Battle of Changsha (1942)


Battle of Changsha (1942)

Infobox Military Conflict
conflict= Battle of Changsha (1942)
partof=the Second Sino-Japanese War


caption=
date= December 24 1941January 15 1942
place= Changsha
Luoyang River
casus=
territory=
result=Decisive Chinese victory
combatant1=flagicon|ROC National Revolutionary Army
combatant2=flagicon|Japan Imperial Japanese Army
flagicon|Japan|naval Imperial Japanese Navy
commander1=flagicon|ROC Xue Yue
commander2=flagicon|Japan Korechika Anami
strength1=300,000 soldiers
strength2=120,000 soldiersHsiung, James Chieh; Levine, Steven I. "China's Bitter Victory: The War with Japan, 1937-1945", pg. 158] 600 pieces of artillery 200 aircraft
casualties1=Unknown but considerable military and civilian casualties
casualties2=Heavy

The third Battle of Changsha (December 24, 1941January 15, 1942) was the first major offensive in China by Imperial Japanese forces following the Japanese attack on the Western Allies.

The offensive was originally intended to prevent Chinese forces from reinforcing the British Commonwealth forces engaged in Hong Kong. With the capture of Hong Kong on December 25th however, it was decided to continue the offensive against Changsha in order to maximize the blow against the Chinese government.

The offensive resulted in failure for the Japanese, as Chinese forces were able to lure them into a trap and encircle them. After suffering heavy casualties, Japanese forces called for a general retreat.

Course of battle

On December 27th, The Japanese 3rd, 6th, and 40th Divisions massed at Yueyang and advanced southward in three columns and crossed the Sinchiang River, and tried again to cross the Milo River to reach Changsha. However, the Chinese formed a deep pocket around the city and set up ambush parties around the Luoyang River. Halfway from Milo River and Changsha, the Japanese columns faced strong resistance from the Chinese and the eastern column was forced to take a detour further east, and the other two columns had to move closer together than originally planned. During the southward advance the Japanese encountered three Chinese army divisions that were pushed aside but not crushed; they retreated into the eastern mountains.

Changsha was evacuated except for the Chinese army and some 160 civilians who wished to stay to help the defense. On December 31st, the Japanese troops stormed the southeastern defense of the city but failed to make any gains, and then made an attempt at the southern and then eastern part of the defense. Meanwhile, the northern part of the city was heavily bombarded. The Japanese eventually cut through the first line of defense, only to meet stubborn resistance from a second line of defense near the city center.

On January 1, the Chinese quickly counter-attacked and surprised the Japanese with heavy guns and inflicted heavy casualties on them. At about the same time, the previous army units that had retreated to the mountains swept down to attack the Japanese supply lines, with plenty of aid from local guerillas. The Japanese line collapsed on January 4th. The three Japanese divisions were besieged and requested the help of the Japanese 9th Independent Brigade stationed in Yueyang. However, on January 9th they faced heavy fighting with the Chinese and were unable to relieve the besieged Japanese divisions. The Japanese then attempted to retreat through the Luoyang River, not knowing that an ambush party was already stationed in the region. Losing heavily at the river crossing, the Japanese eventually reached the Sinchiang River on January 15th to complete the retreat.

Results

The 3rd Battle of Changsha can be thought of as decisive. Just a month after Pearl Harbor and the United States' entrance to the war, the battle was acclaimed to be a major Allied victory that could turn the tide against Japan. It earned the Chinese government much prestige from abroad and legitimacy in stopping the Japanese. Xue Yue earned himself more prestige in China for his three victories and outstanding tactic skills. Changsha would remain in Chinese hands for 2½ more years.

References


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