Dublin is attacked that night. Four Free State soldiers are wounded by gunfire.

*4 December, A party of 60 Republican fighters ambush a Free State convoy in West Cork. The National Army troops call for air support and an aeroplane bombs and machine guns the Anti-Treaty fighters before they disperse. their losses are reported as 'heavy'.

*Early December, Kenmare, county Kerry (captured by Republicans on September 9) is re-taken by Free State troops under General Murphy.

*6 December, the Irish Free State is formally established by the British House of Commons.

*National Army troops encounter 80 republicans at Kilcash, county Tipperary occupying a hill top position. A fire fight breaks out that lasts for three hours. Two republicans are killed, four wounded and eleven captured. The remainder of their column gets way by burning the furze bushes to cover their retreat. Free State troops have three men wounded.

*7 December, Former IRA men in the War of Independence and pro-Treaty TD, Seán Hales is shot dead by anti-Treaty gunmen outside Leinster House. Another TD, Padraic O Maille is also shot and wounded in the incident.

*One anti-Treaty fighter is killed in a skirmish in Ballintubber, Kilfinane, in county Limerick.

*8 December, Anti-Treaty leaders captured in the Four Courts in July, Rory O'Connor, Liam Mellows, Dick Barrett and Joe McKelvey are executed by the Free State in revenge for the killing of Seán Hales. This is an illegal act, as the four were captured before the Dáil passed its emergency legislation.

*8 December, Two anti-treaty fighters are killed in an action at Kealkill, Cork.

*9 December, Republican raid on the barracks in Sligo town. One Free State soldier is killed.

*10 December, Anti-Treaty IRA members burn down the house of TD James McGarry, his seven year old son dies in the blaze.

*13 December, 100 Republican fighters under Tom Barry take Carrick on Suir in a surprise attack, capturing 107 rifles, two Lewis guns and two armoured cars. They do not attempt to hold the town however.

*14 December, Free State garrisons at Thomastown and Mullinavat in county Kilkenny desert to the Republicans, handing over their arms.

*17 December, the last British troops leave the Free State. They are the remnants of a 5000 strong garrison maintained up to that point in Dublin, commanded by Nevil Macready.

*19 December, Seven Republican fighters, all from county Kildare, are executed in Dublin.

*23 December, There are gun and grenade attacks on National Army troops in Dublin, one Free State soldier is killed.

*The Free State releases 300 republican prisoners who are no longer considered a threat to national security.

*28 December, Republican Francis Lawlor is abducted by Free State forces in Dublin, killed and his body dumped at Orwell Road, Rathgar.

*29 December, Two Anti-Treaty men are executed by the Free State in Kilkenny.

1923

January

*6 January Skirmish at Ballyconnell on the Leitrim-Fermanagh border, Anti-Treaty IRA captain Michael Cull killed.

*9 January, Anti-Treaty IRA men burn the home of Free State senator John Bagwell at Marfield County Tipperary, including the extensive library built up by his father, historian Richard Bagwell.

*8 January, Four Republican prisoners are executed in Dublin. One National Army soldier is also shot for "treachery".

*January 10, Two Anti-Treaty IRA officers are killed in a skirmish with Free State troops near Spelsherstown, county Wexford.

*11 January, 40 Republicans burn the railway station in Sligo town, destroying it and badly damaging seven engines and forty carriages. The Great Southern and Western Railway Company releases a report detailing the damage Anti-Treaty forces have caused to their property over the previous six months; 375 lines damaged, 42 engines derailed, 51 over-bridges and 207 under-bridges destroyed, 83 signal cabins and 13 other buildings destroyed. In the same month, Republicans destroy the railway stations at Ballybunnion and Listowel.

*January 13, Three Republican prisoners are executed in Dundalk.

*January 15, Five Anti-Treaty IRA men are executed by the Free State. Four are shot in Roscrea in Tipperary, one in Carlow.

*January 16, Two republican fighters are killed in a skirmish in Tipperary.

*18 January, Republican leader Liam Deasy is captured by Free State troops in the Galtee Mountains. He is not executed after he signs an order calling for men under his command to surrender.

*19 January, Republican fighters derail the railway line on the bridge near Ardfert, county Kerry. The train crashes, killing its two drivers.

*20 January, Eleven Republican prisoners are executed by the Free State - two in Limerick, four in Tralee and five in Athlone.

