- Paper clip
A paper clip (or sometimes paperclip) is a device which holds several sheets of
papertogether by means of pressure: it leaves the paper intact and can be quickly and easily removed, unlike the staple, which will damage the paper unless removed carefully, and will always leave two holes in the paper.
hape and composition
A paper clip is usually a thin wire in a looped shape that takes advantage of the elasticity and strength of the materials of its construction (usually
steelor some other metal, but sometimes plastic) to compress and therefore hold together two or more pieces of paperby means of torsion and friction. Some other kinds of paper clip use a two-piece clamping system.
The first patent for the paper clip was awarded to
Samuel B. Fayof the United Statesin 1867. [ [http://www.earlyofficemuseum.com/paper_clips.htm History of the Paper Clip] , Early Office Museum.] It was designed to fasten labels to garments and textiles, but was also marketed as a paper clip. In 1877 Erlman J. Wrightpatented the first device explicitly designed as a paper clip, resembling present models. Several new U.S. patents followed during the last decades of the 19th century.
The most common type of
wirepaper clip still in use was never patented, but it was most likely in production in Britain as early as 1890 by "The Gem Manufacturing Company". An advertisement for Gem clips in 1899 referred to a patent, but this has never been documented. The American expert on technological innovations, professor Henry J. Petroski, has seen the Gem mentioned as early as 1883, but this could refer to some other product from the same British factory. [Petroski, Henry, "From Pins to Paper Clips", "The Evolution of Useful Things", Vintage, New York, 1992.] The earliest known documentation of its existence is an advertisement for "Gem Paper Clips" published in August 1894by Cushman & Denison, 172 9th Avenue, New York City. [ [http://www.earlyofficemuseum.com/paper_clips.htm History of the Paper Clip] , Early Office Museum.] The "Gem" name was registered as a trade mark in the United States in 1904, and the application stated that the product—if it was in fact a paper clip—had been on the market since March 1892. Paper clips are still sometimes called "Gem clips", and in Swedish the word for any paper clip is "gem".
It has been claimed [A series, episode 8 of "
QI".] [Father Gregory Tillett, [http://www.britishorthodox.org/104e.shtml review of "The Pharaoh's Shadow: Travels in Ancient and Modern Egypt" by Anthony Sattin] , "The Glastonbury Review", Edition 104.] [G. W. Trompf, [http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0007-1005(196910)17%3A3%3C267%3ARCIHSE%3E2.0.CO%3B2-T "Radical Conservatism in Herbert Spencer's Educational Thought"] , "British Journal of Educational Studies", Vol. 17, No. 3 (Oct., 1969), pp. 267–280.] , though apparently without evidence, that Herbert Spencer, the originator of the term " survival of the fittest", invented the paper clip.
Definite proof that the modern type of paper clip was well known in 1899 at the latest is the patent granted to
William Middlebrookof Waterbury, Connecticuton April 27of that year for a "Machine for making wire paper clips". The drawing clearly shows that the product is a perfect clip of the Gem type. [Petroski, Henry, "Paper Clips and Design", "Invention by Design", Harvard University Press, 1996, p. 17.] Since then countless variations on the same theme have been patented. Some have pointed instead of rounded ends, some have the end of one loop bent slightly to make it easier to insert sheets of paper, and some have wires with undulations or barbs to get a better grip. In addition, purely aesthetic variants have been patented, clips with triangular or round shapes. [Petroski, Henry, "Polishing the Gem: A First-Year Design Project". Appendix: A selected list of U.S. Patents for paper clips. "Journal of Engineering Education", 1998, p. 449.] But the original Gem type has for more than a hundred years proved to be the most practical, and consequently by far the most popular. Its qualities of easy use, gripping without tearing, and storing without tangling have been difficult to improve on.
Recent innovations include multi-colored plastic-coated paper clips and spring-fastened
Johan Vaaler(1866–1910), has erroneously been identified as the inventor of the paper clip. He was granted patents in Germany[Application dated 12 November 1899, Patentschrift no. 121067, patent granted 6 June 1901] and in the United States [US Patent No. 675,761 June 4, 1901] (1901) for a paper clip of similar design, but less functional and practical, because it lacked the last turn of the wire. Vaaler probably did not know that a better product was already on the market, although not yet in Norway. His version was never manufactured and never marketed because the superior "Gem" was already available.
Long after Vaaler's death his countrymen created a national myth based on the false assumption that the paper clip was invented by an unrecognised Norwegian genius. Norwegian dictionaries since the 1950s have mentioned Vaaler as the inventor of the paper clip, ["Binders" "Aschehougs konversasjonsleksikon", Oslo 1974, vol. 2, p. 695.] and that myth later found its way into international dictionaries and much of the international literature on paper clips.
