- Pulse-amplitude modulation
Example: A two-bit modulator (PAM-4) will take two bits at a time and will map the signal amplitude to one of four possible levels, for example −3 volts, −1 volt, 1 volt, and 3 volts.
Demodulation is performed by detecting the amplitude level of the carrier at every symbol period.
Generation of PAM
In this the signal is sampled at regular intervals and each sample is made proportional to the magnitude of the signal at the instant of sampling.These sampled pulses may then be sent either directly by a channel to the receiving end or may be made to modulated using a carrier wave before transmission.
There are two types of pulse amplitude modulation: 1.Single polarity PAM: In this a suitable fixed dc level is added to the signal to ensure that all the pulses are positive going. 2.Double polarity PAM: In this the pulses are both positive and negative going.
Pulse-amplitude modulation is widely used in baseband transmission of digital data, with non-baseband applications having been largely replaced by pulse-code modulation, and, more recently, by pulse-position modulation.
Use in Ethernet
Some versions of the Ethernet communication standard are an example of PAM usage. In particular, the Fast Ethernet 100BASE-T2 medium (now defunct), running at 100 Mbit/s, uses five-level PAM modulation (PAM-5) running at 25 megapulses/sec over two wire pairs. A special technique is used to reduce inter-symbol interference between the unshielded pairs. Current common 100 Mbit networking technology is 100BASE-TX which delivers 100 Mbit in each direction over a single twisted pair – one for each direction. Later, the gigabit Ethernet 1000BASE-T medium raised the bar to use four pairs of wire running each at 125 megapulses/sec to achieve 1000 Mbit/s data rates, still utilizing PAM-5 for each pair.
The IEEE 802.3an standard defines the wire-level modulation for 10GBASE-T as a Tomlinson-Harashima Precoded (THP) version of pulse-amplitude modulation with 16 discrete levels (PAM-16), encoded in a two-dimensional checkerboard pattern known as DSQ128. Several proposals were considered for wire-level modulation, including PAM with 12 discrete levels (PAM-12), ten levels (PAM-10), or eight levels (PAM-8), both with and without Tomlinson-Harashima Precoding (THP).
Use in photobiology
The concept is also used for the study of photosynthesis using a PAM fluorometer. This specialized instrument involves a spectrofluorometric measurement of the kinetics of fluorescence rise and decay in the light-harvesting antenna of thylakoid membranes, thus querying various aspects of the state of the photosystems under different environmental conditions.
Use in electronic drivers for LED lighting
Pulse-amplitude modulation has also been developed for the control of light-emitting diodes (LEDs), especially for lighting applications. LED drivers based on the PAM technique offer improved energy efficiency over systems based upon other common driver modulation techniques such as pulse-width modulation (PWM) as the forward current passing through an LED is relative to the intensity of the light output and the LED efficiency increases as the forward current is reduced.
Pulse-amplitude modulation LED drivers are able to synchronize pulses across multiple LED channels to enable perfect colour matching. Due to the inherent nature of PAM in conjunction with the rapid switching speed of LEDs it is possible to use LED lighting as a means of wireless data transmission at high speed.
- Amplitude-shift keying
- Carrier Sense Multiple Access
- Pulse-code modulation
- Pulse-position modulation
- Pulse-width modulation
- Pulse-density modulation
- Pulse forming network
- Quadrature amplitude modulation
Line coding (digital baseband transmission) Main articles Basic line codes Extended line codes Optical line codesCarrier-Suppressed Return-to-Zero · Alternate-Phase Return-to-Zero
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pulse-amplitude modulation — impulsų amplitudės moduliavimas statusas T sritis fizika atitikmenys: angl. pulse amplitude modulation vok. Amplitudenimpulsmodulation, f; Impulsamplitudenmodulation, f; Pulsamplitudenmodulation, f rus. амплитудно импульсная модуляция, f;… … Fizikos terminų žodynas
pulse-amplitude modulation — impulsų amplitudės moduliavimas statusas T sritis automatika atitikmenys: angl. pulse amplitude modulation vok. Pulsamplitudenmodulation, f rus. амплитудно импульсная модуляция, f pranc. modulation d impulsions en amplitude, f … Automatikos terminų žodynas
pulse-amplitude modulation — /puls am pli toohd , tyoohd /, Telecommunications. modulation of the amplitude of a train of electric pulses used to carry signals (pulse carrier). Abbr.: PAM [1945 50] * * * … Universalium
pulse-amplitude modulation — A technique in which a signal is broken down into bits, and the amplitude of each of these bits is measured to give a series of discrete values. See pulse modulation … Aviation dictionary
pulse-amplitude modulation — (PAM) A form of modulation in which the pulse carrier s modulation varies according to a characteristic of the original analog signal; the pulse width is constant … IT glossary of terms, acronyms and abbreviations
pulse-amplitude modulation — /puls am pli toohd , tyoohd /, Telecommunications. modulation of the amplitude of a train of electric pulses used to carry signals (pulse carrier). Abbr.: PAM [1945 50] … Useful english dictionary
Pulse-position modulation — is a form of signal modulation in which M message bits are encoded by transmitting asingle pulse in one of 2^M possible time shifts. This is repeated every T seconds, such thatthe transmitted bit rate is M/T bits per second. It is primarily… … Wikipedia
Pulse-width modulation — (PWM) of a signal or power source involves the modulation of its duty cycle, to either convey information over a communications channel or control the amount of power sent to a load. PrinciplePulse width modulation uses a square wave whose pulse… … Wikipedia
Pulse-code modulation — PCM redirects here. For other uses, see PCM (disambiguation). Pulse code modulation (PCM) is a method used to digitally represent sampled analog signals. It is the standard form for digital audio in computers and various Blu ray, Compact Disc and … Wikipedia
Pulse-density modulation — Pulse density modulation, or PDM, is a form of modulation used to represent an analog signal in the digital domain. In a PDM signal, specific amplitude values are not encoded into pulses as they would be in PCM. Instead it is the relative density … Wikipedia