*22 January Three Anti-Treaty IRA men are executed in Dundalk, having been captured on January 7.

*23 January, Two Republican prisoners are executed in Waterford.

*23 January, Two civilian railway drivers are shot in Tralee railway station. One is killed, another is wounded. Republicans are blamed but do not claim the attack. The Railway drivers issue a statement that "neither murder nor intimidation would prevent them from carrying out their duties". Free State soldier Niall Harrington later alleges the culprits were National Army officers.

*26 January Three Anti-Treaty IRA men executed in Birr, County Offaly.

*27 January, Two Republican prisoners are executed in Portlaoise.

*The Free State executes a total of 34 Republican prisoners during this month, bringing the total number executed so far up to 53.

*27 January, Anti Treaty IRA ambush a party of five National Army soldiers at Abbeyfeale, county Kerry. A captain Coyle is killed and three soldiers wounded. Free State troops pursue the IRA column, killing one of them and wounding another two.

*29 January, The Earl of Mayo's house is destroyed and burned by Republicans.

*30 January, Free State Senator John Bagwell is kidnapped in Dublin by Anti-Treaty fighters.

*January, Anti-Treaty IRA make an abortive attack on Castlemaine, county Kerry.

February

*1 February, Moore Hall in county Mayo is burned down by Republican guerrillas, because its owner, Maurice Moore is a senator in the Dáil.

*8 February, The Free State suspends executions until February 18, offering an amnesty to anyone who surrendered before that day.

*9 February, Two Anti-Treaty fighters are killed in a skirmish at Poleberry, county Waterford.

*10 February, Republican officer Tom Barry, after contacts with some former IRA comrades on the Free State side, proposes that the Anti-Treaty IRA call a truce. Liam Lynch turns down the idea.

*11 February The Father of Government minister Kevin O'Higgins is shot dead by Republicans at the family home in Stradbally county Laois.

*12 February, Republicans raid the town of Ballyconnell in Cavan.

*13 February, Two Anti-Treaty men are killed in a skirmish at Currahane Strands, county Kerry.

*15 February, Mansion of senator Brian Mahon in Ballymore Eustace, county Kildare is burned down by Anti-Treaty forces. In the remainder of the month, a total of 37 houses of senators are destroyed by the Anit-Treaty IRA. Their owners are mainly big landowners, descendants of the Protestant Ascendancy and many of them were unionists before Irish independence. Oliver St John Gogarty is another prominent victim of house burnings. He also survives an assassination attempt in Dublin.

*18 February, Republican leader Dinny Lacey and at least one of his men are killed in a skirmish in the Glen of Aherlow in county Tipperary, many of his column are captured. Lacey is the head of the IRA's 2nd Southern Division and his death crippled the Republican's cause in the Tipperary/Waterford area.

*19 February, Anti-Treaty officer Thomas O'Sullivan, head of the local IRA battalion, is shot dead by Free State troops near Dingle.

*21 February, Anti-Treaty IRA attacks income tax offices in Dublin. Attempts are also made to burn Jury's Hotel, but without success. There are also abortive attacks on Merrion Square, Dawson Street, and Lower O'Connell street. However tax offices are destroyed at Nassau st, Gardiner st and Beresford Place. A total of 75 Republicans are involved in the action, of whom five are captured.

*23 February, Free State troops ambushed by anti-Treaty fighters at Shramore county Mayo. One National Army soldier and a medical orderly are killed.

*An Anti-Treaty column is surprised by National Army troops near Cluid, county Galway. One republican is killed and eighteen are captured and sentenced to death. Five of the prisoners are later executed.

*26 February, Meeting of Anti-Treaty IRA officers assembles at Ballinageary in county Tipperary. Officers from the First Southern Division report that, "in a short time we would not have a man left owing to the great number of arrests and casualties". Tom Crofts reports that the Cork Brigades have suffered 29 killed and an unknown number captured in recent actions, "if five men are arrested in each area, we are finished". Nevertheless, Liam Lynch takes the opportunity to issue a statement rejecting the possibility of a truce.

*February 27 National Army troops surprise an Anti-Treaty column in their dug out at Arigna, county Roscommon. Two Anti-Treaty fighters are killed.

*February, Republicans attack Kenmare, county Kerry, but are driven off.

*February, Free State troops sweep county Leitrim, searching for a Republican column under Ned Bofin.