Vaaler probably succeeded in having his design patented abroad, despite the previous existence of a better product, because patent authorities at that time were quite liberal and rewarded any marginal modification of existing inventions. [Petroski, Henry "The Evolution of Artifacts", "American Scientist", Volume 80, 1992, p. 416–20.] As the employee of a patent office, he could easily have obtained a patent in Norway. [Johan Vaaler began working for "Bryns Patentkontor" in Kristiania in 1892 and was later promoted to office manager, a position he held until his death.] His reasons for applying abroad are not known, but it is possible that he had an exaggerated confidence in his own invention and wanted to secure the commercial rights internationally. Also, he may have been aware that Norwegian inventors would meet difficulties on the small home market.
Vaaler's patents expired quietly, while the "Gem" was used worldwide, including his own country. The failure of his design was obvious — it was too impractical. Without the two full loops of the fully developed paper clip, it was difficult to insert sheets of paper into his clip. One could manipulate the end of the inner wire so that it could receive the sheet, but the outer wire was a dead end because it could not exploit the torsion principle. The clip would instead stand out like a keel, perpendicular to the sheet of paper. The impracticality of Vaaler's design may easily be demonstrated by cutting off the last outer loop and one long side from a regular Gem clip.
The originator of the Norwegian paper clip myth was an engineer of the national patent agency who visited Germany in the 1920s to register Norwegian patents in that country. He came across Vaaler's patent, but failed to detect that it was not the same as the then-common Gem-type clip. [Vaaler's forgotten German patent was found by patent engineer "Halvard Foss" of The Norwegian Industrial Property Office (Patenstyret) while looking for patents granted to Norwegians in the German patent office. "I made this discovery known to my colleagues", Foss stated in an interview with the weekly "A-magasinet" no. 52, 1988] In the report of the first fifty years of the patent agency, he wrote an article in which he proclaimed Vaaler to be the inventor of the common paper clip. [Foss, Halvard: "Den frittstående oppfinner", "Styret for det industrielle rettsvern 50 år", Oslo 1961, p. 190] This piece of information found its way into some Norwegian encyclopedias after
World War II.
Events of that war contributed greatly to the mythical status of the paper clip. Patriots wore them in their lapels as a symbol of resistance to the German occupiers and local Nazi authorities when other signs of resistance were forbidden, such as flag pins or pins showing the cipher of the exiled King Haakon VII of Norway. The clips were meant to denote solidarity and unity ("we are bound together"). The wearing of paper clips was soon prohibited, and people wearing them were severely punished. [Bø, Finn: "Forbuden frukt" (First edition 1945), Oslo 1995, ISBN 82-509-3249-8] The leading Norwegian encyclopedia mentioned the role of the paper clip as a symbol of resistance in a supplementary volume in 1952, but did not yet proclaim it a Norwegian invention. ["Aschehougs konversasjonsleksikon", supplementsbind, Oslo 1952] That information was added in later editions. According to the 1974 edition, the idea of using the paper clip to denote resistance originated in
France. A clip worn on a lapel or front pocket could be seen as "deux gaules" (two posts or poles) and be interpreted as a reference to the leader of the French Resistance, General Charles de Gaulle. ["Aschehougs konversasjonsleksikon", Oslo 1974, Vol. 2, p. 695.]
The post-war years saw a wide-spread consolidation of the paper clip as a national symbol. Authors of books and articles on the history of Norwegian technology eagerly seized it to make a thin story more substantial. They chose to overlook the fact that Vaaler's clip was not the same as the fully developed Gem-type clip. [Hesstvedt, Ola: "Den lille norske hjelperen fyller 90 år", "A-magasinet" nr. 52, 1988] In
1989a giant paper clip, almost 7 meters high, was erected on the campus of a commercial college near Osloin honour of Vaaler, ninety years after his invention was patented. But this monument shows a Gem-type clip, not the one patented by Vaaler. The celebration of the alleged Norwegian origin of the paper clip culminated in 1999, one hundred years after Vaaller submitted his application for a German patent. A commemorative stamp was issued that year, the first in a series to draw attention to Norwegian inventiveness. The background shows a facsimile of the German "Patentschrift". However, the figure in the foreground is not the paper clip depicted on that document, but the much better-known "Gem". In 2005, the national biographical encyclopedia of Norway ("Norsk biografisk leksikon") published the biography of Johan Vaaler, the inventor of the paper clip. ["Vaaler, Johan", "Norsk biografisk leksikon", Kunnskapsforlaget, Oslo 2005. Vol. 9, p. 411, ISBN 82-573-1011-5]
Paper Clips Project
Johan Vaaler's fame as the paper clip inventor has spread worldwide, especially in the United States. In spite of recent findings by Henry Petroski and others, many websites still present this piece of misinformation. When eighth-graders at Whitwell Middle School in
Tennesseewere to learn about the murder of six million Jews during the Holocaust, one teacher had the good idea of illustrating that mind-boggling number by collecting as many small and cheap objects—this was called the Paper Clips Project. According to one website, the paper clip was chosen "after they learned (that) Norwegians wore them on their clothes to show support for Jews during World War II". [cite web | url = http://www.christiananswers.net/spotlight/movies/2005/paperclips2004.html | title = Paper Clips 2004 | work = Spotlight | publisher = Christian Answers] Another site elaborates this story even further: "That symbol of resistance originally honored Johann Vaaler, the Norwegian Jew who invented the paper clip". [cite web | url = http://www.acfnewsource.org/religion/paper_clip_project.html | title = Paper Clip Project | publisher = ACF News Source] None of these statements is true. Vaaler was not a Jew, he did not invent the common paper clip, and Norwegians who wore them did not do so to protest the tragic fate of the Jews, but to show loyalty to the King and the Government. But the project was a success — far more than the required 6 million clips were collected.
