Visual routine


Visual routine

A visual routine is a means of extracting information from a visual scene. In his studies on human visual cognition, Shimon Ullman proposed that the human visual system's task of perceiving shape properties and spatial relations is split into two successive stages: an early "bottom-up" state during which base representations are generated from the visual input, and a later "top-down" stage during which high-level primitives dubbed "visual routines" extract the desired information from the base representations. In humans, the base representations generated during the bottom-up stage correspond to retinotopic maps (more than 15 of which exist in the cortex) for properties like color, edge orientation, speed of motion, and direction of motion. These base representations rely on fixed operations performed uniformly over the entire field of visual input, and do not make use of object-specific knowledge, task-specific knowledge, or other higher-level information.

The visual routines proposed by Ullman are high-level primitives which parse the structure of a scene, extracting spatial information from the base representations. These visual routines are composed of a sequence of elementary visual operators specific to the task at hand. Visual routines differ from the fixed operations of the base representations in that they are not applied uniformly over the entire visual field --- rather, they are only applied to objects or areas specified by the routines. Ullman lists the following as examples of visual operators: shifting the processing focus, indexing a salient item for further processing, spreading activation over an area delimited by boundaries, tracing boundaries, and marking a location or object for future reference. When combined into visual routines, these elementary operators can be used to perform relatively sophisticated spatial tasks such as counting the number of objects satisfying a certain property, or recognizing a complex shape.

A number of researchers have implemented visual routines for processing camera images, to perform tasks like determining the object a human in the camera image is pointing at. Researchers have also applied the visual routines approach to artificial map representations, for playing real-time 2D video games. In those cases, however, the map of the video game was provided directly, alleviating the need to deal with real-world perceptual tasks like object recognition and occlusion compensation.

References

#Ullman, S. (1984) Visual routines. Cognition 18:97-159.
#Agre and Chapman (1987) Pengi: An Implementation of a Theory of Activity. Proceedings of AAAI-87, 268-272.
#Chapman, D. (1991) Vision, Instruction, and Action. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
#Kahn, R. (1996) Gesture Recognition Using the Perseus Architecture. PhD. Thesis, Department of Computer Science, University of Chicago.
#Rao, S. (1998) Visual Routines and Attention. PhD thesis, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Available:


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Routine — may refer to: * Routine, as a course of normative, standardized actions or procedures that are followed regularly, oftentimes repetitiously; * Choreographed routine, an orchestrated dance involving several performers; * Comedy routine, a comedic… …   Wikipedia

  • Meteorological Aviation Routine Weather Report — METAR ist eine standardisierte Meldung in Kurzform, die die Wetterbeobachtung eines einzelnen Flughafens wiedergibt. Ein METAR enthält in jedem Fall den ICAO Code des Flughafens, der diesen METAR erstellt hat, und den Beobachtungszeitpunkt.… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Perception — For other uses, see Perception (disambiguation). Perceptual redirects here. For the Brian Blade album, see Perceptual (album). Robert Fludd s depiction of perception (1619) …   Wikipedia

  • Saspo — Dies ist der fünfte Teil der Liste Abkürzungen/Luftfahrt. Liste der Abkürzungen Teil 1 A A Teil 2 B–D B; C; D Teil 3 E–K …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Abkürzungen/Luftfahrt/B–D — Dies ist der zweite Teil der Liste Abkürzungen/Luftfahrt. Liste der Abkürzungen Teil 1 A A Teil 2 B–D B (BA, BB, BC, BD, BE, BF, BG, BH, BI, BJ, BK, BL …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Eiffel (programming language) — Infobox programming language name = Eiffel paradigm = object oriented year = 1986 designer = Bertrand Meyer developer = Bertrand Meyer Eiffel Software latest release version = 4.2 latest release date = Feb 6, 1998 typing = static typing, strong… …   Wikipedia

  • Abkürzungen/Luftfahrt/L–R — Dies ist der vierte Teil der Liste Abkürzungen/Luftfahrt. Liste der Abkürzungen Teil 1 A A Teil 2 B–D B; C; D Teil 3 E–K …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • performing arts — arts or skills that require public performance, as acting, singing, or dancing. [1945 50] * * * ▪ 2009 Introduction Music Classical.       The last vestiges of the Cold War seemed to thaw for a moment on Feb. 26, 2008, when the unfamiliar strains …   Universalium

  • METAR — For the Israeli town, see Meitar. METAR is a format for reporting weather information. A METAR weather report is predominantly used by pilots in fulfillment of a part of a pre flight weather briefing, and by meteorologists, who use aggregated… …   Wikipedia

  • Comparison of relational database management systems — Programming language comparisons General comparison Basic syntax Basic instructions Arrays Associative arrays String operations …   Wikipedia


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.