March

*2 March Anti-Treaty IRA officers in North Tipperary, Paddy Ryan Lacken and Seán Gaynor are captured by the Free State.
*5 March, Skirmish in the Garrane Mountains between a 36-man strong Anti-Treaty column and Pro-Treaty troops, one Anti-Treaty engineer (Dan Clifford) and 5 or 6 Free State soldiers are killed. Six Anti-Treaty men are captured.

*5 March, Republican troops attack Cahirciveen, county Kerry. The attack is beaten off, with 5 IRA and 3 Free State solders killed.

*6 March, Five Free State soldiers, including three officers are killed by a booby trap mine while clearing a road in Knocknagoshel, county Kerry. Another soldier is badly wounded. National Army commander Paddy Daly issues a memorandum that Republican prisoners are to be used to clear mined roads from now on.

*7 March, Nine Republican prisoners are taken from Ballymullen barracks in Tralee to Ballyseedy Cross, ostensibly to clear a mined road. They are then tied together around the landmine, which is then detonated by National army troops. One man, Stephen Fuller, is blown clear by the blast and survives. The eight other prisoners are killed.

*Con Moloney, Adjutant General of the Anti-Treaty IRA, is captured by Free State troops at the Glen of Aherlow, county Tipperary, in Moore's Wood, Rossadrehid.

*Anti-Treaty IRA column is surrounded and captured by Free State troops at Buckagh, Mayo. One IRA man is killed. The remainder are taken to prison in Galway and sentenced to death, but this is not carried out.

*8 March, Four more Anti-Treaty IRA prisoners are killed, ostensibly while clearing a mined road, at Countess Bridge in Killarney.

*Another Republican prisoner, Seamus Taylor is taken from Kenmare jail to Ballyseedy woods by National Army troops and shot dead.

*12 March, Another five Republican prisoners killed by a landmine at Cahirciveen by National Army troops.
*13 March, Four Republican prisoners from Wexford IRA units are executed in Wexford town. Two other Republicans are executed in Dublin.

*14 March, Two Republicans are executed for their part in a bank robbery in Mullingar.

*Anti-Treaty IRA officer Charlie Daly and three other Republican fighters are captured by Free State troops at Drumboe Castle, near Stranorlar in county Donegal and then shot dead.

*15 March, Anti-Treaty officer John Kevins killed in Beaufort, county Kerry.

*16 March, National Army troops sweep the vicinity of Newport in county Mayo, resulting in some arrests.

*23 March, A detachment of National Army troops surrounds a house on Albert Road, Dalkey, county Dublin, which contains 6 six anti-anti treaty fighters. One Free State soldier is killed and two wounded when the house is stormed, one Republican is also killed and another is wounded in the fire fight. The remaining four and a woman civilian are arrested. Some arms and hundreds of rounds of ammunition are seized by the Free State troops.

*March, In retaliation for the execution of 3 Wexford Republicans on March 13, Bob Lambert, the local Republican officer, orders the killing of four National Army soldiers captured while drinking at a pub in the county. T/e soldiers were taken by anti-Treaty I.R.A. from a Public House at Ballagh, parish of Adamstown. They were taken to the village of Adamstown where they were shot dead later that night or early next morning, on 24 March 1923. A fourth Free State soldier, John Croke, was badly wounded when he was shot in the leg when he resisted the anti-Treaty I.R.A. as they initially entered the Pub.

*24 March, Anti-Treaty IRA executive meets in county Tipperary to discuss the war's future. Tom Barry proposes a motion to end the war, but it is defeated by 6 votes to 5. Éamon de Valera is allowed to attend, after some debate, but is given no voting rights.

*25 March, Republican leader in Leitrim, Ned Bofin and many of his men are captured in the Arigna Muntains.

*25 March 1923, Free State soldiers in Wexford shot dead Michael Furlong (of Ballagh) at Oldcourt, in revenge for the previous days killing of 3 Free State troops, as they suspected that he was an anti-Treaty I.R.A. member (he had fought in the recent Irish War of Independence in the IRA).

*28 March, Five Republicans who were captured in the Anti-Treaty IRA's March 5 attack on Cahirciveen, Kerry are executed by firing squad.

*Republicans attempt to burn and lay a land mine in Burton Hall, the home of the Guinness family, one of whom is a senator. The fire fails to ignite and the mine is defused by Free State troops.