During promotion of the film which documents the middle school project, the film's promoters contacted and partnered with Baumgarten's Office Products in Atlanta, Georgia. Baumgarten's is the company that manufactures Plastiklips and other fastening devices, constructed displays made of green plastic paper clips shaped into the
Star of Davidto assist with the films promotion at theaters around the United States. Hans Baumgarten, Baumgarten's treasurer and his family of Jewish descent, left Nazi Germany, avoiding death camps.
Baumgarten's Plastiklip was invented by the German Kurt Lorber, who has been a partner with Baumgarten's since WWII.
Wire is versatile, and the most commonplace wire is in paper clips. Thus a paper clip is a useful accessory in many kinds of mechanical work including computer work: the metal wire can be unfolded with a little force. Several devices call for a very thin rod to push a recessed button which the user might only rarely need. This is seen on most
CD-ROMdrives as an "emergency eject" should the power fail; also on early floppy disk drives (including the early Macintosh). 1st generation iPhones required a paper clip to eject the sim card and some Palm PDAs advise the use of a paper clip to reset the device. The track ball can be removed from early Logitech pointing devices using a paper clip as the key to the bezel. A paper clip bent into a "U" can be used to start an ATX PSU without connecting it to a motherboard(connect the green to a black on the Motherboard header). One or more paper clips can make a loopbackdevice for a RS232interface (or indeed many interfaces). A paper clip could be installed in a Commodore 1541disk-drive as a flexible head-stop. Paper clips have been used (unsafely) to replace fuses.
Paper clips can be bent into a crude but sometimes effective
lock pickingdevice. You can unchain some sorts of handcuffs using paper clip. There are two approaches. First one is to unfold the clip in a line and then the end to be twisted in right angle trying to imitate a key and using it to lift the lock fixator. The second approach, which is more feasible but needs some practice, is to use the semi-unfolded clip kink for lifting when the clip is inserted through the hole where the handcuffs are closed.
Kyle MacDonald took one paper clip and progressively traded it into a house. The Canadian blogger began with a red paper clip and posted it on Craigslist.com, later trading it for a pen. MacDonald kept trading things until he finally traded a movie role for a two-story house in Kipling, Saskatchewan. [ [http://oneredpaperclip.blogspot.com/ one red paperclip ] ]
Other fastening devices
* Petroski, Henry. "The Evolution of Useful Things". New York: Knopf, 1992. ISBN 0-679-74039-2. Includes a comprehensive history of the evolution of paper clip design.
* [http://www.earlyofficemuseum.com/paper_clips.htm History of the Paper Clip]
* [http://www.acfnewsource.org/religion/paper_clip_project.html The Paper Clip Project] "Patents"
*US patent|3057027|US3,057,027—"Paper clip"—E. P. Bugge
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См. также в других словарях:
paper clip — paper clips also paper clip, paperclip N COUNT A paper clip is a small piece of bent wire that is used to fasten papers together … English dictionary
paper clip — paper ,clip noun count a small piece of bent wire used for holding pieces of paper together … Usage of the words and phrases in modern English
paper clip — ► NOUN ▪ a piece of bent wire or plastic used for holding several sheets of paper together … English terms dictionary
paper clip — ☆ paper clip n. a flexible clasp, typically of metal wire, for holding loose sheets of paper together by pressure … English World dictionary
paper clip — noun a wire or plastic clip for holding sheets of paper together the paper clip was invented in 1900 • Syn: ↑paperclip, ↑gem clip • Hypernyms: ↑clip * * * noun, pl ⋯ clips [count] : a piece of wire bent into flat loops that is used to hold sheets … Useful english dictionary
Paper Clip — Infobox Television episode | Title = Paper Clip Caption = A Mexican stand off between Scully, Skinner and Mulder. Series = The X Files Season = 3 Episode = 2 Airdate = September 29, 1995 (Fox) Production = 3x02 Guests = Walter Gotell as Victor… … Wikipedia
paper-clip — /pay peuhr klip /, v.t., paper clipped, paper clipping. to fasten together with one or more paper clips: Paper clip these letters and file them. [1960 65] * * * … Universalium
paper-clip — /pay peuhr klip /, v.t., paper clipped, paper clipping. to fasten together with one or more paper clips: Paper clip these letters and file them. [1960 65] … Useful english dictionary
paper-clip — see paper clip … English dictionary
paper clip — pa′per clip n. 1) a flat clip that holds sheets of paper between two loops 2) cvb a spring clamp for holding papers • Etymology: 1870–75 … From formal English to slang