*Press reports that Free State troops have arrested 16 republican fighters around the country.

*Anti-Treaty fighter named Murphy is captured near Tralee, Kerry, and then shot dead by Free State troops, his body is found in Knocknagoshel.

April

*1 April, Anti-Treaty IRA men ambush a National Army bicycle patrol on Larkin's Road, in county Louth. One man is killed on either side in the engagement.

*April, National Army troops under General Prout conduct large sweeps of the Knockmealdown mountains in south Tipperary and Waterford. They have extracted information from Republican prisoners in Dublin that the IRA Executive is in the area. Prominent Anti-Treaty IRA officers captured in the operation include Dan Breen, Todd Andrews, Seán Gaynor and Frank Barrett. Many other rank and file Republicans are also taken prisoner.

*April 5, Senior Republican leaders Tom Derrig and Moss Twomey are captured by Free State troops on Raglan Road, in Ballsbridge, in Dublin.

*April 6, Two anti-Treaty fighters are killed in a skirmish near Carrauntoohil in Kerry.

*April 9, Anti-Treaty fighters cross the Corrib in boats from Oughterard and attack the Free State Army barracks at Headford, county Galway. They detonate a mine against the wall of the barracks and then open fire. The gun battle continues until Free State reinforcements arrive and the irregulars withdraw. The Free State troops lose two soldiers killed and five wounded. Two republicans are killed and more wounded. More anti-treaty men are captured in the aftermath of the attack.

*10 April, Liam Lynch, Republican Commander in Chief, is killed in a skirmish with Free State troops in the Knockmealdown mountains in county Waterford. Four more senior Republican officers are captured in the incident. His death is often cited as the effective end of the war.

*11 April, Six Republican prisoners are executed by firing squad in Tuam, county Galway.

*A National Army report states, "Events of the past few days point to the beginning of the end as a far as the irregular campaign is concerned".

*13 April, Three republican fighters are surprised and captured in a dug out near Gortaglanna, Kerry. One is shot dead, the other two are taken prisoner.

*14 April, Austin Stack, Deputy IRA Chief of Staff, is captured by Free State troops near Ballymacarbry. He is carrying a document accepting a proposal by the Catholic Bishop of Cashel to end the war by calling a ceasefire and dumping arms.

*15 April, Fight between Anti-Treaty IRA column and Free State troops at Glenvar, Kerry. The Free State claims that nine Republicans were killed in the action.

*16 April, Two anti-treaty IRA fighters killed in a skirmish with Free State troops at Castleblake, county Kilkenny.

*18 April, Anti-Treaty IRA column under Timothy Lyons (known as "Aeroplane") is surrounded by Free State troops near Kerry Head. They take refuges in caves on the coast. Two Free State soldiers are killed when they try to storm the cave. After three days siege, landmines are lowered over the cave mouths and exploded, killing three Republicans. Lyons is also drowned in the incident. The remaining IRA men surrender.

*20 April, Frank Aiken is elected IRA Chief of Staff.

*21 April, An Anti Treaty IRA captain, Martin Hogan, is abducted and killed in Dublin, his body is found in Drumcondra [http://www.irishwarmemorials.ie/html/getPDF.php?memorialID=225] .

*24 April, Free State troops take a republican prisoner, Daniel Murphy, to Knocknagoshel, where 5 National Army troops had been killed on March 6 and shoot him dead.

*22 April, Free State troops surround Frank Aiken, Paidrag Quinn and Sean Quinn, the leaders of the Anti-Treaty forces in the Dundalk area, in a safe house in Castlebellingham. A firefight breaks out in which the two Quinns are wounded, Sean mortally and subsequently captured. In the confusion, Aiken manages to slip away.

*25 April, Three anti-treaty prisoners are executed in Tralee.

*26 April, One Anti-Treaty fighter is executed in Ennis.

*30 April, Frank Aiken, new Anti-Treaty IRA Commander, calls a ceasefire.

*Republican commandant Neil Plunkett Boyle is killed in a skirmish with National Army troops in Wicklow.

May

*Early May, 12,000 Republicans have been interned by Free State up to this point.

*2 May, Two Republican prisoners are executed in Ennis, county Clare.

*14 May, joint meeting of the Republican Government and IRA Army Executive instructs Aiken to end the war.

*15 May, Anti-Treaty IRA column surrounded at Valleymount, county Wicklow. Its leader, Ned Plunkett, is killed and the rest surrender.

*24 May, Frank Aiken orders the Anti-Treaty fighters to "dump their arms" and return home. Éamon de Valera supports the order, issuing a statement to Anti-Treaty fighters; "Further sacrifice on your part would now be in vain and the continuance of the struggle in arms unwise in the national interest. Military victory must be allowed to rest for the moment with those who have destroyed the Republic". End of the war.

*30 May, Two Republicans are executed in Tuam, Galway.

June

* 22 June, Michael Radford of the South Wexford Brigade I.R.A. (anti-Treaty) is shot dead by Free State soldiers at Ballybuick, Tomhaggard, Wexford.

July

*3 July, Noel Lemass, Anti Treaty IRA officer in Dublin, brother of Seán Lemass is abducted by Free State troops and killed. His body is later found in the Wicklow Mountains on October 12.

August

*15 August, Éamon de Valera arrested in Ennis, when he tried to make an election speech. He is imprisoned for over a year at Arbour Hill in Dublin.

*17 August, Voting in Irish general election, 1923 takes place. Cumann na nGaedheal win 63 seats; Sinn Féin 44; Independents 16; Farmers 15; Labour 14; and Independent Labour 1. About 415,00 first preference votes were given to Pro-Treatyites and 286,000 to Anti-Treatyites. (64% of the electorate voted.) Some of the Anti-Treaty members elected are still imprisoned.

October

*13 October, A mass Hunger Strike is launched by 424 Republican prisoners in Mountjoy Prison in Dublin in protest at their continued detention after the war's end. The strike is joined by up to 8,000 Republican prisoners in prisons and camps around the country.

November

*20 November, Republican prisoner Denny Barry dies on hunger strike in Newbridge camp.

*Two republican prisoners are executed, one each in Athlone and Tralee.

*22 November, IRA prisoner Andrew Sullivan dies on hunger strike in Mountjoy prison in Dublin.

*23 November The republican hunger strike is called off. The women prisoners are released but most of the men are detained until the following year.

December

*3 December,One Garda Siochana killed. {Reference only}

*29 December, Two republicans are executed in Kilkenny.

1924

January

*29 January, One Garda Siochana killed. {Reference only}

March

*18 March, Army Mutineers assembled in Dublin. The army council resigned affirming the subservience of the military to the civilian government. [Richard Mulcahy, Oxford DNB ]

*21 March, attack on British Soldiers/Sailors and civilians at Queenstown {Cobh} by Irregulars with Armored car and firing on HMS Scythe; 1 killed and 23 wounded. See [ [http://www.rrec.org.uk/website/public/thecars/Rolls-Royce%20Armoured%20Cars/Armoured%20Cars%20In%20Action.asp fate of "Moon Car"] ] {reference only}

July

*Most of the Republican internees are released.

November

*8 November, A general amnesty is declared for acts committed during the civil war.

ee also

*Chronology of the Irish War of Independence
*Irish Free State offensive
*Executions during the Irish Civil War

References

Sources

*M.E. Collins, "Ireland 1868-1966", Educational Company, Dublin 1993.
*Tim Pat Coogan, "De Valera, Long Fellow, Long Shadow", Random House, London 1993.
*Michael Hopkinson, "Green against Green, The Irish Civil War", Gill & MacMillan, Dublin 2004.
*Toby Harnden, "Bandit Country, the IRA and South Armagh"
*Niall C Hartigan, "Kerry Landing, August 1922"
*Willie Salmon. "The War of Independence and Civil War in Newport" [http://www.geocities.com/heartland/park/7461/war.html]
*Paul V Walsh, "The Irish Civil War 1922-23 -A Study of the Conventional Phase" [http://libraryautomation.com/nymas/irishcivilwar.html]
*Chonology of Irish History 1919-1923 [http://webpages.dcu.ie/~foxs/irhist/index.htm]
*The State and Civil War, 1921-23 [http://www.oup.co.uk/pdf/0-19-820426-4.pdf#search=%22Irish%20Civil%20War%20Oriel%20House%22]
*Irish War memorials [http://www.irishwarmemorials.ie/html/warMemorials.php?warID=9&warName=Civil War]
*New York Times Archive, [http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=9F05EEDD153AEE32A25750C0A96F9C946395D6CF]


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